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narcissism and leadership

Tracey Lynn Nigro
This article outlines personality traits such as psychopathy, narcissism, Machiavellianism, and sadism which, when elevated in health leaders, may have negative effects upon teams, the organizations they work for, and ultimately the public. The implications of such traits for specific core health leadership competency domains are explored as well as potential mitigation approaches to minimize and possibly redirect such personality traits.
May 2018: Healthcare Management Forum
Nicole L Mead, Roy F Baumeister, Anika Stuppy, Kathleen D Vohs
The corrosive effects of power have been noted for centuries, but the self-related changes responsible for those effects have remained somewhat elusive. Narcissists tend to rise to-and abuse-positions of power, so we considered the possibility that positions of power may corrupt because they inflate narcissism. Two pathways were considered: Powerholders abuse their power because having power over others makes them feel superior (grandiosity pathway) or deserving of special treatment (entitlement pathway). Supporting the entitlement pathway, assigning participants to a position of power (vs...
April 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska, Jarosław Piotrowski, Radosław Rogoza, Tomasz Baran, Hidefumi Hitokoto, John Maltby
The current study explores the problem with the lack of measurement invariance for the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) by addressing two issues: conceptual heterogeneity of narcissism and methodological issues related to the binary character of data. We examine the measurement invariance of the 13-item version of the NPI in three populations in Japan, Poland and the UK. Analyses revealed that leadership/authority and grandiose exhibitionism dimensions of the NPI were cross-culturally invariant, while entitlement/exploitativeness was culturally specific...
April 15, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
Eleftherios P Diamandis, Nick Bouras
There has been an increasing awareness of the importance of leadership and decision making, including scientists and academics, over recent times. By whom and how decisions are made can have serious implications across all levels of society. Several people have been successful in their life and have been inflicted by excessive pride and self-confidence. There are times when the manifestations of such behaviours demonstrate noticeable signs of narcissism and on extreme cases, hubris. Hubris is an old concept originated from the Greek mythology...
2018: F1000Research
Barbara Nevicka, Annelies E M Van Vianen, Annebel H B De Hoogh, Bart C M Voorn
Although narcissists often emerge as leaders, research has thus far shown inconsistent results on the relationship between leader narcissism and effectiveness in the eyes of followers. Here we draw on leader distance theory (Shamir, 1995) and implicit leader theory (Lord & Maher, 1991) to propose that followers' assessment of a narcissistic leader and followers' overall job attitudes depend on the leader's visibility to the followers. The more opportunities followers have to observe narcissistic leaders the more they will experience these leaders' toxic behavior (e...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Eunike Wetzel, Anna Brown, Patrick L Hill, Joanne M Chung, Richard W Robins, Brent W Roberts
Are recent cohorts of college students more narcissistic than their predecessors? To address debates about the so-called "narcissism epidemic," we used data from three cohorts of students (1990s: N = 1,166; 2000s: N = 33,647; 2010s: N = 25,412) to test whether narcissism levels (overall and specific facets) have increased across generations. We also tested whether our measure, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), showed measurement equivalence across the three cohorts, a critical analysis that had been overlooked in prior research...
December 2017: Psychological Science
Susanne Braun
Narcissists often pursue leadership and are selected for leadership positions by others. At the same time, they act in their own best interest, putting the needs and interests of others at risk. While theoretical arguments clearly link narcissism and leadership, the question whether leader narcissism is good or bad for organizations and their members remains unanswered. Narcissism seems to have two sides, a bright and a dark one. This systematic literature review seeks to contribute to the ongoing academic discussion about the positive or negative impact of leader narcissism in organizations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Roland VON Känel, Raphael Manfred Herr, Annelies Elizabeth Maria VAN Vianen, Burkhard Schmidt
Burnout is associated with poor mental and physical functioning and high costs for societies. Personality attributes may critically increase the risk of personal burnout. We specifically examined whether narcissism associates with personal burnout in a working population. We studied n=1,461 employees (mean age 41.3 ± 9.4 yr, 52% men) drawn from a random sample of a pharmaceutical company in Germany. All participants completed the personal burnout subscale of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory to assess maladaptive (entitlement/exploitativeness) and adaptive (leadership/authority) narcissism...
June 8, 2017: Industrial Health
Kasey Stanton, Elizabeth Daly, Sara M Stasik-O'Brien, Stephanie Ellickson-Larew, Lee Anna Clark, David Watson
The primary goal of this study was to explicate the construct validity of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) by examining their relations both to each other and to measures of personality and psychopathology in a community sample ( N = 255). Structural evidence indicates that the NPI is defined by Leadership/Authority, Grandiose Exhibitionism, and Entitlement/Exploitativeness factors, whereas the HPS is characterized by specific dimensions reflecting Social Vitality, Mood Volatility, and Excitement...
September 2017: Assessment
Emily Grijalva, Luyao Zhang
The current article reviews the narcissism-self-enhancement literature using a multilevel meta-analytic technique. Specifically, we focus on self-insight self-enhancement (i.e., whether narcissists perceive themselves more positively than they are perceived by others); thus, we only include studies that compare narcissists' self-reports to observer reports or objective measures. Results from 171 correlations reported in 36 empirical studies (N = 6,423) revealed that the narcissism-self-enhancement relationship corrected for unreliability in narcissism was ...
