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Vestibular integration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779050/proprioceptive-loss-and-the-perception-control-and-learning-of-arm-movements-in-humans-evidence-from-sensory-neuronopathy
#1
R Chris Miall, Nick M Kitchen, Se-Ho Nam, Hannah Lefumat, Alix G Renault, Kristin Ørstavik, Jonathan D Cole, Fabrice R Sarlegna
It is uncertain how vision and proprioception contribute to adaptation of voluntary arm movements. In normal participants, adaptation to imposed forces is possible with or without vision, suggesting that proprioception is sufficient; in participants with proprioceptive loss (PL), adaptation is possible with visual feedback, suggesting that proprioception is unnecessary. In experiment 1 adaptation to, and retention of, perturbing forces were evaluated in three chronically deafferented participants. They made rapid reaching movements to move a cursor toward a visual target, and a planar robot arm applied orthogonal velocity-dependent forces...
May 19, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702184/multisensory-vestibular-vestibular-auditory-and-auditory-network-effects-revealed-by-parametric-sound-pressure-stimulation
#2
Sun-Young Oh, Rainer Boegle, Matthias Ertl, Thomas Stephan, Marianne Dieterich
Multisensory convergence and sensorimotor integration are important aspects for the mediation of higher vestibular cognitive functions at the cortical level. In contrast to the integration of vestibulo-visual or vestibulo-tactile perception, much less is known about the neural mechanism that mediates the integration of vestibular-otolith (linear acceleration/translation/gravity detection) and auditory processing. Vestibular-otolith and auditory afferents can be simultaneously activated using loud sound pressure stimulation, which is routinely used for testing cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) in clinical neurotological testing...
April 24, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696497/cerebellar-ataxia-neuropathy-vestibular-areflexia-syndrome-canvas-with-chronic-cough-and-preserved-muscle-stretch-reflexes-evidence-for-selective-sparing-of-afferent-ia-fibres
#3
Jon Infante, Antonio García, Karla M Serrano-Cárdenas, Rocío González-Aguado, José Gazulla, Enrique M de Lucas, José Berciano
The aim of this study was to describe five patients with cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy and vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS) with chronic cough and preserved limb muscle stretch reflexes. All five patients were in the seventh decade of age, their gait imbalance having been initiated in the fifth decade. In four patients cough antedated gait imbalance between 15 and 29 years; cough was spasmodic and triggered by variable factors. Established clinical picture included severe hypopallesthesia predominating in the lower limbs with postural imbalance, and variable degree of cerebellar axial and appendicular ataxia, dysarthria and horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694922/vestibular-signals-in-primate-cortex-for-self-motion-perception
#4
REVIEW
Yong Gu
The vestibular peripheral organs in our inner ears detect transient motion of the head in everyday life. This information is sent to the central nervous system for automatic processes such as vestibulo-ocular reflexes, balance and postural control, and higher cognitive functions including perception of self-motion and spatial orientation. Recent neurophysiological studies have discovered a prominent vestibular network in the primate cerebral cortex. Many of the areas involved are multisensory: their neurons are modulated by both vestibular signals and visual optic flow, potentially facilitating more robust heading estimation through cue integration...
April 21, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674954/bioinformatic-integration-of-molecular-networks-and-major-pathways-involved-in-mice-cochlear-and-vestibular-supporting-cells
#5
Teresa Requena, Alvaro Gallego-Martinez, Jose A Lopez-Escamez
Background : Cochlear and vestibular epithelial non-hair cells (ENHCs) are the supporting elements of the cellular architecture in the organ of Corti and the vestibular neuroepithelium in the inner ear. Intercellular and cell-extracellular matrix interactions are essential to prevent an abnormal ion redistribution leading to hearing and vestibular loss. The aim of this study is to define the main pathways and molecular networks in the mouse ENHCs. Methods : We retrieved microarray and RNA-seq datasets from mouse epithelial sensory and non-sensory cells from gEAR portal (http://umgear...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650453/feasibility-of-real-time-intraoperative-fluorescence-imaging-of-dural-sinus-thrombosis
#6
Laureen D Hachem, Alireza Mansouri, Joseph Chen, Farhad Pirouzmand
Dural sinus thrombosis is a well-recognized and potentially serious complication following lateral skull base surgery. Methods of diagnosis are limited to post-operative computerized tomography scans or magnetic resonance venography. There are currently no reports of an intraoperative technique used to detect dural sinus thrombosis. Here, we describe the case of a 62-year-old woman who underwent translabyrinthine resection of a right vestibular schwannoma with no evidence of sinus thrombosis on pre-operative scans...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620637/decreased-postural-control-in-people-with-moderate-hearing-loss
#7
Ewan Thomas, Francesco Martines, Antonino Bianco, Giuseppe Messina, Valerio Giustino, Daniele Zangla, Angelo Iovane, Antonio Palma
Balance is a complex process that involves multiple sensory integrations. The auditory, visual, and vestibular systems are the main contributors. Hearing loss or hearing impairment may induce inappropriate postural strategies that could affect balance and therefore increase the risk of falling.The aim of this study was to understand whether hearing loss could influence balance, cervical posture, and muscle activation in the cervical region.Thirteen patients (61 ± 13 years; 161.8 ± 11.0 cm; 70.5 ± 15...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595580/the-use-of-vibrotactile-feedback-during-dual-task-standing-balance-conditions-in-people-with-unilateral-vestibular-hypofunction
#8
Chia-Cheng Lin, Susan L Whitney, Patrick J Loughlin, Joseph M Furman, Mark S Redfern, Kathleen H Sienko, Patrick J Sparto
HYPOTHESIS: People with unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH) would have increased postural sway and slower reaction times while using vibrotactile feedback (VTF) during dual-task conditions compared with age-matched controls. BACKGROUND: VTF has been shown to improve real-time balance performance in persons with vestibular disorders. Future use of this technology outside of the laboratory environment as a real-time balance aid requires that using VTF during dual-tasking scenarios be studied...
