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physical activity guidelines

Daniel Berglind, Lena Hansson, Per Tynelius, Finn Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Levels of physical activity (PA) affect health already at four years of age. The aims of this study were to describe levels and patterns of PA and sedentary time (ST) in a sample of four-year-old Swedish children and to assess the number of children achieving PA guidelines throughout the week. METHODS: Data from 540 four-year old children enrolled in the population-based PRIMROSE trial was used. PA was measured for a period of one week by the Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Stephanie Truelove, Leigh M Vanderloo, Patricia Tucker
BACKGROUND: Many young children are not meeting the Canadian physical activity guidelines. In an effort to change this, the term "active play" has been used to promote increased physical activity levels. Within this young cohort, physical activity is typically achieved in the form of active play behaviour. The current study aimed to review and synthesize the literature to identify key concepts used to define and describe active play among young children. A secondary objective was to explore the various methods adopted for measuring active play...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Darla E Kendzor, Marlyn Allicock, Michael S Businelle, Lona F Sandon, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Summer G Frank
BACKGROUND: The current study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of a diet and physical activity intervention for homeless adults. METHODS: Shelter residents (N = 32) were randomly assigned to a 4-week diet and physical activity intervention (n = 17) or an assessment-only control group (n = 15). Intervention participants received tailored educational newsletters, pedometers with step goals, and twice daily fruit/vegetable snacks. Key measures included 24-hour dietary recall interviews and accelerometer-measured moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Sandra Bouma, Mark Peterson, Erin Gatza, Sung Won Choi
Survivorship after pediatric HCT has increased over the past decade. Focus on long-term care and well-being remains critical due to risk of poor dietary habits and exaggerated sedentary behavior, which can lead to muscle weakness, increased risk for obesity, and cardiometabolic disorders. Nutrition and physical activity are key factors in survivorship; however, data are limited. Comprehensive nutritional assessments, including nutrition-focused physical examination, grip strength, and food/activity surveys, were completed in 36 pediatric HCT survivors (aged 2-25 years)...
October 21, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Jayd Lukenchuk, Laura A Sims, Jason J Shin
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to quantify the degree of variability in outcomes assessed after surgery for anterior shoulder instability in recent high-impact literature. METHODS: Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, an extensive review of the literature during a 5-year period from January 2011 through December 2015 was performed across 6 orthopaedic journals with high impact factors to identify all studies investigating outcomes after anterior shoulder instability...
October 18, 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Tessa Strain, Claire Fitzsimons, Paul Kelly, Nanette Mutrie
BACKGROUND: In 2011, the UK physical activity guidelines were updated to include recommendations for muscle strengthening and balance & coordination (at least two sessions of relevant activities per week). However, monitoring and policy efforts remain focussed on aerobic activity. This study aimed to assess differences by gender and age in the a) prevalence of muscle strengthening and balance & co-ordination guidelines, and b) participation in guideline-specific activities. METHODS: The sample for the muscle strengthening analyses was 10,488 adult (16-64 years) and 3857 older adult (≥65 years) 2012-2014 Scottish Health Survey respondents...
October 21, 2016: BMC Public Health
Andrew J Hahne, Jon J Ford, Rana S Hinman, Matthew C Richards, Luke D Surkitt, Alexander Yp Chan, Sarah L Slater, Nicholas F Taylor
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Physical therapy is commonly sought by people with lumbar disc herniation and associated radiculopathy. It is unclear whether physical therapy is effective for this population. PURPOSE: To determine the effectiveness of physical therapist delivered individualized functional restoration as an adjunct to guideline-based advice in people with lumbar disc herniation and associated radiculopathy. DESIGN: Pre-planned subgroup analysis of a multicenter parallel group randomized controlled trial...
October 17, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Timothy S Church
The analysis plan and article in this issue of the Journal by Evenson et al. (Am J Epidemiol 2016;000(000):0000-0000) is well-conceived, thoughtfully conducted, and tightly written. The authors utilized the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data set to examine the association between accelerometer-measured physical activity level and mortality and found that meeting the 2013 federal Physical Activity Guidelines resulted in a 35% reduction in risk of mortality. The timing of these findings could not be better, given the ubiquitous nature of personal accelerometer devices...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Rajkumar Bharatia, Manoj Chitale, Ganesh Narain Saxena, Raman Ganesh Kumar, Chikkalingaiah, Abhijit Trailokya, Kalpesh Dalvi, Suhas Talele
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension (HTN), being a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), is an important issue of medical and public health. High blood pressure (BP) is ranked as the third most important risk factor for attributable burden of disease in south Asia (2010). Hypertension (HTN) exerts a substantial public health burden on cardiovascular health status and healthcare systems in India. Uncontrolled hypertension among adults with hypertension is associated with increased mortality...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Cong Ming-Hua, Zou Bao-Hua, Yu Lei
Anorexia cancer cachexia syndrome is prevalent in advanced cancer patients, which is featured by anorexia, decreased dietary intake, body weight loss (skeletal muscle mass loss), and unable to be reversed by routine nutritional support therapy. Up to now, the main mechanisms involved in cancer cachexia include excessive systemic inflammation, which is represented by increased plasma levels of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, tumor-induced factors, such as PIF and LMF. These factors eventually act on orexigenic and anorexigenic neurons located in hypothalamus or protein and lipid metabolism of peripheral tissues, which lead to anorexia, decreased dietary intake, enhanced basic metabolism rate and hyper catabolism...
