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Hiv in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640002/trends-in-diagnoses-among-hospitalizations-of-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents-in-the-us-2003-2012
#1
Stacey A Hurst, Alexander C Ewing, Sascha R Ellington, Athena P Kourtis
OBJECTIVE: Using data from 2003-2012, we updated a previous analysis of trends in hospitalizations of HIV-infected children and adolescents in the US. METHODS: We used data from the Kids´ Inpatient Database of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project to derive nationally representative estimates of the number of hospitalizations and the rates per 1000 hospitalizations of select discharge diagnoses and procedures in 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012 among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children and adolescents ≤18 years, excluding hospitalizations for conditions related to pregnancy/delivery and neonatal diagnoses...
June 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639991/evaluation-of-a-nutritional-support-intervention-in-malnourished-hiv-infected-children-in-bamako-mali
#2
Julie Jesson, Aba Coulibaly, Mariam Sylla, Clémentine N'diaye, Fatoumata Dicko, David Masson, Valériane Leroy
BACKGROUND: We assessed a nutritional support intervention in malnourished HIV-infected children in a HIV-care program of the University Hospital Gabriel Touré, Bamako, Mali. METHODS: All HIV-infected children <15 years were diagnosed for malnutrition between 07 and 12/2014. Malnutrition was defined according to the WHO growth standards with Z-scores. Two types were studied: acute malnutrition (AM) and chronic malnutrition (CM). All participants were enrolled in a 6-month prospective interventional cohort, receiving Ready-To-Use Therapeutic Food, according to type of malnutrition...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639838/provider-perceptions-of-stigma-and-discrimination-experienced-by-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-phiv-while-accessing-sexual-and-reproductive-health-care
#3
Cynthia D Fair, Meredith Berk
Historically, children with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) were viewed as the "innocent victims" as their HIV infection was not acquired through sexual/drug related means. Today, adolescents with PHIV are surviving into young adulthood and are engaging in developmentally expected behaviors such as establishing intimate, sexual relationships. Like other youth, those living with PHIV often need to access sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. Previous research has documented stigma and discrimination experienced by adult women living with HIV as they try to access SRH care...
June 22, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637726/interventions-for-preventing-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-protocol-of-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#4
Windy Mariane Virenia Wariki, Erika Ota, Rintaro Mori, Charles S Wiysonge, Hacsi Horvath, Jennifer S Read
INTRODUCTION: Various interventions to prevent mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of HIV have been investigated and implemented. A number of systematic reviews assessing the efficacy of interventions for the prevention of MTCT of HIV reported antiretroviral prophylaxis, caesarean section before labour and before ruptured membranes, and complete avoidance of breastfeeding were efficacious for preventing MTCT of HIV. Recent WHO guidelines recommend lifelong antiretroviral therapy for all pregnant women for treatment of the woman's own HIV infection and for prevention of MTCT of HIV...
June 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633455/fetal-metabolic-stress-disrupts-immune-homeostasis-and-induces-pro-inflammatory-responses-in-hiv-1-and-cart-exposed-infants
#5
Johannes C Schoeman, Gontse P Moutloatse, Amy C Harms, Rob J Vreeken, Henriette J Scherpbier, Liesbeth Van Leeuwen, Taco W Kuijpers, Carools J Reinecke, Ruud Berger, Thomas Hankemeier, Madeleine J Bunders
Increased morbidity and fetal growth restriction are reported in uninfected children born to HIV-1-infected women treated with antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Viruses and/or pharmacological interventions such as ARVs can induce metabolic stress skewing the cell's immune response and restricting (cell) growth. Novel metabolomic techniques provided the opportunity to investigate the impact of fetal HIV-1 and combination ARV therapy (cART)-exposure on the infants' immune-metabolome. Peroxidized lipids, generated by reactive oxygen species, were increased in cART/HIV-1-exposed infants, indicating altered mitochondrial functioning...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629459/antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-within-seven-days-of-enrolment-outcomes-and-time-to-undetectable-viral-load-among-children-at-an-urban-hiv-clinic-in-uganda
#6
Rogers Ssebunya, Rhoda K Wanyenze, Heather Lukolyo, Milton Mutto, Grace Kisitu, Pauline Amuge, Albert Maganda, Adeodata Kekitiinwa
BACKGROUND: Viral suppression is a critical indicator of HIV treatment success. In the era of test-and-start, little is known about treatment outcomes and time to undetectable viral loads. This study compares treatment outcomes, median times to achieve undetectable viral loads and its predictors under different antiretroviral (ART) treatment initiation schedules (i.e. within seven days of enrolment or later). METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 367 patients <18 years who enrolled in care between January 2010 and December 2015 with a baseline viral load of >5000 copies/ml were followed up for 60 months...
