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Vestibular integration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743011/posterior-parietal-cortex
#1
Jonathan R Whitlock
The posterior parietal cortex, along with temporal and prefrontal cortices, is one of the three major associative regions in the cortex of the mammalian brain. It is situated between the visual cortex at the caudal pole of the brain and the somatosensory cortex just behind the central sulcus. Technically, any cortex covered by the parietal bone is referred to as 'parietal cortex', but the posterior sector, formally referred to as posterior parietal cortex, is indeed its own functional section of cortex, consisting of Brodmann's areas 5, 7, 39, and 40 in humans, areas 5 and 7 in macaques, and area 7 in rodents (Figure 1)...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728025/a-neural-signature-of-divisive-normalization-at-the-level-of-multisensory-integration-in-primate-cortex
#2
Tomokazu Ohshiro, Dora E Angelaki, Gregory C DeAngelis
Studies of multisensory integration by single neurons have traditionally emphasized empirical principles that describe nonlinear interactions between inputs from two sensory modalities. We previously proposed that many of these empirical principles could be explained by a divisive normalization mechanism operating in brain regions where multisensory integration occurs. This normalization model makes a critical diagnostic prediction: a non-preferred sensory input from one modality, which activates the neuron on its own, should suppress the response to a preferred input from another modality...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722100/-tailored-care-for-functional-vertigo-dizziness-an-integrative-group-psychotherapy-approach
#3
Katharina Radziej, Gabriele Schmid-Mühlbauer, Karina Limburg, Claas Lahmann
Functional vertigo and dizziness (VD) symptoms are highly prevalent and usually accompanied by a strong impairment of quality in everyday and working life. The complaints are often associated with various psychiatric disorders, particularly phobic and other anxiety disorders, depressive or somatoform disorders. Despite this clinical relevance of VD symptoms, studies towards psychotherapeutic treatment options for patients with functional VD are still rare. Thus, the present study outlines a manual for outpatient group therapy for patients with functional VD symptoms...
June 2017: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687325/velocity-perception-in-a-moving-observer
#4
Hinze Hogendoorn, David Alais, Hamish MacDougall, Frans A J Verstraten
Previous research has shown that when a moving stimulus is presented to a moving observer, the perceived speed of the stimulus is affected by vestibular self-motion signals (Hogendoorn, Verstraten, MacDougall, & Alais, 2017. Vision Research 130, 22-30.). This interaction was interpreted as a weighted sum of visual and vestibular motion signals. This interpretation also predicts effects of vestibular self-motion signals on perceived speed. Here, we test this prediction in two experiments. In Experiment 1, moving observers carried out a visual speed discrimination task in order to establish points of subjective equality (PSE) between stimuli presented in the same or opposite direction of self-motion...
July 20, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676739/pid-controller-design-for-fes-applied-to-ankle-muscles-in-neuroprosthesis-for-standing-balance
#5
Hossein Rouhani, Michael Same, Kei Masani, Ya Qi Li, Milos R Popovic
Closed-loop controlled functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied to the lower limb muscles can be used as a neuroprosthesis for standing balance in neurologically impaired individuals. The objective of this study was to propose a methodology for designing a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for FES applied to the ankle muscles toward maintaining standing balance for several minutes and in the presence of perturbations. First, a model of the physiological control strategy for standing balance was developed...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676068/correlation-between-delivered-radiation-doses-to-the-brainstem-or-vestibular-organ-and-nausea-vomiting-toxicity-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancers-an-observational-clinical-trial
#6
Kilian Schiller, Hanno Martin Specht, Bernhard Haller, Daniela Hallqvist, Michal Devecka, Aaron Becker von Rose, Stephanie Elisabeth Combs, Steffi Pigorsch
OBJECTIVE: Today intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be considered the standard of care in patients with head and neck tumors. IMRT treatment plans are proven to reduce acute treatment related side effects by optimal sparing of organs at risk (OAR). At the same time, areas that were out of the former 3D fields now receive low radiation doses. Amongst those areas the brainstem (BS) and the vestibular system (VS) are known to be physiologically connected to nausea and vomiting (NV)...
July 4, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669509/out-of-body-experience-in-vestibular-disorders-a-prospective-study-of-210-patients-with-dizziness
#7
Christophe Lopez, Maya Elzière
Out-of-body experiences (OBEs) are states during which people experience their centre of awareness as located outside of their physical body, along with the sensation of seeing the environment from an elevated viewpoint. OBE is encountered in epilepsy, migraine and depersonalization, and it is not an uncommon experience in the general population. Current neuroscientific models of bodily self-consciousness consider that OBE are related to a failure to integrate visual, somatosensory and vestibular signals. These models have highlighted the importance of visual-vestibular mismatch in OBE...
