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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907999/leader-follower-consensus-and-synchronization-in-numerosity-constrained-networks-with-dynamic-leadership
#1
Subhradeep Roy, Nicole Abaid
In this work, we study leader-follower consensus and synchronization protocols over a stochastically switching network. The agents representing the followers can communicate with any other agent, whereas the agents serving as leaders are restricted to interact only with the other leaders. The model incorporates the phenomenon of numerosity, which limits the perceptual capacity of the agents while allowing for shuffling with whom each individual interacts at each time step. We derive closed form expressions for necessary and sufficient conditions for consensus, the rate of convergence to consensus, and conditions for stochastic synchronization in terms of the asymptotic convergence factor...
November 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875605/sustaining-family-physicians-in-urban-underserved-settings
#2
Anne Getzin, Bonnie L Bobot, Deborah Simpson
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to identify factors that sustain family physicians practicing in Milwaukee's underserved urban areas. METHODS: Family physicians with clinical careers in Milwaukee's urban, underserved communities were identified and invited to participate in a 45-60 minute interview using a literature-based semi-structured protocol. Each interview was transcribed and de-identified prior to independent analysis using a grounded theory qualitative approach by two authors to yield sustaining themes...
November 2016: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833225/does-birth-order-and-academic-proficiency-influence-perfectionistic-self-presentation-among-undergraduate-engineering-students-a-descriptive-analysis
#3
Preeti Tabitha Louis, Navin Kumar
BACKGROUND: Perfectionism is a multifaceted concept. It had both advantages and disadvantages. Perfectionistic traits have been associated with leadership and very intellectual people. The present study is an attempt to understand if engineering students possess perfectionistic orientation and whether it influences self-efficacy, social connectedness, and achievement motivation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study adopts a random sampling design to evaluate the presence of perfectionism as a personality trait among undergraduate engineering students (N = 320)...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808025/canadian-cancer-programs-are-struggling-to-invest-in-development-of-future-leaders-results-of-a-pan-canadian-survey
#4
Nadir Khan, Lena Ghatage, Peter S Craighead
Cancer agencies within Canada operate with a variety of leadership models, assuming that future leaders are identified, developed and supported by institutions other than their own. A literature review, comprehensive survey and structured interviews were conducted to illuminate the perceptions of leadership in Canadian cancer centres. The major finding from the study is the significant gap between the competencies that leaders acknowledge as being important and the lack of development programs for future and current leaders...
2016: Healthcare Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746587/personality-profiles-of-effective-leadership-performance-in-assessment-centers
#5
Alissa D Parr, Stephanie T Lanza, Paul Bernthal
Most research examining the relationship between effective leadership and personality has focused on individual personality traits. However, profiles of personality traits more fully describe individuals, and these profiles may be important as they relate to leadership. This study used latent class analysis to examine how personality traits combine and interact to form subpopulations of leaders, and how these subpopulations relate to performance criteria. Using a sample of 2,461 executive-level leaders, six personality profiles were identified: Unpredictable Leaders with Low Diligence (7...
2016: Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692902/dnm3-and-genetic-modifiers-of-age-of-onset-in-lrrk2-gly2019ser-parkinsonism-a-genome-wide-linkage-and-association-study
#6
Joanne Trinh, Emil K Gustavsson, Carles Vilariño-Güell, Stephanie Bortnick, Jeanne Latourelle, Marna B McKenzie, Chelsea Szu Tu, Ekaterina Nosova, Jaskaran Khinda, Austen Milnerwood, Suzanne Lesage, Alexis Brice, Meriem Tazir, Jan O Aasly, Laura Parkkinen, Hazal Haytural, Tatiana Foroud, Richard H Myers, Samia Ben Sassi, Emna Hentati, Fatma Nabli, Emna Farhat, Rim Amouri, Fayçal Hentati, Matthew J Farrer
BACKGROUND: Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutation 6055G→A (Gly2019Ser) accounts for roughly 1% of patients with Parkinson's disease in white populations, 13-30% in Ashkenazi Jewish populations, and 30-40% in North African Arab-Berber populations, although age of onset is variable. Some carriers have early-onset parkinsonism, whereas others remain asymptomatic despite advanced age. We aimed to use a genome-wide approach to identify genetic variability that directly affects LRRK2 Gly2019Ser penetrance...
