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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346767/functional-principles-of-posterior-septal-inputs-to-the-medial-habenula
#1
Yo Otsu, Salvatore Lecca, Katarzyna Pietrajtis, Charly Vincent Rousseau, Païkan Marcaggi, Guillaume Pierre Dugué, Caroline Mailhes-Hamon, Manuel Mameli, Marco Alberto Diana
The medial habenula (MHb) is an epithalamic hub contributing to expression and extinction of aversive states by bridging forebrain areas and midbrain monoaminergic centers. Although contradictory information exists regarding their synaptic properties, the physiology of the excitatory inputs to the MHb from the posterior septum remains elusive. Here, combining optogenetics-based mapping with ex vivo and in vivo physiology, we examine the synaptic properties of posterior septal afferents to the MHb and how they influence behavior...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346523/timed-up-and-go-test-and-future-dementia-occurrence
#2
Ji Eun Lee, Dong Wook Shin, Su-Min Jeong, Ki Young Son, Belong Cho, Jong Lull Yoon, Byung Joo Park, In Soon Kwon, Jinkook Lee, SangYun Kim
Background: This study evaluated whether baseline results of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is associated with future dementia occurrence. Methods: Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort database, we identified 49 283 subjects without a dementia diagnosis who participated in the National Screening Program for Transitional Ages at 66 years of age during 2007-2012. Gait impairment was defined as taking longer than 10 seconds to perform the TUG test...
January 16, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344671/role-of-mir-34c-in-the-cognitive-function-of-epileptic-rats-induced-by-pentylenetetrazol
#3
Yiqing Huang, Xixia Liu, Yuhan Liao, Yayun Liao, Donghua Zou, Xing Wei, Qi Huang, Yuan Wu
Studies suggest that microRNA (miR)‑34c may serve a role in cognitive function in rodent and primate groups. A previous study demonstrated an increase in miR‑34c expression in chronic epileptic rats with memory disorders, induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). However, the mechanism underlying the effects of miR‑34c on cognitive function in epileptic rats remains unclear. Therefore, the present study investigated alterations in cognitive function in temporal lobe epileptic rats, induced by repeated injections of PTZ, following treatment with an miR‑34c agomir compared with a scramble group...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344649/effects-of-intrathecal-bupivacaine-on-the-nr2b-camkii%C3%AE-creb-signaling-pathway-in-the-rat-lumbar-spinal-cord
#4
Liyan Zhao, Yonghai Zhang, Fan Yang, Di Zhu, Ningkang Li, Li Zhao, Na Li, Jianqiang Yu, Hanxiang Ma
Neuraxial anesthesia produces an anesthetic-sparing, sedative effect. The mechanism underlying this effect potentially involves decreased spinal afferent input. However, the neurochemical mechanisms at the spinal level remain unknown. The N‑methyl‑D‑aspartate receptor 2B subunit/calcium‑calmodulin‑dependent protein kinase II α/cAMP response element‑binding protein (NR2B/CaMKIIα/CREB) signaling pathway serves an important role in regulating the transmittance of peripheral noxious stimulation to supraspinal regions in the process of nociception...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343030/-expression-of-high-mobility-group-box-%C3%A2-and-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-in-status-epilepticus
#5
D Wu, X Han, J Feng, Y J Song
Objective: To investigate the expression changes of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and the 2B receptor of N- methyl -D- aspartate receptor (NR2B) in status epilepticus (SE). Methods: (1) Primary hippocampal neurons from SD rats with 16 to 18 days of fetal age were cultured in vitro for 7 days, and exposed to Mg(2+) free media for 3 hours. Those cultured neurons were randomly divided into control group and intermittent hypoxia group. (2) SD rats with similar weight were selected and randomly divided into control group and SE model group...
