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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334043/a-tribute-to-james-parkinson
#1
André Parent
Exactly 200 years ago, the London surgeon-apothecary James Parkinson (1755-1824) published a 66-page-long booklet entitled An Essay on the Shaking Palsy, which contains the first clear clinical description of the shaking palsy or paralysis agitans, which we now refer to as Parkinson's disease. However, the value of this essay was not fully recognized during Parkinson's lifetime, which spanned the American Revolution, the French Revolution, and the Napoleonic Wars. James Parkinson was one of the most singular figures of his time and place...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324793/phylogeography-of-screaming-hairy-armadillo-chaetophractus-vellerosus-successive-disjunctions-and-extinctions-due-to-cyclical-climatic-changes-in-southern-south-america
#2
Sebastián Poljak, Alejandro M Ferreiro, Marina B Chiappero, Julieta Sánchez, Magalí Gabrielli, Marta S Lizarralde
Little is known about phylogeography of armadillo species native to southern South America. In this study we describe the phylogeography of the screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus, discuss previous hypothesis about the origin of its disjunct distribution and propose an alternative one, based on novel information on genetic variability. Variation of partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA Control Region (CR) from 73 individuals from 23 localities were analyzed to carry out a phylogeographic analysis using neutrality tests, mismatch distribution, median-joining (MJ) network and paleontological records...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313842/twelve-thousand-recent-patellogastropods-from-a-northeastern-pacific-latitudinal-gradient
#3
Sara S Kahanamoku, Pincelli M Hull, David R Lindberg, Allison Y Hsiang, Erica C Clites, Seth Finnegan
Body size distributions can vary widely among communities, with important implications for ecological dynamics, energetics, and evolutionary history. Here we present a dataset of body size and shape for 12,035 extant Patellogastropoda (true limpet) specimens from the collections of the University of California Museum of Paleontology, compiled using a novel high-throughput morphometric imaging method. These specimens were collected over the past 150 years at 355 localities along a latitudinal gradient ranging from Alaska to Baja California, Mexico and are presented here with individual images, 2D outline coordinates, and 2D measurements of body size and shape...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242480/cleonini-coleoptera-curculionidae-lixinae-are-monophyletic-and-flightless-tribe-overview-rampant-adult-homoplasy-and-illustrated-global-diversity
#4
Yuri G Arzanov, Vasily V Grebennikov
We summarize knowledge of the weevil tribe Cleonini worldwide, including its monophyly, relationships, distribution, biology, immature stages, economic significance and paleontology. We score adult morphological characters for 79 of a total of 96 extant genus-group Cleonini taxa considered valid to date. The resulting matrix contains 121 parsimoniously informative characters scored for 145 ingroup (Cleonini) and 29 outgroup terminals. Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) analyses consistently recover monophyletic Lixinae and Cleonini...
October 3, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217544/on-the-origin-of-modern-humans-asian-perspectives
#5
REVIEW
Christopher J Bae, Katerina Douka, Michael D Petraglia
The traditional "out of Africa" model, which posits a dispersal of modern Homo sapiens across Eurasia as a single wave at ~60,000 years ago and the subsequent replacement of all indigenous populations, is in need of revision. Recent discoveries from archaeology, hominin paleontology, geochronology, genetics, and paleoenvironmental studies have contributed to a better understanding of the Late Pleistocene record in Asia. Important findings highlighted here include growing evidence for multiple dispersals predating 60,000 years ago in regions such as southern and eastern Asia...
December 8, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191718/-how-nationality-influences-opinion-darwinism-and-palaeontology-in-france-1859-1914
#6
Claudine Cohen
This paper discusses the "non-reception" of Darwin's works and concepts in French palaeontology and palaeoanthropology between 1859 and 1914. Indeed, this integration was difficult, biased and belated, for ideological, intellectual and epistemological reasons: Clémence Royer's biased 1862 translation of Darwin's Origin of Species pulled its ideas toward "social darwinism", making them less attractive to the natural sciences. - French nationalism and the authority of religion, which imposed Cuvier's thinking until late into the century - the dominance of Lamarckian and neo-Lamarckian transformism in France, both in biology and in paleontology, which proposed the notion of orthogenetic laws and environmental determinations, and refused darwinian evolutionary mechanisms - obstacles inherent to the application of Darwin's concepts to palaeontology, namely the impossibility to identify evolutionary mechanisms through the fossil record, which was stressed by Darwin himself and underlined in turn by 19th century French palaeontologists...
