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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142334/approaches-to-macroevolution-2-sorting-of-variation-some-overarching-issues-and-general-conclusions
#1
David Jablonski
Approaches to macroevolution require integration of its two fundamental components, within a hierarchical framework. Following a companion paper on the origin of variation, I here discuss sorting within an evolutionary hierarchy. Species sorting-sometimes termed species selection in the broad sense, meaning differential origination and extinction owing to intrinsic biological properties-can be split into strict-sense species selection, in which rate differentials are governed by emergent, species-level traits such as geographic range size, and effect macroevolution, in which rates are governed by organism-level traits such as body size; both processes can create hitchhiking effects, indirectly causing the proliferation or decline of other traits...
2017: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107552/feeding-ecology-and-morphology-make-a-bamboo-specialist-vulnerable-to-climate-change
#2
Jussi T Eronen, Sarah Zohdy, Alistair R Evans, Stacey R Tecot, Patricia C Wright, Jukka Jernvall
Animals with dietary specializations can be used to link climate to specific ecological drivers of endangerment. Only two mammals, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Asia and the greater bamboo lemur (Prolemur simus) in Madagascar, consume the nutritionally poor and mechanically challenging culm or trunk of woody bamboos [1-3]. Even though the greater bamboo lemur is critically endangered, paleontological evidence shows that it was once broadly distributed [4, 5]. Here, integrating morphological, paleontological, and ecological evidence, we project the effects of climate change on greater bamboo lemurs...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091714/first-evidence-of-ancient-deer-cervid-in-the-late-miocene-bira-formation-northern-israel
#3
Alexis Gabriel Rozenbaum, Dotan Shaked Gelband, Mordechai Stein, Henk K Mienis, Rivka Rabinovich
Despite the extensive geological and paleontological searches in the south Levant, no terrestrial fauna of late Neogene age was yet reported. Here, we report the first evidence of "ancient deer"-cervid in the late Miocene (Tortonian) lacustrine section of the Bira Formation at Hagal Stream, Jordan Valley, northern Israel. The section comprises rich assemblage of macrofauna fossils, mostly freshwater mollusks. The mammalian bone was discovered among the macrofauna fossils, and is described as an almost complete left humerus of an adult animal identified as an artiodactyls element probably of a cervid...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072519/determination-of-genetic-variations-in-the-genus-dryomys-thomas-1906-rodentia-gliridae-distributed-in-turkey-using-nadh-dehydrogenase-1-nd1-gene
#4
Teoman Kankılıç, Perinçek Seçkinozan Şeker, Arif Can Erdik, Tolga Kankılıç, Engin Selvi, Nuri Yiğit, Ercüment Çolak
Genetic diversity and phylogeny of Dryomys nitedula and Dryomys laniger from Turkey was described in the present study by using mitochondrial DNA NADH dehydrogenase 1 gene (ND1). Genetic variation in ND1 gene was determined by two model-based phylogenetic analyses and a network analysis revealed 27 haplotypes of D. nitedula constructing four main lineages (Thrace, Anatolia, North-eastern Anatolia and Şavşat) that have non-overlapping geographic distributions and no shared haplotypes, but on the other hand, three haplotypes were detected in four samples of D...
October 26, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067488/-the-historicity-of-data-concepts-tools-and-practices-during-the-nineteenth-century
#5
Christine von Oertzen
This essay explores the use of the concept of "data" during the nineteenth century. It traces the development of manual data driven research decades before the introduction of Hollerith machines and electronic computers. Census statisticians in late-nineteenth century Prussia employed moveable paper tools to assemble numerical information in novel ways; their actions fundamentally recast processes of compilation. The paper considers the epistemic impact of moving data inscribed on tons of paper, reconstructing the logistics of a circulatory compilation system spread across the Prussian capital...