January 2, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339535/functional-changes-of-ampa-responses-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neural-progenitors-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#6
Venkat Swaroop Achuta, Tommi Möykkynen, Ulla-Kaisa Peteri, Giorgio Turconi, Claudio Rivera, Kari Keinänen, Maija L Castrén
Altered neuronal network formation and function involving dysregulated excitatory and inhibitory circuits are associated with fragile X syndrome (FXS). We examined functional maturation of the excitatory transmission system in FXS by investigating the response of FXS patient-derived neural progenitor cells to the glutamate analog (AMPA). Neural progenitors derived from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines generated from boys with FXS had augmented intracellular Ca2+ responses to AMPA and kainate that were mediated by Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) lacking the GluA2 subunit...
January 16, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339294/ketamine-for-the-treatment-of-addiction-evidence-and-potential-mechanisms
#7
REVIEW
I Ivan Ezquerra-Romano, W Lawn, E Krupitsky, C J A Morgan
Ketamine is a dissociative anaesthetic drug which acts on the central nervous system chiefly through antagonism of the n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Recently, ketamine has attracted attention as a rapid-acting anti-depressant but other studies have also reported its efficacy in reducing problematic alcohol and drug use. This review explores the preclinical and clinical research into ketamine's ability to treat addiction. Despite methodological limitations and the relative infancy of the field, results thus far are promising...
January 12, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339088/retinal-neuronal-cell-loss-prevents-abnormal-retinal-vascular-growth-in-a-rat-model-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#8
Ayuki Nakano, Daiki Asano, Ryo Kondo, Asami Mori, Shiho Arima, Hiroko Ushikubo, Kenji Sakamoto, Tohru Nagamitsu, Kunio Ishii, Tsutomu Nakahara
A short-term blockade of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated pathway in neonatal rats results in formation of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)-like retinal blood vessels. The present study aimed to examine the role of retinal neurons in the formation of abnormal retinal blood vessels. Newborn rats were treated subcutaneously with the VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, KRN633 (10 mg/kg), or its vehicle (0.5% methylcellulose in water) on postnatal day (P) 7 and P8. To induce excitotoxic loss of retinal neurons, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) was injected into the vitreous chamber of the eye on P9...
January 12, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336363/utility-and-safety-of-intrathecal-methotrexate-treatment-in-severe-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-a-pilot-study
#9
Xun-Zhe Yang, Hua-Dong Zhu, Hai-Tao Ren, Yi-Cheng Zhu, Bin Peng, Li-Ying Cui, Hong-Zhi Guan
BACKGROUND: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a treatable autoimmune neurologic syndrome that occurs with or without tumor association. However, some severe cases are refractory to systemic immunotherapy. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the utility and safety of intrathecal methotrexate injection for severe patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis who did not respond to first-line immunotherapy. METHODS: Intrathecal injections with methotrexate and dexamethasone were performed weekly in four legible patients within consecutive 4 weeks...
January 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335082/-a-comparative-analysis-of-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-with-or-without-abnormal-findings-on-cranial-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#10
Jian-Zhao Zhang, Qian Chen, Ping Zheng, Li-Na Xie, Xiao-Li Yi, Hai-Tao Ren, Jian Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features of children with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis with normal or abnormal cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings via a comparative analysis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 33 children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. The clinical features and prognosis were compared between the children with normal and abnormal cranial MRI findings. RESULTS: In the 33 children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, the most common initial symptoms were seizures (61%) and involuntary movement (61%), followed by language disorder (54%), mental and behavioral abnormalities (52%), and disturbance of consciousness (30%)...
January 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334330/the-presence-of-free-d-aspartate-in-marine-macroalgae-is-restricted-to-the-sargassaceae-family
#11
Takehiko Yokoyama, Masaharu Tokuda, Masafumi Amano, Koji Mikami
The presence of d-aspartate (d-Asp), a biologically rare amino acid, was evaluated in 38 species of marine macroalgae (seaweeds). Despite the ubiquitous presence of free l-Asp, free d-Asp was detected in only 5 species belonging to the Sargassaceae family of class Phaeophyceae (brown algae) but not in any species of the phyla Chlorophyta (green algae) and Rhodophyta (red algae). All other members of Phaeophyceae, including 3 species classified into the section Teretia of Sargassaceae did not contain d-Asp. These results indicate that the presence of free d-Asp in marine macroalgae is restricted only to the Sargassaceae family, excluding the species in the section Teretia...