November 2016: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652355/leaders-produce-leaders-and-managers-produce-followers-a-systematic-review-of-the-desired-competencies-and-standard-settings-for-physicians-leadership
#7
Khaid I Khoshhal, Salman Y Guraya
OBJECTIVES: To elaborate the desired qualities, traits, and styles of physician's leadership with a deep insight into the recommended measures to inculcate leadership skills in physicians.   METHODS: The databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library were searched for the full-text English-language articles published during the period 2000-2015. Further search, including manual search of grey literature, was conducted from the bibliographic list of all included articles...
October 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630593/power-and-autistic-traits
#8
Geir Overskeid
Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others - which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness - and as a rule they do not have many friends...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563155/political-leaders-and-the-media-can-we-measure-political-leadership-images-in-newspapers-using-computer-assisted-content-analysis
#9
Loes Aaldering, Rens Vliegenthart
Despite the large amount of research into both media coverage of politics as well as political leadership, surprisingly little research has been devoted to the ways political leaders are discussed in the media. This paper studies whether computer-aided content analysis can be applied in examining political leadership images in Dutch newspaper articles. It, firstly, provides a conceptualization of political leader character traits that integrates different perspectives in the literature. Moreover, this paper measures twelve political leadership images in media coverage, based on a large-scale computer-assisted content analysis of Dutch media coverage (including almost 150...
2016: Quality & Quantity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551397/why-do-ovigerous-females-approach-courting-males-female-preferences-and-sensory-biases-in-a-fiddler-crab
#10
Chun-Chia Chou, Patricia R Y Backwell
Perceptual biases explain the origin and evolution of female preference in many species. Some responses that mediate mate choice, however, may have never been used in nonmating contexts. In the fiddler crab, Uca mjoebergi, mate-searching females prefer faster wave rates and leading wave; however, it remains unclear whether such responses evolved in a mating context (i.e., the preference has effect on the fitness of the female and her offspring that arise from mating with a particular male) or a nonmating contexts (i...
August 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508656/-op-1a-09-the-relationship-between-the-aggression-level-of-patients-with-arterial-hypertension-and-the-antihypertensive-drug-effectiveness
#11
G Andreeva, V Gorbunov, V Beloliperskaya, S Kukushkin, E Zvolinskaya, O Lerman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of study was to define relationships between psychological traits of patients with arterial hypertension (AH) and the antihypertensive drug effectiveness.(Figure is included in full-text article.) DESIGN AND METHOD: : We analyzed ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) data of 275 patients with AH without serious concomitant diseases We used data base of several studies with the same design: 1) the washout period duration - 1-2 weeks; 2) initial ABPM session (SpaceLabs 90207) before treatment; 3) treatment with standard therapeutic doses (amlodipin, diltiazem, metoprolol, betaxolol, enalapril, moxonidin, lisinopril) with the addition of diuretic if needed; 4) psychological status assessment was performed by the psychological questionnaire "Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory"(MMPI) before and at the end of the treatment...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27414997/the-higher-you-climb-dark-side-personality-and-job-level
#12
Oluf Gøtzsche-Astrup, Joan Jakobsen, Adrian Furnham
The purpose of this study was to explore the idea that there are dark side personality differences in the profiles of people at different levels in organizations. This study replicates and extends existing leadership research by focusing on self-defeating behavioral tendencies. A Danish consultancy provided data on 264 adults based on assessment reports. This paper explored linear and quadratic relationships between personality and de facto job level. More senior managers scored high on Cluster B/Moving Against Others scales of Bold, Colorful and Imaginative, and low on Cautious and Dutiful...