November 27, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177513/multiple-regulatory-modules-are-required-for-scale-to-feather-conversion
#7
Ping Wu, Jie Yan, Yung-Chih Lai, Chen Siang Ng, Ang Li, Xueyuan Jiang, Ruth Elsey, Randall Widelitz, Ruchi Bajpai, Wen-Hsiung Li, Cheng-Ming Chuong
The origin of feathers is an important question in Evo-Devo studies, with the eventual evolution of vaned feathers which are aerodynamic, allowing feathered dinosaurs and early birds to fly and venture into new ecological niches. Studying how feathers and scales are developmentally specified provides insight into how a new organ may evolve. We identified feather-associated genes using genomic analyses. The candidate genes were tested by expressing them in chicken and alligator scale forming regions. Ectopic expression of these genes induced intermediate morphotypes between scales and feathers which revealed several major morphogenetic events along this path: localized growth zone formation, follicle invagination, epithelial branching, feather keratin differentiation and dermal papilla formation...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170576/early-jurassic-diversification-of-pycnodontiform-fishes-actinopterygii-neopterygii-after-the-end-triassic-extinction-event-evidence-from-a-new-genus-and-species-grimmenodon-aureum
#8
Sebastian Stumpf, Jörg Ansorge, Cathrin Pfaff, Jürgen Kriwet
A new genus and species of pycnodontiform fishes, Grimmenodon aureum, from marginal marine, marine-brackish lower Toarcian (Harpoceras exaratum ammonite subzone) clay deposits of Grimmen in northeastern Germany is described. The single specimen represents a diagnostic left prearticular dentition characterized by unique tooth arrangement and ornamentation patterns. Grimmenodon aureum, gen. et sp. nov., is the second unambiguously identified pycnodontiform species from the Early Jurassic, in addition to Eomesodon liassicus from the early Lower Jurassic of western Europe...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167014/the-effect-of-age-and-body-composition-on-body-mass-estimation-of-males-using-the-stature-bi-iliac-method
#9
Juho-Antti Junno, Markku Niskanen, Heli Maijanen, Brigitte Holt, Vladimir Sladek, Sirpa Niinimäki, Margit Berner
The stature/bi-iliac breadth method provides reasonably precise, skeletal frame size (SFS) based body mass (BM) estimations across adults as a whole. In this study, we examine the potential effects of age changes in anthropometric dimensions on the estimation accuracy of SFS-based body mass estimation. We use anthropometric data from the literature and our own skeletal data from two osteological collections to study effects of age on stature, bi-iliac breadth, body mass, and body composition, as they are major components behind body size and body size estimations...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166406/revised-geochronology-correlation-and-dinosaur-stratigraphic-ranges-of-the-santonian-maastrichtian-late-cretaceous-formations-of-the-western-interior-of-north-america
#10
Denver Warwick Fowler
Interbasinal stratigraphic correlation provides the foundation for all consequent continental-scale geological and paleontological analyses. Correlation requires synthesis of lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and geochronologic data, and must be periodically updated to accord with advances in dating techniques, changing standards for radiometric dates, new stratigraphic concepts, hypotheses, fossil specimens, and field data. Outdated or incorrect correlation exposes geological and paleontological analyses to potential error...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154403/paleo-inspired-systems-durability-sustainability-and-remarkable-properties
#11
Loïc Bertrand, Claire Gervais, Admir Masic, Luc Robbiola
We designate as paleo-inspiration, the process of mimicking properties of specific interest (mechanical, optical, structural, etc.) observed in ancient and historical systems. For instance, recovery in archaeology or paleontology identifies materials that are a posteriori extremely resilient to alteration. This is all the more enthusing that many ancient materials were synthesized in soft chemical ways, often using low energy resources, and sometimes rudimentary manufacturing equipment. In this review, we highlight ancient systems as a source of inspiration for innovative conception in the Anthropocene...
November 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142334/approaches-to-macroevolution-2-sorting-of-variation-some-overarching-issues-and-general-conclusions
#12
David Jablonski
Approaches to macroevolution require integration of its two fundamental components, within a hierarchical framework. Following a companion paper on the origin of variation, I here discuss sorting within an evolutionary hierarchy. Species sorting-sometimes termed species selection in the broad sense, meaning differential origination and extinction owing to intrinsic biological properties-can be split into strict-sense species selection, in which rate differentials are governed by emergent, species-level traits such as geographic range size, and effect macroevolution, in which rates are governed by organism-level traits such as body size; both processes can create hitchhiking effects, indirectly causing the proliferation or decline of other traits...