June 8, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654042/a-unified-methodological-framework-for-vestibular-schwannoma-research
#8
Lukas D Landegger, Jessica E Sagers, Sonam Dilwali, Takeshi Fujita, Mehmet I Sahin, Konstantina M Stankovic
Vestibular schwannomas are the most common neoplasms of the cerebellopontine angle, making up 6-8% percent of all intracranial growths. Though these tumors cause sensorineural hearing loss in up to 95% of affected individuals, the molecular mechanisms underlying this hearing loss remain elusive. This article outlines the steps established in our laboratory to facilitate the collection and processing of various primary human tissue samples for downstream research applications integral to the study of vestibular schwannomas...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650602/intraoperative-neurophysiological-monitoring-to-protect-the-facial-nerve-during-microsurgery-for-large-vestibular-schwannomas
#9
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: Microsurgery is the preferred treatment for large vestibular schwannomas (VSs). However, anatomical and functional preservation of the facial nerve (FN) remains a challenge during this surgery. The aim of this study was to determine whether it is beneficial to the preservation rates of the FN during microsurgical treatment of large VSs using intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 53 patients with large VSs that underwent microsurgical resection via the retrosigmoid approach in our department during April 2009 to March 2016...
May 26, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646240/delineating-function-and-connectivity-of-optokinetic-hubs-in-the-cerebellum-and-the-brainstem
#10
Ria Maxine Ruehl, Carolin Hinkel, Thomas Bauermann, Peter Zu Eulenburg
Optokinetic eye movements are crucial for keeping a stable image on the retina during movements of the head. These eye movements can be differentiated into a cortically generated response (optokinetic look nystagmus) and the highly reflexive optokinetic stare nystagmus, which is controlled by circuits in the brainstem and cerebellum. The contributions of these infratentorial networks and their functional connectivity with the cortical eye fields are still poorly understood in humans. To map ocular motor centres in the cerebellum and brainstem, we studied stare nystagmus using small-field optokinetic stimuli in the horizontal and vertical directions in 22 healthy subjects...
June 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642694/ehlers-danlos-syndrome-hypermobility-type-impact-of-somatosensory-orthoses-on-postural-control-a-pilot-study
#11
Emma G Dupuy, Pascale Leconte, Elodie Vlamynck, Audrey Sultan, Christophe Chesneau, Pierre Denise, Stéphane Besnard, Boris Bienvenu, Leslie M Decker
Elhers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is the clinical manifestation of connective tissue disorders, and comprises several clinical forms with no specific symptoms and selective medical examinations which result in a delay in diagnosis of about 10 years. The EDS hypermobility type (hEDS) is characterized by generalized joint hypermobility, variable skin hyperextensibility and impaired proprioception. Since somatosensory processing and multisensory integration are crucial for both perception and action, we put forth the hypothesis that somatosensory deficits in hEDS patients may lead, among other clinical symptoms, to misperception of verticality and postural instability...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615328/effect-of-eye-position-during-human-visual-vestibular-integration-of-heading-perception
#12
Benjamin Thomas Crane
Visual and inertial stimuli provide heading discrimination cues. Integration of these multisensory stimuli has been demonstrated to depend on their relative reliability. However, the reference frame of visual stimuli is eye centered while inertial is head centered and it remains unclear how these are reconciled with combined stimuli. Seven human subjects completed a heading discrimination task consisting of a 2s translation with a peak velocity of 16 cm/s. Eye position was varied between 0°, and ±25° left/right...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607373/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-reduces-after-first-time-exposure-to-short-term-gravitational-alterations-induced-by-parabolic-flight
#13
Angelique Van Ombergen, Floris L Wuyts, Ben Jeurissen, Jan Sijbers, Floris Vanhevel, Steven Jillings, Paul M Parizel, Stefan Sunaert, Paul H Van de Heyning, Vincent Dousset, Steven Laureys, Athena Demertzi
Spaceflight severely impacts the human body. However, little is known about how gravity and gravitational alterations affect the human brain. Here, we aimed at measuring the effects of acute exposure to gravity transitions. We exposed 28 naïve participants to repetitive alterations between normal, hyper- and microgravity induced by a parabolic flight (PF) and measured functional MRI connectivity changes. Scans were acquired before and after the PF. To mitigate motion sickness, PF participants received scopolamine prior to PF...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562427/effects-of-saccular-function-on-recovery-of-subjective-dizziness-after-vestibular-rehabilitation
#14
Junhui Jeong, Jinsei Jung, Jeon Mi Lee, Michelle J Suh, Sang Hyun Kwak, Sung Huhn Kim
OBJECTIVE: We attempted to investigate whether the integrity of saccular function influences the severity of subjective dizziness after vestibular rehabilitation in vestibular neuritis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Forty-six patients with acute unilateral vestibular neuritis were included. INTERVENTIONS: Diagnostic, therapeutic, and rehabilitative...
