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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430076/on-using-distributional-analysis-techniques-for-determining-the-onset-of-the-influence-of-experimental-variables
#1
Eyal M Reingold, Heather Sheridan
Much of the investigation of eye-movement control in visual cognition has focused on the influence of experimental variables on mean fixation durations. In the present paper we explored the convergence between two distributional analysis techniques that were recently introduced in this domain. First, Staub, White, Drieghe, Hollway and Rayner, (2010) proposed fitting the ex-Gaussian distribution to individual participants' data in order to ascertain whether a variable has a rapid or a slow influence on fixation durations...
April 21, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426561/unfractionated-heparin-versus-low-molecular-weight-heparin-for-venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-in-trauma
#2
Benjamin N Jacobs, Anne H Cain-Nielsen, Jill L Jakubus, Judy N Mikhail, John J Fath, Scott E Regenbogen, Mark R Hemmila
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication in trauma patients. Pharmacologic prophylaxis is utilized in trauma patients to reduce their risk of a VTE event. The Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma guidelines recommend use of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) as the preferred agent in these patients. However, there is literature suggesting that unfractionated heparin (UFH) is an acceptable, and less costly, alternative VTE prophylaxis agent with equivalent efficacy in trauma patients...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425825/reviewing-treatments-and-outcomes-in-the-evolving-landscape-of-ulcerative-colitis
#3
Marla C Dubinsky
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease extending proximally from the rectum to varying lengths of the colon that is characterized by alternating cycles of relapse and remission. Therapeutic goals for patients with active UC include induction and maintenance of remission and improvement in quality of life, as well as mucosal healing, a clinical outcome recently recognized in treatment guidance as being equally important. Mucosal healing is associated with favorable long-term patient outcomes related to remission, surgery, hospitalization, and quality of life...
April 20, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417080/applying-a-systems-approach-to-thyroid-physiology-looking-at-the-whole-with-a-mitochondrial-perspective-instead-of-judging-single-tsh-values-or-why-we-should-know-more-about-mitochondria-to-understand-metabolism
#4
REVIEW
Roy Moncayo, Helga Moncayo
Classical thinking in endocrine physiology squeezes our diagnostic handling into a simple negative feedback mechanism with a controller and a controlled variable. In the case of the thyroid this is reduced to TSH and fT3 and fT4, respectively. The setting of this tight notion has no free space for any additions. In this paper we want to challenge this model of limited application by proposing a construct based on a systems approach departing from two basic considerations. In first place since the majority of cases of thyroid disease develop and appear during life it has to be considered as an acquired condition...
June 2017: BBA Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416902/a-first-look-into-the-influence-of-triathlon-wetsuit-on-resting-blood-pressure-and-heart-rate-variability
#5
A Prado, J Dufek, J Navalta, N Lough, J Mercer
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of wearing a wetsuit on resting cardiovascular measures (blood pressure (BP), heart rate variability (HRV)). The influence of position (upright, prone) and wetsuit size were also explored. Participants (n=12 males, 33.3±12.1 years) had BP and HRV measured during six resting conditions: standing or prone while not wearing a wetsuit (NWS), wearing the smallest (SWS), or largest (LWS) wetsuit (based upon manufacturer guidelines). Heart rate was recorded continuously over 5-mins; BP was measured three times per condition...
March 2017: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414021/elliptical-broken-line-method-for-calculating-capillary-density-in-nailfold-capillaroscopy-proposal-and-evaluation
#6
Abdolamir Karbalaie, Farhad Abtahi, Alimohammad Fatemi, Mahnaz Etehadtavakol, Zahra Emrani, Björn-Erik Erlandsson
Nailfold capillaroscopy is a practical method for identifying and obtaining morphological changes in capillaries which might reveal relevant information about diseases and health. Capillaroscopy is harmless, and seems simple and repeatable. However, there is lack of established guidelines and instructions for acquisition as well as the interpretation of the obtained images; which might lead to various ambiguities. In addition, assessment and interpretation of the acquired images are very subjective. In an attempt to overcome some of these problems, in this study a new modified technique for assessment of nailfold capillary density is introduced...
April 14, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413842/-i-do-not-have-time-is-there-a-handout-i-can-use-combining-physicians-needs-and-behavior-change-theory-to-put-physical-activity-evidence-into-practice
#7
R E Clark, C McArthur, A Papaioannou, A M Cheung, J Laprade, L Lee, R Jain, L M Giangregorio
Guidelines for physical activity exist and following them would improve health. Physicians can advise patients on physical activity. We found barriers related to physicians' knowledge, a lack of tools and of physician incentives, and competing demands for limited time with a patient. We discuss interventions that could reduce these barriers. INTRODUCTION: Uptake of physical activity (PA) guidelines would improve health and reduce mortality in older adults. However, physicians face barriers in guideline implementation, particularly when faced with needing to tailor recommendations in the presence of chronic disease...
April 17, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412186/cardiorespiratory-fitness-physical-activity-and-cancer-mortality-in-men
#8
Baruch Vainshelboim, Jan Müller, Ricardo M Lima, Kevin T Nead, Cariad Chester, Khin Chan, Peter Kokkinos, Jonathan Myers
The preventive role of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) in cancer mortality is not well-established. This study sought to evaluate the association between CRF, PA and cancer mortality in men. Maximal exercise testing was performed at the VA Palo Alto Health Care System in 5876 male veterans (60.5±11years) free from malignancy at baseline who were followed for mean of 9.9 (range 0.11 to 26.8) years. PA status was assessed in a sub-group of 4034 participants. Relative risks and population attributable risks (PAR%) for cancer-related mortality were determined...
April 13, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411063/deploying-dengue-suppressing-wolbachia-robust-models-predict-slow-but-effective-spatial-spread-in-aedes-aegypti
#9
Michael Turelli, Nicholas H Barton
A novel strategy for controlling the spread of arboviral diseases such as dengue, Zika and chikungunya is to transform mosquito populations with virus-suppressing Wolbachia. In general, Wolbachia transinfected into mosquitoes induce fitness costs through lower viability or fecundity. These maternally inherited bacteria also produce a frequency-dependent advantage for infected females by inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), which kills the embryos produced by uninfected females mated to infected males...
April 11, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409200/return-to-sport-after-shoulder-arthroplasty-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Joseph N Liu, Michael E Steinhaus, Grant H Garcia, Brenda Chang, Kara Fields, David M Dines, Russell F Warren, Lawrence V Gulotta
PURPOSE: With increasing incidence and indications for shoulder arthroplasty, there is an increasing emphasis on the ability to return to sports. The main goal of this study was to determine the rate of return to sport after shoulder arthroplasty. METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed to perform this systematic review and meta-analysis. A search was performed on MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library...
April 13, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402401/a-benchmarking-project-on-the-quality-of-previous-guidelines-about-the-management-of-malignant-pleural-effusion-from-the-european-society-of-thoracic-surgeons-ests-pleural-diseases-working-group
#11
Luca Bertolaccini, Benedetta Bedetti, Alessandro Brunelli, Katerina Marinova, Federico Raveglia, Gaetano Rocco, Yaron Shargall, Piergiorgio Solli, Gonzalo Varela, Kostas Papagiannopoulos, Jaroslaw Kuzdzal, Gilbert Massard, Enrico Ruffini, Pierre-Emmanuel Falcoz, Carlos Martinez-Barenys, Isabelle Opitz, Hasan F Batirel, Alper Toker, Marco Scarci
OBJECTIVES: In the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) survey about management of malignant pleural effusions (MPE), 56% of respondents are not informed of any relevant clinical guidelines and 52%, who are aware of the existence of guidelines, declared that they are in need of updating or revision. The ESTS Pleural Diseases Working Group developed a benchmarking project on quality of previous guidelines on the management of MPE. METHODS: The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument was used to assess each guideline...
April 11, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401822/herziene-richtlijn-%C3%A2-behandeling-van-tabaksverslaving-en-stoppen-met-roken-ondersteuning%C3%A2
#12
N H Chavannes, E Meijer, L Wind, R C van der Graaf, C Rietbergen, E A Croes
- The revised guideline 'Treatment of tobacco addiction and smoking cessation support' offers health professionals a framework to provide evidence-based care to patients who smoke, which should aid in reducing smoking prevalence and smoke-related morbidity and mortality.- Four topics of the guideline have been revised: behavioural interventions, pharmacotherapy, e-health interventions and e-cigarettes. For the other topics, the recommendations from the 2009 version remain unaltered.- It is important that health professionals offer a made-to-measure smoking cessation advice and apply a fit-for-purpose smoking cessation intervention...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401622/predicting-mortality-in-the-emergency-department-external-validation-and-derivation-of-a-clinical-prediction-tool
#13
Rajat N Moman, Caitlin Loprinzi Brauer, Katherine M Kelsey, Rachel D Havyer, Christine M Lohse, M Fernanda Bellolio
BACKGROUND: he Choosing Wisely campaign has called for better engagement of palliative and hospice care services for patients in the emergency department (ED). PREDICT is a clinical prediction tool that was derived in an Australian ED cohort. It assesses a patient's risk of mortality at one year to select those who would benefit from advanced care planning. Such goals of care discussion can improve patients' ability to communicate what they want out of their healthcare and, in cases of end-of-life, potentially reduce the number of futile interventions...
April 12, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398836/providing-quantitative-information-and-a-nudge-to-undergo-stool-testing-in-a-colorectal-cancer-screening-decision-aid
#14
Peter H Schwartz, Susan M Perkins, Karen K Schmidt, Paul F Muriello, Sandra Althouse, Susan M Rawl
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend that patient decision aids should provide quantitative information about probabilities of potential outcomes, but the impact of this information is unknown. Behavioral economics suggests that patients confused by quantitative information could benefit from a "nudge" towards one option. We conducted a pilot randomized trial to estimate the effect sizes of presenting quantitative information and a nudge. METHODS: Primary care patients (n = 213) eligible for colorectal cancer screening viewed basic screening information and were randomized to view (a) quantitative information (quantitative module), (b) a nudge towards stool testing with the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) (nudge module), (c) neither a nor b, or (d) both a and b...