July 14, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412692/convergence-to-consensus-in-heterogeneous-groups-and-the-emergence-of-informal-leadership
#13
Sergey Gavrilets, Jeremy Auerbach, Mark van Vugt
When group cohesion is essential, groups must have efficient strategies in place for consensus decision-making. Recent theoretical work suggests that shared decision-making is often the most efficient way for dealing with both information uncertainty and individual variation in preferences. However, some animal and most human groups make collective decisions through particular individuals, leaders, that have a disproportionate influence on group decision-making. To address this discrepancy between theory and data, we study a simple, but general, model that explicitly focuses on the dynamics of consensus building in groups composed by individuals who are heterogeneous in preferences, certain personality traits (agreeability and persuasiveness), reputation, and social networks...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375514/the-effect-of-implicit-explicit-followership-congruence-on-benevolent-leadership-evidence-from-chinese-family-firms
#14
Xiao Wang, Jian Peng
Benevolent leadership, a traditional Chinese leadership style generated under the influence of Confucianism, has been under growing discussion since its proposal. However, existing research has focused mainly on the consequences of benevolent leadership, and research probing into its antecedents is scarce. To fill such research gap, the current study aims to explore the effect of the congruence between implicit positive followership prototype (PFP) and explicit positive followership trait (PFT) on benevolent leadership...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329518/predicting-firm-success-from-the-facial-appearance-of-chief-executive-officers-of-non-profit-organizations
#15
Daniel E Re, Nicholas O Rule
Recent research has demonstrated that judgments of Chief Executive Officers' (CEOs') faces predict their firms' financial performance, finding that characteristics associated with higher power (e.g., dominance) predict greater profits. Most of these studies have focused on CEOs of profit-based businesses, where the main criterion for success is financial gain. Here, we examined whether facial appearance might predict measures of success in a sample of CEOs of non-profit organizations (NPOs). Indeed, contrary to findings for the CEOs of profit-based businesses, judgments of leadership and power from the faces of CEOs of NPOs negatively correlated with multiple measures of charitable success (Study 1)...
October 2016: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27137702/the-moderating-effect-of-leadership-on-the-relationship-between-personality-and-performance
#16
Shu-Chuan Jennifer Yeh, Kuo-Shu Yuan, Shih-Hua Sarah Chen, Ying-Ying Lo, Hsueh-Chih Chou, Shan Huang, Herng-Chia Chiu, Thomas T H Wan
AIM: To examine how personality and leadership influence efficiency in the nursing service environment. BACKGROUND: Leadership and personality contribute to the success and failure of a unit. However, how they interact to influence performance is still understudied. METHODS: We used matched pairs sample design to survey 135 head nurses and 1353 registered nurses on validated instruments of demographic characteristics, leadership styles and personality during June and July of 2014...
May 3, 2016: Journal of Nursing Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103241/the-connor-davidson-resilience-scale-in-critical-care-nurses-a-psychometric-analysis
#17
Meredith Mealer, Sarah J Schmiege, Paula Meek
OBJECTIVE: (a) To investigate the factor structure of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) in critical care nurses, using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and (b) to assess reliability and known group differences of the CD-RISC on critical care nurses. METHODS: CD-RISC surveys were collected on 744 critical care nurses across the United States. An abridged version of the CD-RISC was used for the EFA and CFA. Further reliability and known group differences were also tested...
2016: Journal of Nursing Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27095982/an-integrative-review-of-literature-on-determinants-of-nurses-organizational-commitment
#18
REVIEW
Seyyed Abolfazl Vagharseyyedin
BACKGROUND: This integrative review was aimed to examine in literature and integrate the determinants of nurses' organizational commitment in hospital settings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, an integrative review of the literature was used. The search strategy began with six electronic databases (e.g. CINAHL and Medline). Considering the inclusion criteria, published studies that examined the factors influencing nurses' organizational commitment in the timeframe of 2000 through 2013 were chosen...
March 2016: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27080504/three-portraits-2-artists-and-1-harvard-department-of-anaesthesia-the-brigham-chairs-and-the-artists-who-rendered-them
#19
John A Fox, Erin Poor, Sukumar P Desai
BACKGROUND: Many forms of art accurately depict physical attributes of their subjects. But how precisely do portraits capture personal, emotional, and behavioral aspects of individuals holding leadership positions in academic departments of anesthesiology? METHODS: We examined formal portraits of the first three academic chairmen of anesthesiology in our department - Leroy D. Vandam, Benjamin G. Covino, and Simon Gelman and obtained information about the artists (George Augusta and Marc Klionsky) regarding how they conducted research on their subjects, and the methods they used to depict significant character traits into their art...
April 2016: Journal of Anesthesia History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26991737/geography-of-conservation-spending-biodiversity-and-culture
#20
T R McClanahan, P S Rankin
We used linear and multivariate models to examine the associations between geography, biodiversity, per capita economic output, national spending on conservation, governance, and cultural traits in 55 countries. Cultural traits and social metrics of modernization correlated positively with national spending on conservation. The global distribution of this spending culture was poorly aligned with the distribution of biodiversity. Specifically, biodiversity was greater in the tropics where cultures tended to spend relatively less on conservation and tended to have higher collectivism, formalized and hierarchical leadership, and weaker governance...
October 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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