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Vestibular integration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336136/international-clinical-protocol-on-vestibular-disorders-dizziness
#1
Kostiantyn Trinus, Claus-Frenz Claussen
26-28 May at 43 Congress of Neurootological and Equilibriometric Society (Budapest, Hungary) International Clinical Protocol on Vestibular Disorders (Dizziness) being discussed and accepted as Consensus Document. Cochrane reports estimates that dizziness has prevalence of 22.9% in the last 12 months and an incidence of 3.1%. Only 1.8% of adults consulted a physician in the last 12 months. Cochrane reviews suggest that the evidence base for dizziness evaluation is weak, thus necessitates the creation of evidence-based document...
December 1, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320412/functional-testing-of-slc26a4-variants-clinical-and-molecular-analysis-of-a-cohort-with-enlarged-vestibular-aqueduct-from-austria
#2
Sebastian Roesch, Emanuele Bernardinelli, Charity Nofziger, Miklós Tóth, Wolfgang Patsch, Gerd Rasp, Markus Paulmichl, Silvia Dossena
The prevalence and spectrum of sequence alterations in the SLC26A4 gene, which codes for the anion exchanger pendrin, are population-specific and account for at least 50% of cases of non-syndromic hearing loss associated with an enlarged vestibular aqueduct. A cohort of nineteen patients from Austria with hearing loss and a radiological alteration of the vestibular aqueduct underwent Sanger sequencing of SLC26A4 and GJB2, coding for connexin 26. The pathogenicity of sequence alterations detected was assessed by determining ion transport and molecular features of the corresponding SLC26A4 protein variants...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298211/clinical-evaluation-of-the-vestibular-nerve-using-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials
#3
Jamie M Bogle
Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials are currently the most clinically accessible method to evaluate the otolith reflex pathways. These responses provide unique information regarding the status of the utriculo-ocular and sacculo-collic reflex pathways, information that has previously been unavailable. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials are recorded from tonically contracted target muscles known to be innervated by these respective otolith organs. Diagnosticians can use vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to better evaluate the overall integrity of the inner ear and neural pathways; however, there are specific considerations for each otolith reflex protocol...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260355/vestibular-impairment-in-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy
#4
Gülden Akdal, Tural Tanrıverdizade, İhsan Şengün, Fikret Bademkıran, Koray Koçoğlu, Ayşe Nur Yüceyar, Özgül Ekmekçi, Hatice Karasoy, G Michael Halmágyi
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a common, treatable, autoimmune peripheral neuropathy considered to produce imbalance by weakness and proprioceptive impairment rather than vestibular impairment. We measured semicircular canal vestibular function in 21 CIDP patients (15M/6F) by the video head impulse test and postural stability with a battery comprising the modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration and Balance, the Berg Balance Scale, the Dynamic Gait Index, the Fall Efficiency Scale, and the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235557/timing-duration-and-severity-of-iron-deficiency-in-early-development-and-motor-outcomes-at-9-months
#5
Denise C C Santos, Rosa M Angulo-Barroso, Ming Li, Yang Bian, Julie Sturza, Blair Richards, Betsy Lozoff
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Poorer motor development is reported in infants with iron deficiency (ID). The role of timing, duration and severity is unclear. We assessed relations between ID timing, duration, and severity and gross motor scores, neurological integrity, and motor behavior quality at 9 months. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Iron status was determined at birth and 9 months in otherwise healthy term Chinese infants. The 9-month motor evaluation included the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale (PDMS-2), Infant Neurological International Battery (INFANIB), and motor quality factor...
November 6, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134944/distinct-spatial-coordinate-of-visual-and-vestibular-heading-signals-in-macaque-fefsem-and-mstd
#6
Lihua Yang, Yong Gu
Precise heading estimate requires integration of visual optic flow and vestibular inertial motion originating from distinct spatial coordinates (eye- and head-centered, respectively). To explore whether the two heading signals may share a common reference frame along the hierarchy of cortical stages, we explored two multisensory areas in macaques: the smooth pursuit area of the frontal eye field (FEFsem) closer to the motor side, and the dorsal portion of medial superior temporal area (MSTd) closer to the sensory side...