March 27, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572826/differential-effects-of-vision-upon-the-accuracy-and-precision-of-vestibular-evoked-balance-responses
#9
Stuart W Mackenzie, Raymond F Reynolds
Vestibular information must be transformed from head-to-foot centred coordinates for balance control. This transformation process has previously been investigated using Electrical Vestibular Stimulation (EVS), which evokes a sway response fixed in head coordinates. The craniocentric nature of the response has been demonstrated by analysing average responses to multiple stimuli. This approach misses any trial-by-trial variability which would reflect poor balance control. Here we performed single-trial analysis to measure this directional variability (precision), and compared this to mean performance (accuracy)...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560950/-changes-in-walking-in-the-elderly
#10
I V Damulin
The article addresses gait disturbances in the elderly. It emphasizes that the system that maintains the balance in resting conditions and gait is based on the hierarchical principle and its function depends on the maintenance of integration between vestibular, visual and somatosensory information as well as on cognitive functions. Walking depends on the integrity of frontal-subcortical neuronal circles that support regulatory functions. The main pathogenetic mechanisms of age-related disturbances of balance and gait are a decrease in the efficacy of spinal motorneurons activation caused by Ia-afferentation, a decrease in cortical activation and excitability of corticospinal pathways and in the intensity of intracortical inhibition...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551490/a-circuit-for-integration-of-head-and-visual-motion-signals-in-layer-6-of-mouse-primary-visual-cortex
#11
Mateo Vélez-Fort, Edward F Bracey, Sepiedeh Keshavarzi, Charly V Rousseau, Lee Cossell, Stephen C Lenzi, Molly Strom, Troy W Margrie
To interpret visual-motion events, the underlying computation must involve internal reference to the motion status of the observer's head. We show here that layer 6 (L6) principal neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) receive a diffuse, vestibular-mediated synaptic input that signals the angular velocity of horizontal rotation. Behavioral and theoretical experiments indicate that these inputs, distributed over a network of 100 L6 neurons, provide both a reliable estimate and, therefore, physiological separation of head-velocity signals...
April 4, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547458/degree-of-functional-impairment-associated-with-vestibular-hypofunction-among-older-adults-with-cognitive-decline
#12
Alessandro Micarelli, Andrea Viziano, David Della-Morte, Ivan Augimeri, Marco Alessandrini
OBJECTIVE: Considering the altered multisensory signal compensation during senescence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the integration rearrangements in unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH) during age-related cognitive decline. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Longitudinal cohort study unit and of University tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Older UVH individuals ≥ 55 years with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer Disease (AD) and matched UVH control group with age-appropriate cognitive function...
June 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534062/early-uneven-ear-input-induces-long-lasting-differences-in-left-right-motor-function
#13
Michelle W Antoine, Xiaoxia Zhu, Marianne Dieterich, Thomas Brandt, Sarath Vijayakumar, Nicholas McKeehan, Joseph C Arezzo, R Suzanne Zukin, David A Borkholder, Sherri M Jones, Robert D Frisina, Jean M Hébert
How asymmetries in motor behavior become established normally or atypically in mammals remains unclear. An established model for motor asymmetry that is conserved across mammals can be obtained by experimentally inducing asymmetric striatal dopamine activity. However, the factors that can cause motor asymmetries in the absence of experimental manipulations to the brain remain unknown. Here, we show that mice with inner ear dysfunction display a robust left or right rotational preference, and this motor preference reflects an atypical asymmetry in cortico-striatal neurotransmission...