2017: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107552/feeding-ecology-and-morphology-make-a-bamboo-specialist-vulnerable-to-climate-change
#13
Jussi T Eronen, Sarah Zohdy, Alistair R Evans, Stacey R Tecot, Patricia C Wright, Jukka Jernvall
Animals with dietary specializations can be used to link climate to specific ecological drivers of endangerment. Only two mammals, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Asia and the greater bamboo lemur (Prolemur simus) in Madagascar, consume the nutritionally poor and mechanically challenging culm or trunk of woody bamboos [1-3]. Even though the greater bamboo lemur is critically endangered, paleontological evidence shows that it was once broadly distributed [4, 5]. Here, integrating morphological, paleontological, and ecological evidence, we project the effects of climate change on greater bamboo lemurs...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091714/first-evidence-of-ancient-deer-cervid-in-the-late-miocene-bira-formation-northern-israel
#14
Alexis Gabriel Rozenbaum, Dotan Shaked Gelband, Mordechai Stein, Henk K Mienis, Rivka Rabinovich
Despite the extensive geological and paleontological searches in the south Levant, no terrestrial fauna of late Neogene age was yet reported. Here, we report the first evidence of "ancient deer"-cervid in the late Miocene (Tortonian) lacustrine section of the Bira Formation at Hagal Stream, Jordan Valley, northern Israel. The section comprises rich assemblage of macrofauna fossils, mostly freshwater mollusks. The mammalian bone was discovered among the macrofauna fossils, and is described as an almost complete left humerus of an adult animal identified as an artiodactyls element probably of a cervid...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072519/determination-of-genetic-variations-in-the-genus-dryomys-thomas-1906-rodentia-gliridae-distributed-in-turkey-using-nadh-dehydrogenase-1-nd1-gene
#15
Teoman Kankılıç, Perinçek Seçkinozan Şeker, Arif Can Erdik, Tolga Kankılıç, Engin Selvi, Nuri Yiğit, Ercüment Çolak
Genetic diversity and phylogeny of Dryomys nitedula and Dryomys laniger from Turkey was described in the present study by using mitochondrial DNA NADH dehydrogenase 1 gene (ND1). Genetic variation in ND1 gene was determined by two model-based phylogenetic analyses and a network analysis revealed 27 haplotypes of D. nitedula constructing four main lineages (Thrace, Anatolia, North-eastern Anatolia and Şavşat) that have non-overlapping geographic distributions and no shared haplotypes, but on the other hand, three haplotypes were detected in four samples of D...
October 26, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067488/-the-historicity-of-data-concepts-tools-and-practices-during-the-nineteenth-century
#16
Christine von Oertzen
This essay explores the use of the concept of "data" during the nineteenth century. It traces the development of manual data driven research decades before the introduction of Hollerith machines and electronic computers. Census statisticians in late-nineteenth century Prussia employed moveable paper tools to assemble numerical information in novel ways; their actions fundamentally recast processes of compilation. The paper considers the epistemic impact of moving data inscribed on tons of paper, reconstructing the logistics of a circulatory compilation system spread across the Prussian capital...
December 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065406/midsagittal-brain-variation-among-non-human-primates-insights-into-evolutionary-expansion-of-the-human-precuneus
#17
Ana Sofia Pereira-Pedro, James K Rilling, Xu Chen, Todd M Preuss, Emiliano Bruner
The precuneus is a major element of the superior parietal lobule, positioned on the medial side of the hemisphere and reaching the dorsal surface of the brain. It is a crucial functional region for visuospatial integration, visual imagery, and body coordination. Previously, we argued that the precuneus expanded in recent human evolution, based on a combination of paleontological, comparative, and intraspecific evidence from fossil and modern human endocasts as well as from human and chimpanzee brains. The longitudinal proportions of this region are a major source of anatomical variation among adult humans and, being much larger in Homo sapiens, is the main characteristic differentiating human midsagittal brain morphology from that of our closest living primate relative, the chimpanzee...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049333/synchrotron-imaging-and-markov-chain-monte-carlo-reveal-tooth-mineralization-patterns
#18
Daniel R Green, Gregory M Green, Albert S Colman, Felicitas B Bidlack, Paul Tafforeau, Tanya M Smith
The progressive character of tooth formation records aspects of mammalian life history, diet, seasonal behavior and climate. Tooth mineralization occurs in two stages: secretion and maturation, which overlap to some degree. Despite decades of study, the spatial and temporal pattern of elemental incorporation during enamel mineralization remains poorly characterized. Here we use synchrotron X-ray microtomography and Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling to estimate mineralization patterns from an ontogenetic series of sheep molars (n = 45 M1s, 18 M2s)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042093/manifest-ambiguity-intermediate-forms-variation-and-mammal-paleontology-in-argentina-1830-1880
#19
Irina Podgorny
This paper presents the impact of diverse aspects of Darwin's works on the practices of mammal paleontology in different moments of nineteenth-century Argentina. Starting with Darwin through the publications of Florentino Ameghino, it shows the extraordinary complexity of systematic paleontology that characterized the second half of the nineteenth century. Neither "natural selection" nor "struggle for life" seemed to have shaped the practices of vertebrate paleontology in Argentina. Darwin's earlier work as a voyageur and geologist together with later concerns about intermediate forms and variation allow for an assessment of the impact of Darwin's work on the practice of paleontology in Argentina...
October 14, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037463/in-vivo-bone-strain-and-finite-element-modeling-of-a-rhesus-macaque-mandible-during-mastication
#20
Olga Panagiotopoulou, José Iriarte-Diaz, Simon Wilshin, Paul C Dechow, Andrea B Taylor, Hyab Mehari Abraha, Sharifah F Aljunid, Callum F Ross
Finite element analysis (FEA) is a commonly used tool in musculoskeletal biomechanics and vertebrate paleontology. The accuracy and precision of finite element models (FEMs) are reliant on accurate data on bone geometry, muscle forces, boundary conditions and tissue material properties. Simplified modeling assumptions, due to lack of in vivo experimental data on material properties and muscle activation patterns, may introduce analytical errors in analyses where quantitative accuracy is critical for obtaining rigorous results...
September 1, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
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