November 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118202/bayesian-optimal-adaptation-explains-age-related-human-sensorimotor-changes
#7
Faisal Karmali, Gregory T Whitman, Richard F Lewis
The brain uses information from different sensory systems to guide motor behavior, and aging is associated with a simultaneous decline in the quality of sensory information provided to the brain and a deterioration in motor control. Correlations between age-dependent decline in sensory anatomical structures and behavior have been demonstrated, and it has recently been suggested that a Bayesian framework could explain these relationships. Here we show that age-dependent changes in a human sensorimotor reflex, the vestibulo-ocular reflex, are explained by a Bayesian optimal adaptation in the brain occurring in response to death of motion-sensing hair cells...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089672/radiological-requirements-for-surgical-planning-in-cochlear-implant-candidates
#8
Mohamad Hasan Alam-Eldeen, Usama Mohamed Rashad, Al Hussein Awad Ali
OBJECTIVE: This study is concerned with clarification of radiological findings that should be addressed and reported in patients listed for cochlear implant (CI) operation. These findings may force a surgeon to consider modifications of the surgical approach by a CI surgeon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed from January 2015 to January 2016. It included 50 patients with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss who fulfilled the criteria for CI...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084063/central-vertigo
#9
Jeong-Yoon Choi, Seung-Han Lee, Ji-Soo Kim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review considers recent advances in central vertigo in terms of clinical and laboratory features and pathophysiology. RECENT FINDINGS: Strokes presenting dizziness-vertigo are more likely to be associated with a misdiagnosis in the emergency setting. The risk of future strokes after discharge is higher in patients diagnosed with peripheral vertigo than in control patients. Strokes and transient ischemic attacks account for one-quarter of acute transient vestibular syndrome...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075558/the-medium-latency-muscle-response-to-a-vestibular-perturbation-is-increased-after-depression-of-the-cerebellar-vermis
#10
Chris K Lam, William R Staines, Craig D Tokuno, Leah R Bent
INTRODUCTION: Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is able to evoke distinct responses in the muscles used for balance. These reflexes, termed the short (SL) and medium latency (ML) responses, can be altered by sensory input; decreasing in size when additional sensory cues are available. Although much is known about these responses, the origin and role of the responses are still not fully understood. It has been suggested that the cerebellum, a structure that is involved in postural control and sensory integration, may play a role in the modulation of these reflexes...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063117/-progress-in-multisensory-integration-during-self-motion-processing
#11
Ying-Ying Zhang, Dan-Qing Jiang, Sha-Sha Li, Pei-Ji Liang, Ai-Hua Chen
In the daily life, we perceive the world around us by integrating multiple sensory cues (visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, vestibular and proprioceptive) to create a coherent, reliable representation that allows us to interact meaningfully with the environment. The integration of different sensory information is necessary for our perception, motor transformation, decision making, learning and memory. In the past decades, many interdisciplinary researchers have been attracted to the field of multisensory research, and tremendous advances have been made in this field...
October 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036855/diagnostic-criteria-for-persistent-postural-perceptual-dizziness-pppd-consensus-document-of-the-committee-for-the-classification-of-vestibular-disorders-of-the-b%C3%A3-r%C3%A3-ny-society
#12
Jeffrey P Staab, Annegret Eckhardt-Henn, Arata Horii, Rolf Jacob, Michael Strupp, Thomas Brandt, Adolfo Bronstein
This paper presents diagnostic criteria for persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD) to be included in the International Classification of Vestibular Disorders (ICVD). The term PPPD is new, but the disorder is not. Its diagnostic criteria were derived by expert consensus from an exhaustive review of 30 years of research on phobic postural vertigo, space-motion discomfort, visual vertigo, and chronic subjective dizziness. PPPD manifests with one or more symptoms of dizziness, unsteadiness, or non-spinning vertigo that are present on most days for three months or more and are exacerbated by upright posture, active or passive movement, and exposure to moving or complex visual stimuli...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981226/-balance-disorders
#13
C Van Nechel
Balance disorders may result from an impairment of one of the sensorial modalities involved in the perception of the self-location in space: vestibular, proprioception and vision, a deficit of the neuronal multisensorial integration, a less effective motor or loco-motor system, the medication side effects or psychological interferences. The basic examination of a dizzy patient implies the assessment of these different aspects. The balance is not restricted to à set of reflexes. It is a distinctive expression of the sixth sense : the sense of orientation...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980779/-equilibrium-management
#14
Jean-Philippe Guyot
Balance requires the modulation and integration of multiple sensory information, among which the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear plays an essential role. The management of all informations is assumed by a system whose adaptive capacities are much faster than we thought until recently, as demonstrated by the experiments carried out in human during the development of a vestibular implant designed to restore the lost function. While these adaptive capacities have the advantage of allowing all kinds of activities, they also have the disadvantage of producing various sensations, sometimes very strange...
