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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817445/the-safety-of-pembrolizumab-in-metastatic-melanoma-and-rheumatoid-arthritis
#1
Akshjot Puri, Jade Homsi
Immunotherapy has been in use for the treatment of melanoma since a very long time, but only recently have the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) antibody ipilimumab and programmed cell death-1 inhibitors such as nivolimumab and pembrolizumab been shown to induce marked improvements in survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. An important concern arises in terms of the safety of the use of these agents in patients with autoimmune diseases, solid organ transplant recipients on immunosuppression, patients with a history of previous hepatitis B or C, and patients with HIV infections as these patients were excluded from pivotal immunotherapy studies...
August 16, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815170/the-geography-of-primary-hepatic-neoplasms-treatments-in-canada-changes-in-latitudes-and-changes-in-attitudes
#2
Matthew Cwinn, Gordon Walsh, Sheikh Hasibur Rahman, Michele Molinari
BACKGROUND: Studies on treatment modalities for primary hepatic neoplasms (PHN) in Canada are lacking. Our primary aim was to analyze the age-standardized incidence of hepatic resection, ablation, transplantation, and embolization for PHN between 2002 and 2013. Secondary aim was to evaluate temporal trends for these treatment modalities. STUDY DESIGN: National Canadian Cancer Registries were accessed for relevant epidemiological data. Age-standardized incidence of treatment ratios (SIRs) was calculated and comparisons were performed for Atlantic Canada, Ontario, the Prairies, and British Columbia...
2017: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815106/automated-prediction-of-hepatic-arterial-stenosis
#3
Justin J Baraboo, Deendayal Dinakarpandian, Sherwin S Chan
Several thousand life-saving liver transplants are performed each year. One of the most common causes of early transplant failure is arterial stenosis of the anastomotic junction. Early detection of transplant arterial stenosis can help prevent transplant failure and the need to re-transplant. Doppler ultrasound is the most common screening method, but it suffers from poor specificity. Positive screening cases proceed to angiography which is an invasive and expensive procedure. A more accurate test could decrease the number of normal patients who would have to undergo this invasive diagnostic procedure...
2017: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814517/zinc-salts-block-hepatitis-e-virus-replication-by-inhibiting-the-activity-of-viral-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase
#4
Nidhi Kaushik, Chandru Subramani, Saumya Anang, Rajagopalan Muthumohan, Shalimar, Baibaswata Nayak, C T Ranjith-Kumar, Milan Surjit
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes an acute, self limiting hepatitis in normal individuals and leads to chronic disease in immunocompromised individuals. HEV infection in pregnant women results in a more severe outcome, with the mortality rate going upto 30%. Though the virus usually causes sporadic infection, epidemics have been reported in developing and resource starved countries. No specific anti-viral exists against HEV. A combination of interferon and ribavirin therapy has been used to control the disease with some success...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812869/entry-inhibitors-a-perspective-for-prevention-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-organ-transplantation
#5
Che C Colpitts, Raymond T Chung, Thomas F Baumert
Entry inhibitors are emerging as an attractive class of therapeutics for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Entry inhibitors target either virion-associated factors or cellular factors necessary for infection. By blocking entry into cells, entry inhibitors prevent both the establishment of persistent reservoirs and the emergence of resistant variants during viral replication. Furthermore, entry inhibitors protect naïve cells from virus-induced alterations. Combining entry inhibitors with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) may therefore improve treatment outcomes, particularly in the context of organ transplantation...
August 16, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811867/modulation-of-glutathione-hemostasis-by-inhibition-of-12-15-lipoxygenase-prevents-ros-mediated-cell-death-after-hepatic-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#6
Moritz Drefs, Michael N Thomas, Markus Guba, Martin K Angele, Jens Werner, Marcus Conrad, Christian J Steib, