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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647727/patients-as-partners-in-enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-a-qualitative-patient-led-study
#1
Chelsia Gillis, Marlyn Gill, Nancy Marlett, Gail MacKean, Kathy GermAnn, Loreen Gilmour, Gregg Nelson, Tracy Wasylak, Susan Nguyen, Edamil Araujo, Sandra Zelinsky, Leah Gramlich
OBJECTIVES: Explore the experience of patients undergoing colorectal surgery within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programme. Use these experiential data to inform the development of a framework to support ongoing, meaningful patient engagement in ERAS. DESIGN: Qualitative patient-led study using focus groups and narrative interviews. Data were analysed iteratively using a Participatory Grounded Theory approach. SETTING: Five tertiary care centres in Alberta, Canada, following the ERAS programme...
June 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646860/effect-of-exercising-at-minimum-recommendations-of-the-multiple-sclerosis-exercise-guideline-combined-with-structured-education-or-attention-control-education-secondary-results-of-the-step-it-up-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Susan Coote, Marcin Uszynski, Matthew P Herring, Sara Hayes, Carl Scarrott, John Newell, Stephen Gallagher, Aidan Larkin, Robert W Motl
BACKGROUND: Recent exercise guidelines for people with multiple sclerosis (MS) recommend a minimum of 30 min moderate intensity aerobic exercise and resistance exercise twice per week. This trial compared the secondary outcomes of a combined 10-week guideline based intervention and a Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) education programme with the same exercise intervention involving an attention control education. METHODS: Physically inactive people with MS, scoring 0-3 on Patient Determined Disease Steps Scale, with no MS relapse or change in MS medication, were randomised to 10-week exercise plus SCT education or exercise plus attention control education conditions...
June 24, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643629/faecal-immunochemical-tests-to-triage-patients-with-lower-abdominal-symptoms-for-suspected-colorectal-cancer-referrals-in-primary-care-a-systematic-review-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#3
Marie Westwood, Isaac Corro Ramos, Shona Lang, Marianne Luyendijk, Remziye Zaim, Lisa Stirk, Maiwenn Al, Nigel Armstrong, Jos Kleijnen
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the UK. Presenting symptoms that can be associated with CRC usually have another explanation. Faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) detect blood that is not visible to the naked eye and may help to select patients who are likely to benefit from further investigation. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of FITs [OC-Sensor (Eiken Chemical Co./MAST Diagnostics, Tokyo, Japan), HM-JACKarc (Kyowa Medex/Alpha Laboratories Ltd, Tokyo, Japan), FOB Gold (Sentinel/Sysmex, Sentinel Diagnostics, Milan, Italy), RIDASCREEN Hb or RIDASCREEN Hb/Hp complex (R-Biopharm, Darmstadt, Germany)] for primary care triage of people with low-risk symptoms...
May 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643276/a-rapid-two-step-iduronate-2-sulfatatse-enzymatic-activity-assay-for-mpsii-pharmacokinetic-assessment
#4
Mitra Azadeh, Luying Pan, Yongchang Qiu, Ruben Boado
Clinical studies involving enzyme replacement therapies (ERTs) have increasingly utilized enzymatic activity assays to monitor efficacy and biofunction of the drug; as a result, these assays have become an important part of pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic assessments in ERT trials. This paper presents a two-step enzymatic activity assay for iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S) (EC 3.1.6.13) which we have optimized to fit in 1 day and to complete in less than 6 h. The rapid assay presented here is a significant improvement over the original two-step method with run time of 24 h which spanned 2 days...
June 23, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637561/considering-postoperative-functional-hypoaldosteronism-after-unilateral-adrenalectomy
#5
Lee F Starker, Ioannis Christakis, Jamii St Julien, Kelly Schwarz, Paul Graham, Elizabeth G Grubbs, Jeffrey E Lee, Nancy D Perrier
Conn's Syndrome is an uncommon condition. Patients who have undergone adrenalectomy in the early postoperative period can demonstrate biochemical hypoaldosteronism. Given the rare nature of this phenomenon we investigated its incidence and whether it translated to clinical findings. A single-institution retrospective review of all patients with biochemically proven hyperaldosteronism from 2005 to 2014 that underwent unilateral adrenalectomy. A total of 29 patients fit the inclusion criteria. Functional hypoaldosteronism had appreciated in 18/29 (62%) patients, whereas 11 patients (38%) had normal postoperative aldosterone...
June 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636110/cumulative-toxicity-of-neonicotinoid-insecticide-mixtures-to-chironomus-dilutus-under-acute-exposure-scenarios
#6
Erin M Maloney, Christy A Morrissey, John V Headley, Kerry M Peru, Karsten Liber
Extensive agricultural use of neonicotinoid insecticide products has resulted in the presence of neonicotinoid mixtures in surface waters worldwide. Although many aquatic insect species are known to be sensitive to neonicotinoids, the impact of neonicotinoid mixtures is poorly understood. In the present study, the cumulative toxicity of binary and ternary mixtures of select neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam) was characterized under acute (96-h) exposure scenarios using the larval midge Chironomus dilutus as a representative aquatic insect species...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629855/con4ei-development-of-serious-eye-damage-and-eye-irritation-testing-strategies-with-respect-to-the-requirements-of-the-un-ghs-eu-clp-hazard-categories
#7
Sandra Verstraelen, An R Van Rompay
The main objective of the CON4EI (CONsortium for in vitro Eye Irritation testing strategy) project (2015-2016) was to develop tiered, non-animal testing strategies for serious eye damage and eye irritation assessment in relation to the most important drivers of classification. The serious eye damage and eye irritation potential of a set of 80 chemicals was identified based on existing in vivo Draize eye test data and testing was conducted using the following eight alternative test methods: BCOP (Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability)+histopathology, BCOP-LLBO (BCOP Laser Light-Based Opacitometer), ICE (Isolated Chicken Eye)+histopathology, STE (Short Term Exposure), EpiOcular™ EIT (EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test), EpiOcular™ ET-50 (EpiOcular™ Time-to-toxicity), SkinEthic™ HCE EIT (SkinEthic™ Human Corneal Epithelial Eye Irritation Test), and SMI (Slug Mucosal Irritation)...
June 16, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628529/appraising-viral-load-thresholds-and-adherence-support-recommendations-in-the-world-health-organization-guidelines-for-detection-and-management-of-virologic-failure
#8
Suzanne M McCluskey, Yap Boum, Nicholas Musinguzi, Jessica E Haberer, Jeffrey N Martin, Peter W Hunt, Vincent C Marconi, David R Bangsberg, Mark J Siedner
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization defines HIV virologic failure as two consecutive viral loads >1,000 copies/mL, measured 3-6 months apart with interval adherence support. We sought to empirically evaluate these guidelines using data from an observational cohort. SETTING: The Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes study observed adults with HIV in southwestern Uganda from the time of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, and monitored adherence with electronic pill bottles...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625419/recommendation-of-colorectal-cancer-testing-among-primary-care-patients-younger-than-50-with-elevated-risk
#9
Celette Sugg Skinner, Chul Ahn, Ethan A Halm, Wendy Pechero Bishop, Katharine McCallister, Joanne M Sanders, David Farrell, Noel Santini, Amit G Singal
In the era of precision medicine, efforts are needed to identify and tailor screening recommendations among elevated-risk patients. Individuals younger than 50years are an important target population, as they comprise 15% of colorectal (CRC) cases and often present with more advanced disease than their 50+ counterparts. In this large study, 2470 patients ages 25-49 used a tablet-based program that assessed risks, matched risks with screening guidelines, and generated tailored printed guideline-concordant recommendations for patients and their providers...
June 15, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624637/developing-a-new-bayesian-risk-index-for-risk-evaluation-of-soil-contamination
#10
M T D Albuquerque, S Gerassis, C Sierra, J Taboada, J E Martín, I M H R Antunes, J R Gallego
Industrial and agricultural activities heavily constrain soil quality. Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) are a threat to public health and the environment alike. In this regard, the identification of areas that require remediation is crucial. In the herein research a geochemical dataset (230 samples) comprising 14 elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, Ni, Mn, Fe, As, Cd, V, Cr, Ti, Al and S) was gathered throughout eight different zones distinguished by their main activity, namely, recreational, agriculture/livestock and heavy industry in the Avilés Estuary (North of Spain)...
June 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622568/per-protocol-investigation-of-a-best-practice-exercise-referral-scheme
#11
L Stewart, E Dolan, P Carver, P A Swinton
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of an exercise referral scheme (ERS) aligned to the UK best practice guidelines on a range of outcomes including those associated with key health concerns of the Scottish population. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal design with data collection at three time points (baseline, midway and post) during a 12-week ERS intervention was employed. METHODS: Health-related physical fitness was assessed through measurement of resting heart rate, blood pressure, FEV1:FEV6 (ratio of forced expiratory volume over one [FEV1] and six [FEV6] seconds), body mass and peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), whilst functional capacity was assessed through the five times sit to stand test...
June 12, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616062/severe-consequences-of-habitat-fragmentation-on-genetic-diversity-of-an-endangered-australian-freshwater-fish-a-call-for-assisted-gene-flow
#12
Alexandra Pavlova, Luciano B Beheregaray, Rhys Coleman, Dean Gilligan, Katherine A Harrisson, Brett A Ingram, Joanne Kearns, Annika M Lamb, Mark Lintermans, Jarod Lyon, Thuy T T Nguyen, Minami Sasaki, Zeb Tonkin, Jian D L Yen, Paul Sunnucks
Genetic diversity underpins the ability of populations to persist and adapt to environmental changes. Substantial empirical data show that genetic diversity rapidly deteriorates in small and isolated populations due to genetic drift, leading to reduction in adaptive potential and fitness and increase in inbreeding. Assisted gene flow (e.g. via translocations) can reverse these trends, but lack of data on fitness loss and fear of impairing population "uniqueness" often prevents managers from acting. Here, we use population genetic and riverscape genetic analyses and simulations to explore the consequences of extensive habitat loss and fragmentation on population genetic diversity and future population trajectories of an endangered Australian freshwater fish, Macquarie perch Macquaria australasica...
July 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611516/colorectal-cancer-population-screening-programs-worldwide-in-2016-an-update
#13
REVIEW
Mercedes Navarro, Andrea Nicolas, Angel Ferrandez, Angel Lanas
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world. The incidence and mortality show wide geographical variations. Screening is recommended to reduce both incidence and mortality. However, there are significant differences among studies in implementation strategies and detection. This review aimed to present the results and strategies of different screening programs worldwide. We reviewed the literature on national and international screening programs published in PubMed, on web pages, and in clinical guidelines...
May 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609359/pancreatic-cysts-controversies-advances-diagnoses-and-therapies
#14
Jodie A Barkin, Jamie S Barkin
Pancreatic cysts are commonly found on cross-sectional imaging. The question arises in determining which lesions are premalignant or malignant and may require further testing, intervention, or follow-up. In pancreatic cysts without obvious malignancy on imaging, we approach them using the Four "S" Criteria. These are (1) symptoms that may be originating from the pancreatic cyst; (2) size of the cyst 2 cm or larger and/or main pancreatic duct greater than 5 mm; (3) survival of the patient, based on comorbidity index to determine surgical fitness; and then endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration (FNA) recommended to determine (4) solid component presence in the cyst, namely, nodule or thick walls, as well as to perform FNA to obtain cyst content...
July 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607211/consensus-statement-of-the-indian-academy-of-pediatrics-on-newborn-hearing-screening
#15
Abraham Paul, Chhaya Prasad, S S Kamath, Samir Dalwai, M K C Nair, Waheeda Pagarkar
JUSTIFICATION: Hearing impairment is one of the most critical sensory impairments with significant social and psychological consequences. Reported incidence of congenital hearing loss is 30 per 10,000 children. Evidence-based, standardized national guidelines are needed for professionals to screen for hearing impairment during the neonatal period. PROCESS: The meeting on formulation of national consensus guidelines on developmental disorders was organized by Indian Academy of Pediatrics in Mumbai, on 18th and 19th December, 2015...
June 4, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605221/the-association-between-self-reported-adherence-to-physical-activity-recommendations-and-criteria-for-maintaining-physical-independence-of-older-adults
#16
Katie J Thralls, Susan S Levy
BACKGROUND: While physical activity (PA) improves functions for activities of daily living, little is known of the association between meeting published PA Guidelines for Americans (PAGA) and meeting published physical function guidelines for maintaining independence. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between meeting the PAGA and meeting independence criteria on the Senior Fitness Tests (SFT). METHODS: Older adults (N=265) completed SFTs, assessing cardiorespiratory fitness, lower and upper body strength, mobility, and self-reported aerobic and resistance PA...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602046/exercise-interventions-for-cerebral-palsy
#17
REVIEW
Jennifer M Ryan, Elizabeth E Cassidy, Stephen G Noorduyn, Neil E O'Connell
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a neurodevelopmental disorder resulting from an injury to the developing brain. It is the most common form of childhood disability with prevalence rates of between 1.5 and 3.8 per 1000 births reported worldwide. The primary impairments associated with CP include reduced muscle strength and reduced cardiorespiratory fitness, resulting in difficulties performing activities such as dressing, walking and negotiating stairs.Exercise is defined as a planned, structured and repetitive activity that aims to improve fitness, and it is a commonly used intervention for people with CP...
June 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598491/modularity-in-total-hip-arthroplasty-benefits-risks-mechanisms-diagnosis-and-management
#18
Ben M Vierra, Sarah R Blumenthal, Derek F Amanatullah
Modular implants are currently widely used in total hip arthroplasty because they give surgeons versatility during the operation, allow for easier revision surgery, and can be adjusted to better fit the anatomy of the specific patient. However, modular implants, specifically those that have metal-on-metal junctions, are susceptible to crevice and fretting corrosion. This can ultimately cause implant failure, inflammation, and adverse local tissue reaction, among other possible side effects. Surgeons should be aware of the possibility of implant corrosion and should follow a set of recommended guidelines to systematically diagnose and treat patients with corroded implants...
June 9, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598216/the-impact-of-partial-factorial-invariance-on-cross-group-comparisons
#19
Dexin Shi, Hairong Song, Melanie D Lewis
This study explored the impact of partial factorial invariance on cross-group comparisons of latent variables, including latent means, latent variances, structural relations (or correlations) with other constructs, and regression coefficients as predicting external variables. The results indicate that the estimates of factor mean differences are sensitive to violations of invariance on both factor loadings and intercepts. Noninvariant factor loadings were also found to influence the cross-group comparisons of factor variances and regression coefficients (slopes, in the raw metric) with external variables...
June 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592647/the-beavis-effect-in-next-generation-mapping-panels-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Elizabeth G King, Anthony D Long
A major goal in the analysis of complex traits is to partition the observed genetic variation in a trait into components due to individual loci and perhaps variants within those loci. However, in both QTL mapping and genetic association studies, the estimated percent variation attributable to a QTL is upwardly biased conditional on it being discovered. This bias was first described in two-way QTL mapping experiments by William Beavis, and has been referred to extensively as "the Beavis effect." The Beavis effect is likely to occur in multiparent population (MPP) panels as well as collections of sequenced lines used for genome-wide association studies (GWAS)...
June 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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