January 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Frederick M Burkle
The end of the Cold War brought with it many protracted internal conflicts and wars that have lasted for decades and whose persistent instability lies at the heart of both chronic nation-state and regional instability. Responsibility for these chronically failed states has been attributed to multiple unresolved root causes. With previous governance and parties to power no longer trusted or acceptable, the vacuum of leadership in many cases has been filled with "bad leadership." This Concept piece argues that in a number of cases opportunistic leaders, suffering from severe antisocial character disorders, have emerged first as saviors and then as despots, or as common criminals claiming to be patriots, sharing a psychological framework that differs little from those responsible for World War II and the Cold War that followed...
February 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Ingrid Olssøn, Marit F Svindseth, Alv A Dahl
BACKGROUND: Narcissism is a personality trait associated with both psychological health and resilience as well as with aggression and interpersonal problems. AIM: This study compares levels of total narcissism and subscale scores in inpatients, outpatients and a community sample. METHODS: Inpatients (N = 186) were recruited from consecutively admitted patients to two closed units, and the outpatient group (N = 144) consisted of patients attending a psychiatric outpatient clinic...
2016: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Darren C Neufeld, Edward A Johnson
Research on narcissism and envy suggests a variable relationship that may reflect differences between how vulnerable and grandiose narcissism relate to precursors of envy. Accordingly, we proposed a model in which dispositional envy and relative deprivation differentially mediate envy's association with narcissistic vulnerability, grandiosity, and entitlement. To test the model, 330 young adults completed dispositional measures of narcissism, entitlement, and envy; one week later, participants reported on deprivation and envy feelings toward a peer who outperformed others on an intelligence test for a cash prize (Study 1) or earned higher monetary payouts in a betting game (Study 2)...
October 2016: Journal of Personality
Roy F Baumeister, Jennifer D Campbell, Joachim I Krueger, Kathleen D Vohs
Self-esteem has become a household word. Teachers, parents, therapists, and others have focused efforts on boosting self-esteem, on the assumption that high self-esteem will cause many positive outcomes and benefits-an assumption that is critically evaluated in this review. Appraisal of the effects of self-esteem is complicated by several factors. Because many people with high self-esteem exaggerate their successes and good traits, we emphasize objective measures of outcomes. High self-esteem is also a heterogeneous category, encompassing people who frankly accept their good qualities along with narcissistic, defensive, and conceited individuals...
May 2003: Psychological Science in the Public Interest: a Journal of the American Psychological Society
Małgorzata Lipowska, Mariusz Lipowski
OBJECTIVE: Body weight and age constitute main determinants of body image in women. We analyzed the role of narcissism as a moderator of body image in young women representing various extremes of body weight. METHODS: The study included 325 women between 18 and 35 years, qualified into three BMI categories: obese women (BMI > 30.0, n = 72), severely underweight women who did not satisfy the remaining criteria of anorexia (BMI < 17.5, n = 85), and women with normal body weight (21...
2015: PloS One
Robert A Ackerman, M Brent Donnellan, Brent W Roberts, R Chris Fraley
The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is currently the most widely used measure of narcissism in social/personality psychology. It is also relatively unique because it uses a forced-choice response format. We investigate the consequences of changing the NPI's response format for item meaning and factor structure. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 40 forced-choice items (n = 2,754), 80 single-stimulus dichotomous items (i.e., separate true/false responses for each item; n = 2,275), or 80 single-stimulus rating scale items (i...
April 2016: Assessment
Emily Grijalva, Daniel A Newman, Louis Tay, M Brent Donnellan, P D Harms, Richard W Robins, Taiyi Yan
Despite the widely held belief that men are more narcissistic than women, there has been no systematic review to establish the magnitude, variability across measures and settings, and stability over time of this gender difference. Drawing on the biosocial approach to social role theory, a meta-analysis performed for Study 1 found that men tended to be more narcissistic than women (d = .26; k = 355 studies; N = 470,846). This gender difference remained stable in U.S. college student cohorts over time (from 1990 to 2013) and across different age groups...
March 2015: Psychological Bulletin
Chin Wei Ong, Ross Roberts, Calum A Arthur, Tim Woodman, Sally Akehurst
Individuals higher in narcissism have leader emergent tendencies. The characteristics of their personality suggest, however, that their leadership qualities will decrease over time as a function of group acquaintance. We present data from two studies that provide the first empirical support for this theoretical position within a transformational leadership framework. In Study 1 (N = 112), we tested narcissistic leadership qualities in groups of unacquainted individuals over a 12-week period. In Study 2 (N = 152), we adopted the same protocol with groups of acquainted individuals...
April 2016: Journal of Personality
Rong Wang, Jiang Jiang
Abusive supervision, a type of interpersonal mistreatment from direct supervisors toward subordinates, has received growing attention in leadership research. However, the role of narcissism related to abusive supervision is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of narcissism with subordinates' perceptions of abusive supervision and deviance toward the supervisor. Ratings on the aforementioned variables were collected from 403 full-time employees at two different times with one week in between (95 men, 308 women; M age = 26...
October 2014: Psychological Reports
Ashley L Watts, Scott O Lilienfeld, Sarah Francis Smith, Joshua D Miller, W Keith Campbell, Irwin D Waldman, Steven J Rubenzer, Thomas J Faschingbauer
Recent research and theorizing suggest that narcissism may predict both positive and negative leadership behaviors. We tested this hypothesis with data on the 42 U.S. presidents up to and including George W. Bush, using (a) expert-derived narcissism estimates, (b) independent historical surveys of presidential performance, and (c) largely or entirely objective indicators of presidential performance. Grandiose, but not vulnerable, narcissism was associated with superior overall greatness in an aggregate poll; it was also positively associated with public persuasiveness, crisis management, agenda setting, and allied behaviors, and with several objective indicators of performance, such as winning the popular vote and initiating legislation...
December 2013: Psychological Science
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