June 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628462/attributable-fraction-of-influenza-virus-detection-to-mild-and-severe-respiratory-illnesses-in-hiv-infected-and-hiv-uninfected-patients-south-africa-2012-2016
#7
Stefano Tempia, Sibongile Walaza, Jocelyn Moyes, Adam L Cohen, Claire von Mollendorf, Meredith L McMorrow, Florette K Treurnicht, Marietjie Venter, Marthi Pretorius, Orienka Hellferscee, Nicole Wolter, Anne von Gottberg, Athermon Nguweneza, Johanna M McAnerney, Halima Dawood, Ebrahim Variava, Shabir A Madhi, Cheryl Cohen
The attributable fraction (AF) of influenza virus detection to illness has not been described for patients in different age groups or with different HIV infection statuses. We compared the age group-specific prevalence of influenza virus infection among patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute or chronic respiratory illness (SARI and SCRI, respectively) with that among controls, stratified by HIV serostatus. The overall AF for influenza virus detection to illness was 92.6% for ILI, 87.4% for SARI, and 86...
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626255/underlying-cause-of-death-recorded-during-2013-to-2015-at-a-tertiary-general-hospital-in-vientiane-capital-lao-pdr
#8
Bounfeng Phoummalaysith, Viengsakhone Louangpradith, Tavanh Manivon, Bounxou Keohavong, Eiko Yamamoto, Nobuyuki Hamajima
In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), the cause of death is not registered in death reports. As a result, the government cannot produce official reports that show mortality according to cause of death. This study aimed to report the underlying cause of death in a tertiary general hospital (Mittaphab Hospital) in Vientiane capital. Mittaphab hospital is a governmental teaching hospital with 300 beds for inpatient services specialized in orthopedics, neurology, and hemodialysis. Since a children hospital exists beside Mittaphab Hospital, severe pediatric cases are referred to the child hospital...
February 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623553/-kaposi-s-disease-in-an-hiv-positive-child-with-probable-contamination-from-his-grandmother
#9
A Dicko, Y Fofana, A Traoré, S Berthé, S Touré, C Lamissa, B Guindo, A Keita, O Faye
Kaposi's disease in children with HIV is rarely reported in everyday practice. This is a case study of cutaneous Kaposi's disease revealing HIV in a 5-year-old child with polymorphic eruption of papules and nodules on the face, trunk, back, and limbs. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of Kaposi's disease. The child's HIV serology was positive with a CD4 count of 240/mm3, normochromic and normocytic anemia, and a hemoglobin level at 8.5 g/dl. It was found that the child, after early weaning from his HIV-negative mother, had repeatedly suckled his healthy grandmother, who had no skin lesions but was HIV1 positive...
June 16, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619407/should-they-also-have-babies-community-attitudes-toward-sexual-and-reproductive-rights-of-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-nigeria
#10
Zubairu Iliyasu, Hadiza S Galadanci, Yusuf A Ibrahim, Musa Babashani, Mohammed S Mijinyawa, Melynda Simmons, Muktar H Aliyu
BACKGROUND: People living with HIV have the right to healthy, satisfying sex lives and to appropriate services to ensure their sexual and reproductive health, including having healthy children. The reproductive rights of people living with HIV/AIDS are, however, often met with skepticism and discrimination, despite recent advances in HIV treatment. OBJECTIVE: To assess the attitudes of community members in Kano, Nigeria, toward the right of persons living with HIV/AIDS to have healthy sexual relationships and bear children...