March 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524635/vestibular-evoked-responses-indicate-a-functional-role-for-intrinsic-foot-muscles-during-standing-balance
#14
Jonathan W Wallace, Brandon G Rasman, Brian H Dalton
Maintaining standing balance involves multisensory processing and integration to produce dynamic motor responses. Electrical vestibular stimulation (EVS) delivered over the mastoid processes can be used to explore the vestibular control of balance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether intrinsic foot muscles exhibit vestibular-evoked balance responses and to characterize the traits associated with these responses. Electromyography (EMG) of the abductor hallucis (AH), abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) and anterior-posterior (AP) forces were sampled while quietly standing participants were subjected to a random continuous EVS signal (peak-to-peak amplitude = ±3 mA)...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510903/subjective-visual-vertical-assessment-with-mobile-virtual-reality-system
#15
Ingrida Ulozienė, Milda Totilienė, Andrius Paulauskas, Tomas Blažauskas, Vaidotas Marozas, Diego Kaski, Virgilijus Ulozas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The subjective visual vertical (SVV) is a measure of a subject's perceived verticality, and a sensitive test of vestibular dysfunction. Despite this, and consequent upon technical and logistical limitations, SVV has not entered mainstream clinical practice. The aim of the study was to develop a mobile virtual reality based system for SVV test, evaluate the suitability of different controllers and assess the system's usability in practical settings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we describe a novel virtual reality based system that has been developed to test SVV using integrated software and hardware, and report normative values across healthy population...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494625/on-the-effects-of-signal-processing-on-sample-entropy-for-postural-control
#16
Anat V Lubetzky, Daphna Harel, Eyal Lubetzky
Sample entropy, a measure of time series regularity, has become increasingly popular in postural control research. We are developing a virtual reality assessment of sensory integration for postural control in people with vestibular dysfunction and wished to apply sample entropy as an outcome measure. However, despite the common use of sample entropy to quantify postural sway, we found lack of consistency in the literature regarding center-of-pressure signal manipulations prior to the computation of sample entropy...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492767/surgical-treatment-of-large-vestibular-schwannomas-in-patients-with-neurofibromatosis-type-2-outcomes-on-facial-nerve-function-and-hearing-preservation
#17
Fu Zhao, Bo Wang, Zhijun Yang, Qiangyi Zhou, Peng Li, Xingchao Wang, Jing Zhang, Junting Zhang, Pinan Liu
Surgical treatment of vestibular schwannoma (VS) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) along with functional preservation of cranial nerves is challenging. The aim of this study was to analyze the outcomes of hearing and facial nerve function in patients with NF2 who underwent large-size VS (> 2 cm) surgery. From 2006 to 2016, one hundred and forty NF2 patients were included with 149 large-size VS resections using retrosigmoid approach. Hearing function was classified according to the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) criteria...
June 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490547/preoperative-diffusion-tensor-imaging-fiber-tracking-for-facial-nerve-identification-in-vestibular-schwannoma-a-systematic-review-on-its-evolution-and-current-status-with-a-pooled-data-analysis-of-surgical-concordance-rates
#18
Amey R Savardekar, Devi P Patra, Jai D Thakur, Vinayak Narayan, Nasser Mohammed, Papireddy Bollam, Anil Nanda
OBJECTIVE Total tumor excision with the preservation of neurological function and quality of life is the goal of modern-day vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery. Postoperative facial nerve (FN) paralysis is a devastating complication of VS surgery. Determining the course of the FN in relation to a VS preoperatively is invaluable to the neurosurgeon and is likely to enhance surgical safety with respect to FN function. Diffusion tensor imaging-fiber tracking (DTI-FT) technology is slowly gaining traction as a viable tool for preoperative FN visualization in patients with VS...
March 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488840/sensorimotor-control-of-the-trunk-in-sitting-sway-referencing
#19
Adam David Goodworth, Kimberly Tetreault, Jeffrey Lanman, Tate Klidonas, Seyoung Kim, Sandra L Saavedra
We developed a sway referenced system for sitting to highlight the role of vestibular and visual contributions to trunk control. Motor control was investigated by measuring trunk kinematics in the frontal plane while manipulating visual availability and introducing a concurrent cognitive task. We examined motor learning on three time scales (within the same trial, minutes), within the same test session (one hour), and between sessions (one week). Posture sway was analyzed through time-based measures (RMS sway and RMS velocity), frequency-based measures (amplitude spectra), and parameterized feedback modeling...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464154/v-shaped-internal-nasal-vestibular-flap-for-reconstruction-of-iatrogenic-columellar-defect
#20
Sara Tanini, Giulia Lo Russo
Columella is an important structure in the center of the face, and its structural integrity has an important functional, social, and psychological role. Columella reconstruction can be very challenging for surgeons and the ideal technique remains elusive. This article describes a reconstruction technique in a young woman with columella necrosis due to nasal continuous positive airway pressure treatment. The method of reconstruction described here, with a V-shaped internal nasal vestibular flap and a cartilage grafts from lateral crura, is simple and easily reproducible, providing an optimal aesthetic result and in addition the donor site does not create a secondary deformity by disrupting normal anatomy...
January 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
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