October 4, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978765/convergence-of-linear-acceleration-and-yaw-rotation-signals-on-non-eye-movement-neurons-in-the-vestibular-nucleus-of-macaques
#15
Shawn D Newlands, Ben Abbatematteo, Min Wei, Laurel H Carney, Hongge Luan
Roughly half of all vestibular nucleus neurons without eye movement sensitivity respond to both angular rotation and linear acceleration. Linear acceleration signals arise from otolith organs and rotation signals arise from semicircular canals. In the vestibular nerve, these signals are carried by different afferents. Vestibular nucleus neurons represent the first point of convergence for these distinct sensory signals. This study systematically evaluated how rotational and translational signals interact in single neurons in the vestibular nuclei: multisensory integration at the first opportunity for convergence between these two independent vestibular sensory signals...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950080/self-motion-perception-ups-and-downs-of-multisensory-integration-and-conflict-detection
#16
Mark W Greenlee
A new study indicates that, in humans, eye movements play an important role in self-motion perception, in particular in integrating information from the visual and vestibular systems and detecting possible conflicts between them.
September 25, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911803/sensory-overload-and-imbalance-resting-state-vestibular-connectivity-in-ptsd-and-its-dissociative-subtype
#17
Sherain Harricharan, Andrew A Nicholson, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Richard W J Neufeld, Ruth A Lanius
BACKGROUND: The vestibular system integrates multisensory information to monitor one's bodily orientation in space, and is influenced by interoceptive awareness. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves typically alterations in interoceptive and bodily self-awareness evidenced by symptoms of hyperarousal, as well as of emotional detachment, including emotional numbing, depersonalization, and derealization. These alterations may disrupt vestibular multisensory integration between the brainstem (vestibular nuclei) and key vestibular cortical regions (parieto-insular vestibular cortex, prefrontal cortex)...
September 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894988/how-tandem-gait-stumbled-into-the-neurological-exam-a-review
#18
Jason Margolesky, Carlos Singer
Tandem gait testing is an integral part of the neurological exam. It is informative in a wide variety of disorders ranging from cerebellar disease to vestibular and peripheral neuropathies, parkinsonism, and other neurodegenerative conditions. We discuss the history and development of tandem gait testing as well as its technique, utility, and limitations in the assessment of neurological conditions. Tandem gait has emerged as a tool in the assessment of cerebellar disease, Huntington disease, idiopathic Parkinson's disease, atypical parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathies, and vestibulopathies...
September 11, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891509/role-of-the-medullary-lateral-tegmental-field-in-sympathetic-control
#19
Michael George Zaki Ghali
The sympathetic nervous system maintains and regulates arterial pressure and tissue perfusion, via control of cardiac output and vasomotor tone. Sympatho-vascular-mediated increases in blood pressure are effected by arterioloconstriction, which causes an increase in afterload, and/or venoconstriction, which increases venous return, left ventricular preload, and consequently, the force of cardiac contraction via Frank-Starling mechanisms; withdrawal of sympathetic drive elicits reciprocal effects. Spinalization reduces mammalian arterial pressure to 40-50 mm Hg consequent to the elimination of descending medullary pre-sympathetic bulbospinal drive to preganglionic sympathetic fibers in the intermediolateral cell column of the spinal cord...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889981/visual-vestibular-conflict-detection-depends-on-fixation
#20
Isabelle T Garzorz, Paul R MacNeilage
Visual and vestibular signals are the primary sources of sensory information for self-motion. Conflict among these signals can be seriously debilitating, resulting in vertigo [1], inappropriate postural responses [2], and motion, simulator, or cyber sickness [3-8]. Despite this significance, the mechanisms mediating conflict detection are poorly understood. Here we model conflict detection simply as crossmodal discrimination with benchmark performance limited by variabilities of the signals being compared. In a series of psychophysical experiments conducted in a virtual reality motion simulator, we measure these variabilities and assess conflict detection relative to this benchmark...
September 25, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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