December 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065406/midsagittal-brain-variation-among-non-human-primates-insights-into-evolutionary-expansion-of-the-human-precuneus
#6
Ana Sofia Pereira-Pedro, James K Rilling, Xu Chen, Todd M Preuss, Emiliano Bruner
The precuneus is a major element of the superior parietal lobule, positioned on the medial side of the hemisphere and reaching the dorsal surface of the brain. It is a crucial functional region for visuospatial integration, visual imagery, and body coordination. Previously, we argued that the precuneus expanded in recent human evolution, based on a combination of paleontological, comparative, and intraspecific evidence from fossil and modern human endocasts as well as from human and chimpanzee brains. The longitudinal proportions of this region are a major source of anatomical variation among adult humans and, being much larger in Homo sapiens, is the main characteristic differentiating human midsagittal brain morphology from that of our closest living primate relative, the chimpanzee...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049333/synchrotron-imaging-and-markov-chain-monte-carlo-reveal-tooth-mineralization-patterns
#7
Daniel R Green, Gregory M Green, Albert S Colman, Felicitas B Bidlack, Paul Tafforeau, Tanya M Smith
The progressive character of tooth formation records aspects of mammalian life history, diet, seasonal behavior and climate. Tooth mineralization occurs in two stages: secretion and maturation, which overlap to some degree. Despite decades of study, the spatial and temporal pattern of elemental incorporation during enamel mineralization remains poorly characterized. Here we use synchrotron X-ray microtomography and Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling to estimate mineralization patterns from an ontogenetic series of sheep molars (n = 45 M1s, 18 M2s)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042093/manifest-ambiguity-intermediate-forms-variation-and-mammal-paleontology-in-argentina-1830-1880
#8
Irina Podgorny
This paper presents the impact of diverse aspects of Darwin's works on the practices of mammal paleontology in different moments of nineteenth-century Argentina. Starting with Darwin through the publications of Florentino Ameghino, it shows the extraordinary complexity of systematic paleontology that characterized the second half of the nineteenth century. Neither "natural selection" nor "struggle for life" seemed to have shaped the practices of vertebrate paleontology in Argentina. Darwin's earlier work as a voyageur and geologist together with later concerns about intermediate forms and variation allow for an assessment of the impact of Darwin's work on the practice of paleontology in Argentina...
October 14, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037463/in-vivo-bone-strain-and-finite-element-modeling-of-a-rhesus-macaque-mandible-during-mastication
#9
Olga Panagiotopoulou, José Iriarte-Diaz, Simon Wilshin, Paul C Dechow, Andrea B Taylor, Hyab Mehari Abraha, Sharifah F Aljunid, Callum F Ross
Finite element analysis (FEA) is a commonly used tool in musculoskeletal biomechanics and vertebrate paleontology. The accuracy and precision of finite element models (FEMs) are reliant on accurate data on bone geometry, muscle forces, boundary conditions and tissue material properties. Simplified modeling assumptions, due to lack of in vivo experimental data on material properties and muscle activation patterns, may introduce analytical errors in analyses where quantitative accuracy is critical for obtaining rigorous results...
September 1, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036214/the-fate-of-endemic-insects-of-the-andean-region-under-the-effect-of-global-warming
#10
Sara I Montemayor, María Cecilia Melo, María Celeste Scattolini, Martina E Pocco, María Guadalupe Del Río, Gimena Dellapé, Erica E Scheibler, Sergio A Roig, Carla G Cazorla, Pablo M Dellapé
Three independent but complementary lines of research have provided evidence for the recognition of refugia: paleontology, phylogeography and species distributional modelling (SDM). SDM assesses the ecological requirements of a species based on its known occurrences and enables its distribution to be projected on past climatological reconstructions. One advantage over the other two approaches is that it provides an explicit link to environment and geography, thereby enabling the analysis of a large number of taxa in the search for more general refugia patterns...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030723/eric-davidson-and-deep-time
#11
Douglas H Erwin
Eric Davidson had a deep and abiding interest in the role developmental mechanisms played in generating evolutionary patterns documented in deep time, from the origin of the euechinoids to the processes responsible for the morphological architectures of major animal clades. Although not an evolutionary biologist, Davidson's interests long preceded the current excitement over comparative evolutionary developmental biology. Here I discuss three aspects at the intersection between his research and evolutionary patterns in deep time: First, understanding the mechanisms of body plan formation, particularly those associated with the early diversification of major metazoan clades...
October 13, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993100/introduction-towards-a-global-history-of-paleontology-the-paleontological-reception-of-darwin-s-thought
#12
David Sepkoski, Marco Tamborini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986163/the-reception-of-darwin-in-late-nineteenth-century-german-paleontology-as-a-case-of-pyrrhic-victory
#13
Marco Tamborini
This paper investigates German-speaking paleontologists' reception of Darwin's thought and the ways in which they negotiated their space of knowledge production accordingly. In German-speaking regions, the majority of paleontologists welcomed Darwin's magnum opus, since it granted paleontology an independent voice within biology, and thus a new institutional setting. However, in the process of negotiating the features of paleontology within the Darwinian framework, German paleontologists constrained their practices too narrowly, for fear of leaving open possible results at odds with the burgeoning Darwinian biological community...
October 3, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973883/heterochronic-truncation-of-odontogenesis-in-theropod-dinosaurs-provides-insight-into-the-macroevolution-of-avian-beaks
#14
Shuo Wang, Josef Stiegler, Ping Wu, Cheng-Ming Chuong, Dongyu Hu, Amy Balanoff, Yachun Zhou, Xing Xu
Beaks are innovative structures characterizing numerous tetrapod lineages, including birds, but little is known about how developmental processes influenced the macroevolution of these important structures. Here we provide evidence of ontogenetic vestigialization of alveoli in two lineages of theropod dinosaurs and show that these are transitional phenotypes in the evolution of beaks. One of the smallest known caenagnathid oviraptorosaurs and a small specimen of the Early Cretaceous bird Sapeornis both possess shallow, empty vestiges of dentary alveoli...