March 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394876/scleral-lens-prescription-and-management-practices-the-scope-study
#15
Jennifer Harthan, Cherie B Nau, Joseph Barr, Amy Nau, Ellen Shorter, Nicolette T Chimato, David O Hodge, Muriel M Schornack
OBJECTIVES: To assess current scleral lens prescription and management practices by conducting an international online survey of eye care providers. METHODS: The SCOPE (Scleral Lenses in Current Ophthalmic Practice: an Evaluation) study group designed and administered an online survey regarding current scleral lens prescription and management practices. The survey was open from January 15 to March 31, 2015, and generated 723 responses from individuals who had fit at least 5 patients with scleral lenses...
April 6, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392778/the-challenges-and-recommendations-for-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-care-in-india-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Suman Morampudi, Gayathri Balasubramanian, Arun Gowda, Behsad Zomorodi, Anand Shanthanagowd Patil
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a primary concern in India affecting approximately five million women each year. Existing literature indicate that prediabetes and diabetes affect approximately six million births in India alone, of which 90% are due to GDM. Studies reveal that there is no consensus among physicians and health-care providers in India regarding management of GDM prepartum and postpartum despite available guidelines. Also, there is no consensus among physicians as to when a woman should undergo oral glucose tolerance test after delivery...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391336/provider-perspectives-on-treatment-decision-making-in-nephrotic-syndrome
#17
Michelle A Hladunewich, Heather Beanlands, Emily Herreshoff, Jonathan P Troost, Maria Maione, Howard Trachtman, Caroline Poulton, Patrick Nachman, Mary Margaret Modes, Marilyn Hailperin, Renee Pitter, Debbie S Gipson
Background: Managing patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS) remains difficult for the practicing nephrologist. This often young patient population is faced with a debilitating, relapsing and remitting disease with non-specific treatment options that are often poorly tolerated. Clinicians managing these complex patients must attempt to apply disease-specific evidence while considering the individual patient's clinical and personal situation. Methods: We conducted qualitative interviews to ascertain the provider perspectives of NS, treatment options and factors that influence recommendations for disease management, and administered a survey to assess both facilitators and barriers to the implementation of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines...
January 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386756/effects-of-a-physical-activity-program-on-cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-pulmonary-function-in-obese-women-after-bariatric-surgery-a-pilot-study
#18
Tatiana Onofre, Renata Carlos, Nicole Oliver, Amanda Felismino, Davi Fialho, Renata Corte, Eliane Pereira da Silva, Eudes Godoy, Selma Bruno
BACKGROUND: In severely obese individuals, reducing body weight induced by bariatric surgery is able to promote a reduction in comorbidities and improve respiratory symptoms. However, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) reflected by peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) may not improve in individuals who remain sedentary post-surgery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a physical training program on CRF and pulmonary function in obese women after bariatric surgery, and to compare them to a control group...
April 7, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381982/quantitative-evaluation-of-statistical-errors-in-small-angle-x-ray-scattering-measurements
#19
Steffen M Sedlak, Linda K Bruetzel, Jan Lipfert
A new model is proposed for the measurement errors incurred in typical small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments, which takes into account the setup geometry and physics of the measurement process. The model accurately captures the experimentally determined errors from a large range of synchrotron and in-house anode-based measurements. Its most general formulation gives for the variance of the buffer-subtracted SAXS intensity σ(2)(q) = [I(q) + const.]/(kq), where I(q) is the scattering intensity as a function of the momentum transfer q; k and const...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Crystallography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381272/a-higher-effort-based-paradigm-in-physical-activity-and-exercise-for-public-health-making-the-case-for-a-greater-emphasis-on-resistance-training
#20
James Steele, James Fisher, Martin Skivington, Chris Dunn, Josh Arnold, Garry Tew, Alan M Batterham, David Nunan, Jamie M O'Driscoll, Steven Mann, Chris Beedie, Simon Jobson, Dave Smith, Andrew Vigotsky, Stuart Phillips, Paul Estabrooks, Richard Winett
It is well known that physical activity and exercise is associated with a lower risk of a range of morbidities and all-cause mortality. Further, it appears that risk reductions are greater when physical activity and/or exercise is performed at a higher intensity of effort. Why this may be the case is perhaps explained by the accumulating evidence linking physical fitness and performance outcomes (e.g. cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and muscle mass) also to morbidity and mortality risk. Current guidelines about the performance of moderate/vigorous physical activity using aerobic exercise modes focuses upon the accumulation of a minimum volume of physical activity and/or exercise, and have thus far produced disappointing outcomes...
April 5, 2017: BMC Public Health
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