October 18, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Artur Direito, Eliana Carraça, Jonathan Rawstorn, Robyn Whittaker, Ralph Maddison
BACKGROUND: mHealth programs offer potential for practical and cost-effective delivery of interventions capable of reaching many individuals. PURPOSE: To (1) compare the effectiveness of mHealth interventions to promote physical activity (PA) and reduce sedentary behavior (SB) in free-living young people and adults with a comparator exposed to usual care/minimal intervention; (2) determine whether, and to what extent, such interventions affect PA and SB levels and (3) use the taxonomy of behavior change techniques (BCTs) to describe intervention characteristics...
October 18, 2016: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Jacqueline Kerr, Catherine R Marinac, Katherine Ellis, Suneeta Godbole, Aaron Hipp, Karen Glanz, Jonathan Mitchell, Francine Laden, Peter James, David Berrigan
PURPOSE: To compare physical activity estimates across different accelerometer wear locations, wear time protocols, and data processing techniques. METHODS: A convenience sample of middle aged to older women wore a GT3X+ accelerometer at the wrist and hip for 7 days. Physical activity estimates were calculated using three data processing techniques: single axis cut points, raw vector magnitude thresholds, and machine learning algorithms applied to the raw data from the three axes...
October 14, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Courtney N Gleason, Deanna L Kerkhof, Elizabeth A Cilia, Maria A Lanyi, Jonathan Finnoff, Dai Sugimoto, Gianmichel D Corrado
OBJECTIVE: The traditional history and physical (H&P) is a poor screening modality to identify athletes at risk for sudden cardiac death. Although better than H&P alone, electrocardiograms (ECG) have also been found to have high false-positive rates. A limited portable ECG by a frontline physician (PEFP) performed during preparticipation physical examination (PPE) allows for direct measurements of the heart to more accurately identify athletes with structural abnormalities. Therefore, it is worthwhile to assess the feasibility of incorporating limited PEFP as part of PPEs...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Lin Shi
According to the seventh report of Joint National Committee (JNC 7), hypertensive emergency (HE), a kind of hypertensive crisis, is defined as a sudden and abrupt elevation in blood pressure so as to cause acute target organ dysfunctions, including central nervous system, cardiovascular system or kidneys. Patients with HE require immediate reduction in markedly elevated blood pressure. Currently, there are no international guidelines for children HE, so the JNC definition is commonly used. Hypertensive emergency in children is rare but a life-threatening emergency...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Hiromi Rakugi
European guidelines (ESH-ESC2013) for the elderly have discussed well about treatment blood pressure (BP) levels and targeting BP levels. In general, elderly patients with systolic BP (SBP) ≥160 mmHg including individuals older than 80 years in good physical and mental conditions are recommended reducing SBP to between 150 and 140 mmHg. Furthermore, fit elderly patients <80 years old are recommended to consider antihypertensive treatment at SBP values ≥140 mmHg with a target SBP <140 mmHg. On the other hand, frail elderly patients are recommended to leave decisions on antihypertensive therapy to the treating physician, and based on monitoring of the clinical effects of treatment...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Tazeen Jafar
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) defined as reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or presence of albuminuria, progresses to end stage renal disease (ESRD), needing dialysis or kidney transplant to sustain life, and is associated with increased risks of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. CKD ranked 18 leading (and most rapidly rising cause of mortality by the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The social and economic consequences of CKD are far worse in low and middle income countries (LMICs) including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Adel Berbari
The Middle East Region is undergoing a transition from communicable to non-communicable disease. Although the population is to a large extent young, there is also an increasing number of elderly people due to improved health care facilities and socioeconomic status. Similar to developing countries, there is a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors.Hypertension, a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular events, is quite prevalent, varying from 25-40%, associated with an increased prevalence of obesity, diabetes mellitus and high salt intake...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Sheri J Hartman, Shira I Dunsiger, Beth C Bock, Britta A Larsen, Sarah Linke, Dori Pekmezi, Becky Marquez, Kim M Gans, Andrea S Mendoza-Vasconez, Bess H Marcus
Spanish-speaking Latinas have some of the lowest rates of meeting physical activity guidelines in the U.S. and are at high risk for many related chronic diseases. The purpose of the current study was to examine the maintenance of a culturally and individually-tailored Internet-based physical activity intervention for Spanish-speaking Latinas. Inactive Latinas (N  =  205) were randomly assigned to a 6-month Tailored Physical Activity Internet Intervention or a Wellness Contact Control Internet Group, with a 6-month follow-up...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Catherine McParlin, Ruth Bell, Stephen C Robson, Colin R Muirhead, Vera Araújo-Soares
OBJECTIVE: to investigate barriers and facilitators to physical activity (PA) guideline implementation for midwives when advising obese pregnant women. DESIGN: a cross-sectional, self-completion, anonymous questionnaire was designed using the Theoretical Domains Framework. this framework was developed to evaluate the implementation of guidelines by health care professionals. A total of 40 questions were included. These were informed by previous research on pregnant women's and midwives views, knowledge and attitudes to PA, and supported by national evidence based guidelines...
September 28, 2016: Midwifery
Andrew N Reynolds, Jim I Mann, Sheila Williams, Bernard J Venn
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Regular physical activity is a cornerstone of diabetes management. We conducted a study to evaluate whether specifying the timing of walking in relation to meals enhances the benefits conferred by current physical activity guidelines. METHODS: A total of 41 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (mean ± SD age 60 ± 9.9 years; mean diabetes duration 10 years) participated in this randomised, crossover study. Randomisation was by a computer-generated protocol...
October 17, 2016: Diabetologia
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