January 15, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329729/elevated-neuron-specific-enolase-and-s100-calcium-binding-protein-b-concentrations-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#12
Baozhu Liu, Zuoshan Xie, Guanghui Liu, Yong Gu, Suyue Pan, Honghao Wang
BACKGROUND: Anti‑N‑methyl‑d‑aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a relatively common autoimmune neurological disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) are structural proteins of the central nervous system (CNS). In patients with CNS injury accompanied by nervous tissue and cellular damage, these structural proteins are released from cells; their extracellular concentrations, including those in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood, subsequently increase...
January 9, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327271/-paraneoplastic-neurological-syndromes-a-current-summary
#13
REVIEW
D De Simoni, R Höftberger
BACKGROUND: Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNNS) are remote effects of a tumor and mediated by an altered immune reaction. In the last ten years, the spectrum of PNNS has changed profoundly with the discovery of a new category of neurological diseases that are associated with antibodies against surface or synaptic antigens. In contrast to classical PNNS, patients with surface receptor autoimmunity are often highly responsive to immunotherapy. OBJECTIVES: This article provides an update on the most relevant PNNS, focusing on specific syndromes associated with antibodies against classical onconeuronal antigens as well as surface and synaptic proteins...
January 11, 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323417/loss-of-ethanol-inhibition-of-nmdar-mediated-currents-and-plasticity-of-cerebellar-synapses-in-mice-expressing-the-glun1-f639a-subunit
#14
Paula A Zamudio-Bulcock, Gregg E Homanics, John J Woodward
BACKGROUND: Glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are well known for their sensitivity to ethanol inhibition. However, the specific manner in which ethanol inhibits channel activity and how such inhibition affects neurotransmission, and ultimately behavior, remain unclear. Replacement of phenylalanine 639 with alanine (F639A) in the GluN1 subunit reduces ethanol inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptors. Mice expressing this subunit show reduced ethanol-induced anxiolysis, blunted locomotor stimulation following low dose ethanol administration and faster recovery of motor function after moderate doses of ethanol suggesting that cerebellar dysfunction may contribute to some of these behaviors...
January 11, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322377/s-ketamine-current-trends-in-emergency-and-intensive-care-medicine
#15
REVIEW
Helmut Trimmel, Raimund Helbok, Thomas Staudinger, Wolfgang Jaksch, Brigitte Messerer, Herbert Schöchl, Rudolf Likar
S(+)-ketamine, the pure dextrorotatory enantiomer of ketamine has been available for clinical use in analgesia and anesthesia for more than 25 years. The main effects are mediated by non-competitive inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor but S(+)-ketamine also interacts with opioid receptors, monoamine receptors, adenosine receptors and other purinergic receptors. Effects on α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) and L‑type calcium chanels have also been described...
January 10, 2018: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319606/disruption-of-nnos-nos1ap-protein-protein-interactions-suppresses-neuropathic-pain-in-mice
#16
Wan-Hung Lee, Li-Li Li, Aarti Chawla, Andy Hudmon, Yvonne Y Lai, Michael J Courtney, Andrea G Hohmann
Elevated N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity is linked to central sensitization and chronic pain. However, NMDAR antagonists display limited therapeutic potential due to their adverse side effects. Novel approaches targeting the NR2B-PSD95-nNOS complex to disrupt signaling pathways downstream of NMDARs show efficacy in preclinical pain models. Here, we evaluated the involvement of interactions between neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein (NOS1AP) in pronociceptive signaling and neuropathic pain...