October 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958481/chinese-paleontology-and-the-reception-of-darwinism-in-early-twentieth-century
#15
Xiaobo Yu
The paper examines the social, cultural and disciplinary factors that influenced the reception and appropriation of Darwinism by China's first generation paleontologists. Darwinism was mixed with Social Darwinism when first introduced to China, and the co-option of Darwinian phrases for nationalistic awakening obscured the scientific essence of Darwin's evolutionary theory. First generation Chinese paleontologists started their training in 1910s-1920s. They quickly asserted their professional identity by successfully focusing on morphology, taxonomy and biostratigraphy...
September 25, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954171/the-last-dinosaurs-of-brazil-the-bauru-group-and-its-implications-for-the-end-cretaceous-mass-extinction
#16
Stephen L Brusatte, Carlos R A Candeiro, Felipe M Simbras
The non-avian dinosaurs died out at the end of the Cretaceous, ~66 million years ago, after an asteroid impact. The prevailing hypothesis is that the effects of the impact suddenly killed the dinosaurs, but the poor fossil record of latest Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian) dinosaurs from outside Laurasia (and even more particularly, North America) makes it difficult to test specific extinction scenarios. Over the past few decades, a wealth of new discoveries from the Bauru Group of Brazil has revealed a unique window into the evolution of terminal Cretaceous dinosaurs from the southern continents...
July 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945912/the-past-sure-is-tense-on-interpreting-phylogenetic-divergence-time-estimates
#17
Joseph W Brown, Stephen A Smith
Divergence time estimation-the calibration of a phylogeny to geological time-is an integral first step in modelling the tempo of biological evolution (traits and lineages). However, despite increasingly sophisticated methods to infer divergence times from molecular genetic sequences, the estimated age of many nodes across the tree of life contrast significantly and consistently with timeframes conveyed by the fossil record. This is perhaps best exemplified by crown angiosperms, where molecular clock (Triassic) estimates predate the oldest (Early Cretaceous) undisputed angiosperm fossils by tens of millions of years or more...
September 7, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917702/hominin-track-assemblages-from-okote-member-deposits-near-ileret-kenya-and-their-implications-for-understanding-fossil-hominin-paleobiology-at-1-5%C3%A2-ma
#18
Kevin G Hatala, Neil T Roach, Kelly R Ostrofsky, Roshna E Wunderlich, Heather L Dingwall, Brian A Villmoare, David J Green, David R Braun, John W K Harris, Anna K Behrensmeyer, Brian G Richmond
Tracks can provide unique, direct records of behaviors of fossil organisms moving across their landscapes millions of years ago. While track discoveries have been rare in the human fossil record, over the last decade our team has uncovered multiple sediment surfaces within the Okote Member of the Koobi Fora Formation near Ileret, Kenya that contain large assemblages of ∼1.5 Ma fossil hominin tracks. Here, we provide detailed information on the context and nature of each of these discoveries, and we outline the specific data that are preserved on the Ileret hominin track surfaces...
November 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917701/paleoecological-insights-from-fossil-freshwater-mollusks-of-the-kanapoi-formation-omo-turkana-basin-kenya
#19
Bert Van Bocxlaer
The Early Pliocene Kanapoi Formation of the Omo-Turkana Basin consists of two fluvial/deltaic sedimentary sequences with an intermediate lacustrine sequence that was deposited in Paleolake Lonyumun, the earliest large lake in the basin. Overall, the geology and vertebrate paleontology of the Kanapoi Formation are well studied, but its freshwater mollusks, despite being a major component of the benthic ecosystem, have not been subjected to in-depth study. Here I present the first treatment of these mollusks, which have been retrieved mainly from the lacustrine but also from the upper fluvial sediments, with a focus on paleoecological implications...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916155/ancestral-resurrection-of-anthropoid-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-demonstrates-functional-consequences-of-positive-selection
#20
Amy Weckle, Michael R McGowen, Jun Xing, Caoyi Chen, Kirstin N Sterner, Zhuo-Cheng Hou, Roberto Romero, Derek E Wildman
Anthropoid primates arose during the Eocene approximately 55 million years ago (mya), and extant anthropoids share a most recent common ancestor ∼40mya. Paleontology has been very successful at describing the morphological phenotypes of extinct anthropoids. Less well understood is the molecular biology of these extinct species as well as the phenotypic consequences of evolutionary variation in their genomes. Here we resurrect the most recent common ancestral anthropoid estrogen receptor β gene (ESR2) and demonstrate that the function of this ancestral estrogen receptor has been maintained during human descent but was altered during early New World monkey (NWM) evolution by becoming a more potent transcriptional activator...
September 13, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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