August 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534737/integration-of-tmc1-2-into-the-mechanotransduction-complex-in-zebrafish-hair-cells-is-regulated-by-transmembrane-o-methyltransferase-tomt
#15
Timothy Erickson, Clive P Morgan, Jennifer Olt, Katherine Hardy, Elisabeth Busch-Nentwich, Reo Maeda, Rachel Clemens, Jocelyn F Krey, Alex Nechiporuk, Peter G Barr-Gillespie, Walter Marcotti, Teresa Nicolson
Transmembrane O-methyltransferase (TOMT/LRTOMT) is responsible for non-syndromic deafness DFNB63. However, the specific defects that lead to hearing loss have not been described. Using a zebrafish model of DFNB63, we show that the auditory and vestibular phenotypes are due to a lack of mechanotransduction (MET) in Tomt-deficient hair cells. GFP-tagged Tomt is enriched in the Golgi of hair cells, suggesting that Tomt might regulate the trafficking of other MET components to the hair bundle. We found that Tmc1/2 proteins are specifically excluded from the hair bundle in tomt mutants, whereas other MET complex proteins can still localize to the bundle...
May 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516967/body-worn-triaxial-accelerometer-coherence-and-reliability-related-to-static-posturography-in-unilateral-vestibular-failure
#16
M Alessandrini, A Micarelli, A Viziano, I Pavone, G Costantini, D Casali, F Paolizzo, G Saggio
Since changes in vestibular function may be one cause of disequilibrium, major advances in measuring postural control and sensory integration in vestibular impairments have been achieved by using posturography. However, in order to overcome problems related to this type of technology, body-worn accelerometers (ACC) have been proposed as a portable, low-cost alternative to posturography for measurements of postural sway in a friendly and ecologic environment. Due to the fact that no study to date has shown the experimental validity of ACC-based measures of body sway with respect to posturography for subjects with vestibular deficits, the aim of the present study was: i) to develop and validate a practical tool that can allow clinicians to measure postural sway derangements in an otoneurological setting by ACC, and ii) to provide reliable, sensitive and accurate automatic analysis of sway that could help in discriminating unilateral vestibular failure (UVF) patients...
June 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515458/floccular-fossa-size-is-not-a-reliable-proxy-of-ecology-and-behaviour-in-vertebrates
#17
S Ferreira-Cardoso, R Araújo, N E Martins, G G Martins, S Walsh, R M S Martins, N Kardjilov, I Manke, A Hilger, R Castanhinha
The cerebellar floccular and parafloccular lobes are housed in fossae of the periotic region of the skull of different vertebrates. Experimental evidence indicates that the lobes integrate visual and vestibular information and control the vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulo-collic reflex, smooth pursuit and gaze holding. Multiple paleoneuroanatomy studies have deduced the behaviour of fossil vertebrates by measuring the floccular fossae (FF). These studies assumed that there are correlations between FF volume and behaviour...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506486/preoperative-and-intraoperative-neurophysiological-investigations-for-surgical-resections-in-functional-areas
#18
G Huberfeld, A Trébuchon, L Capelle, J-M Badier, S Chen, J-P Lefaucheur, M Gavaret
Brain regions are removed to treat lesions, but great care must be taken not to disturb or remove functional areas in the lesion and in surrounding tissue where healthy and diseased cells may be intermingled, especially for infiltrating tumors. Cortical functional areas and fiber tracts can be localized preoperatively by probabilistic anatomical tools, but mapping of functional integrity by neurophysiology is essential. Identification of the primary motor cortex seems to be more effectively performed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) than functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499299/-current-diagnostic-procedures-for-diagnosing-vertigo-and-dizziness
#19
Leif Erik Walther
Modern diagnostic methods such as video head impulse test and cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials allow to measure canal and otolith function quantitatively and objectively. These methods contribute to a complex assessment of the functional integrity of all 5 sensory elements of the vestibular organ for the first time. Moreover, in combination with additional vestibular tests frequency specific and time depended changes of impairments of vestibular sensors and their pathways can be assessed...
April 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446587/temporal-integration-and-1-f-power-scaling-in-a-circuit-model-of-cerebellar-interneurons
#20
Reinoud Maex, Boris Samuel Gutkin
Inhibitory interneurons interconnected via electrical and chemical (GABAA receptor) synapses form extensive circuits in several brain regions. They are thought to be involved in timing and synchronization through fast feed-forward control of principal neurons. Theoretical studies have shown, however, that whereas self-inhibition does indeed reduce response duration, lateral inhibition, in contrast, may generate slow response components through a process of gradual disinhibition. Here we simulated a circuit of interneurons (stellate and basket cells) of the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex, and observed circuit time-constants that could rise, depending on the parameter values, to more than one second...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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