January 9, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317596/rare-loss-of-function-mutations-in-n-methyl-d-aspartate-glutamate-receptors-and-their-contributions-to-schizophrenia-susceptibility
#17
Yanjie Yu, Yingni Lin, Yuto Takasaki, Chenyao Wang, Hiroki Kimura, Jingrui Xing, Kanako Ishizuka, Miho Toyama, Itaru Kushima, Daisuke Mori, Yuko Arioka, Yota Uno, Tomoko Shiino, Yukako Nakamura, Takashi Okada, Mako Morikawa, Masashi Ikeda, Nakao Iwata, Yuko Okahisa, Manabu Takaki, Shinji Sakamoto, Toshiyuki Someya, Jun Egawa, Masahide Usami, Masaki Kodaira, Akira Yoshimi, Tomoko Oya-Ito, Branko Aleksic, Kinji Ohno, Norio Ozaki
In schizophrenia (SCZ) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the dysregulation of glutamate transmission through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) has been implicated as a potential etiological mechanism. Previous studies have accumulated evidence supporting NMDAR-encoding genes' role in etiology of SCZ and ASD. We performed a screening study for exonic regions of GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2C, GRIN2D, GRIN3A, and GRIN3B, which encode NMDAR subunits, in 562 participates (370 SCZ and 192 ASD). Forty rare variants were identified including 38 missense, 1 frameshift mutation in GRIN2C and 1 splice site mutation in GRIN2D...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315659/the-role-of-glutamate-signaling-in-incentive-salience-second-by-second-glutamate-recordings-in-awake-sprague-dawley-rats
#18
Seth R Batten, Francois Pomerleau, Jorge Quintero, Greg A Gerhardt, Joshua S Beckmann
The attribution of incentive salience to reward-predictive stimuli has been shown to be associated with substance abuse-like behavior such as increased drug taking. Evidence suggests that glutamate neurotransmission and sequential N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) activation are involved in the attribution of incentive salience. Here we further explore the role of second-by-second glutamate neurotransmission in the attribution of incentive salience to reward-predictive stimuli by measuring sign-tracking behavior during a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure using ceramic-based microelectrode arrays configured for sensitive measures of extracellular glutamate in awake behaving Sprague Dawley rats...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315460/serum-cystatin-c-and-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#19
Y Shu, Y Chang, H Wu, J Li, B Cao, X Sun, J Wang, L Peng, X Hu, X Yu, W Qiu
BACKGROUND: Cystatin C (CysC) is associated with many neurodegenerative disorders and autoimmune diseases, but its relationship with anti-N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is unknown. METHODS: Serum levels of CysC were determined in 66 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and 115 healthy controls. Of the 66 patients, 30 had a follow-up evaluation at 3 months after admission. Association of CysC with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and its clinical parameters were evaluated in the patients...
January 7, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313218/thallium-induced-toxicity-in-rat-brain-crude-synaptosomal-mitochondrial-fractions-is-sensitive-to-anti-excitatory-and-antioxidant-agents
#20
Marisol Maya-López, María Verónica Mireles-García, Monserrat Ramírez-Toledo, Ana Laura Colín-González, Sonia Galván-Arzate, Isaac Túnez, Abel Santamaría
The mechanisms by which the heavy metal thallium (Tl+) produces toxicity in the brain remain unclear. Herein, isolated synaptosomal/mitochondrial P2 crude fractions from adult rat brains were exposed to Tl+ (5-250 μM) for 30 min. Three toxic endpoints were evaluated: mitochondrial dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, and Na+/K+-ATPase activity inhibition. Concentration-response curves for two of these endpoints revealed the optimum concentration of Tl+ to induce damage in this preparation, 5 μM. Toxic markers were also estimated in preconditioned synaptosomes incubated in the presence of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA, 50 μM), the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (1 μM), or the antioxidant S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC, 100 μM)...
January 8, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
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