March 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617810/population-level-impact-of-an-accelerated-hiv-response-plan-to-reach-the-unaids-90-90-90-target-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-insights-from-mathematical-modeling
#11
Mathieu Maheu-Giroux, Juan F Vesga, Souleymane Diabaté, Michel Alary, Stefan Baral, Daouda Diouf, Kouamé Abo, Marie-Claude Boily
BACKGROUND: National responses will need to be markedly accelerated to achieve the ambitious target of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). This target aims for 90% of HIV-positive individuals to be aware of their status, for 90% of those aware to receive antiretroviral therapy (ART), and for 90% of those on treatment to have a suppressed viral load by 2020, with each individual target reaching 95% by 2030. We aimed to estimate the impact of various treatment-as-prevention scenarios in Côte d'Ivoire, one of the countries with the highest HIV incidence in West Africa, with unmet HIV prevention and treatment needs, and where key populations are important to the broader HIV epidemic...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610616/underutilisation-of-routinely-collected-data-in-the-hiv-programme-in-zambia-a-review-of-quantitatively-analysed-peer-reviewed-articles
#12
REVIEW
Tendai Munthali, Patrick Musonda, Paul Mee, Sehlulekile Gumede, Ab Schaap, Alwyn Mwinga, Caroline Phiri, Nathan Kapata, Charles Michelo, Jim Todd
BACKGROUND: The extent to which routinely collected HIV data from Zambia has been used in peer-reviewed published articles remains unexplored. This paper is an analysis of peer-reviewed articles that utilised routinely collected HIV data from Zambia within six programme areas from 2004 to 2014. METHODS: Articles on HIV, published in English, listed in the Directory of open access journals, African Journals Online, Google scholar, and PubMed were reviewed. Only articles from peer-reviewed journals, that utilised routinely collected data and included quantitative data analysis methods were included...
June 13, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610590/a-continuous-quality-improvement-intervention-to-improve-the-effectiveness-of-community-health-workers-providing-care-to-mothers-and-children-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-in-south-africa
#13
Christiane Horwood, Lisa Butler, Pierre Barker, Sifiso Phakathi, Lyn Haskins, Merridy Grant, Ntokozo Mntambo, Nigel Rollins
BACKGROUND: Community health workers (CHWs) play key roles in delivering health programmes in many countries worldwide. CHW programmes can improve coverage of maternal and child health services for the most disadvantaged and remote communities, leading to substantial benefits for mothers and children. However, there is limited evidence of effective mentoring and supervision approaches for CHWs. METHODS: This is a cluster randomised controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of a continuous quality improvement (CQI) intervention amongst CHWs providing home-based education and support to pregnant women and mothers...
June 13, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609404/infant-child-rapid-serology-tests-fail-to-reliably-assess-hiv-exposure-among-sick-hospitalized-infants
#14
Anjuli D Wagner, Irene N Njuguna, Ruth Andere, Lisa M Cranmer, Helen M Okinyi, Sarah Benki-Nugent, Bhavna Chohan, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Dalton C Wamalwa, Grace C John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: The WHO guidelines for infant and child HIV diagnosis recommend the use of maternal serology to determine child exposure status in ages 0-18 months, but suggest that infant serology can reliably be used to determine exposure for those less than 4 months. There is little evidence about the performance of these recommendations among hospitalized sick infants and children. METHODS: Within a clinical trial (NCT02063880) in Kenya, among children ≤18 months, maternal and child rapid serologic HIV tests were performed in tandem...
June 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609403/early-antiretroviral-therapy-reduces-hiv-dna-following-perinatal-hiv-infection
#15
Caroline Foster, Matthew Pace, Steve Kaye, Emily Hopkins, Mathew Jones, Nicola Robinson, Sarah Fidler, John Frater
: The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the size of the HIV reservoir has implications for virological remission in adults, but is not well characterised in perinatally acquired infection (PaHIV). In a prospective observational study of 20 children with PaHIV and sustained viral suppression on ART for >5 years, proviral DNA was significantly higher in deferred (>4 years) versus early (first year of life) ART recipients (p = 0.0062), and correlated with age of initiation (p = 0.13; r = 0...
June 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609401/randomized-controlled-trial-of-caregiver-training-for-hiv-infected-child-neurodevelopment-and-caregiver-well-being
#16
Judith K Bass, Robert Opoka, Itziar Familiar, Noeline Nakasujja, Alla Sikorskii, Jorem Awadu, Deborah Givon, Cilly Shohet, Sarah M Murray, Jura Augustinavicius, Tamar Mendelson, Michael Boivin
OBJECTIVES: HIV infection places children at neurodevelopmental risk; for young children in poverty, risk is compounded by compromised caregiving quality. The Mediational Intervention for Sensitizing Caregivers (MISC) program trained caregivers on fostering daily interactions with young children. We hypothesized that MISC could (1) enhance neurodevelopment of rural Ugandan HIV-infected children and (2) improve mental health outcomes of their caregivers, which might mediate improved caregiving quality...
June 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606372/attrition-and-mortality-of-children-receiving-antiretroviral-treatment-through-the-universal-coverage-health-program-in-thailand
#17
Sirinya Teeraananchai, Stephen J Kerr, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Torsak Bunupuradah, Kiat Ruxrungtham, Suchada Chaivooth, Matthew G Law, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit
OBJECTIVE: To assess mortality and loss to follow-up of children with HIV infection who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) through the Universal Coverage Health Program (UC) in Thailand. STUDY DESIGN: Children with HIV infection who initiated ART at age <15 years through the UC between 2008 and 2013 were included in the analysis. Death was ascertained through linkage with the National Death Registry. A competing-risks method was used to calculate subdistribution hazard ratios (SHRs) of predictors for loss to follow-up...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606206/antenatal-depressed-mood-and-child-cognitive-and-physical-growth-at-18-months-in-south-africa-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-of-home-visiting-by-community-health-workers
#18
M Tomlinson, M J Rotheram-Borus, A Scheffler, I le Roux
AIM: To examine the child outcomes at 18-months post-birth of a population cohort of women with antenatal depressed mood, half of whom were randomly chosen to receive perinatal home visits from community health workers during pregnancy. METHOD: Pregnant women in 24 neighbourhoods (98% participation) were randomised by neighbourhood to: (1) standard clinic care (SC; 12 neighbourhoods; n = 594) or (2) the Philani Intervention Program, a home visiting intervention plus standard care (12 neighbourhoods; n = 644)...
June 13, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606185/non-malarial-infectious-diseases-of-antenatal-care-in-pregnant-women-in-franceville-gabon
#19
Irene Pegha Moukandja, Edgard Brice Ngoungou, Guy Joseph Lemamy, Ulrick Bisvigou, Antoine Gessain, Fousseyni S Toure Ndouo, Mirdad Kazanji, Jean Bernard Lekana-Douki
BACKGROUND: In sub-tropical countries, infectious diseases remain one of the main causes of mortality. Because of their lack of active immunity, pregnant women and their unborn children represent the most susceptible people. In Gabon, data on infectious diseases of pregnant women such as syphilis and rubella are either scarce or very old. Few studies have assessed T. gondii infection during pregnancy in the country. Here, we evaluate seroprevalence of HIV, HTVL-1, syphilis and T. gondii and rubella infection during antenatal care among women living in Franceville, Gabon...
June 12, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606173/tuberculosis-caseload-in-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-related-with-high-hospital-based-mortality-in-lusaka-zambia
#20
Tendai Munthali, Chishala Chabala, Elson Chama, Raider Mugode, Nathan Kapata, Patrick Musonda, Charles Michelo
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis and severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in children pose a major treatment and care challenge in high HIV burden countries in Africa. We investigated the prevalence of Tuberculosis notifications among hospitalised under-five children with severe acute malnutrition. A retrospective review of medical records for all children aged 0-59 months admitted to the University Teaching Hospital from 2009 to 2013 was performed. Descriptive statistics were employed to estimate TB caseload...
June 12, 2017: BMC Research Notes
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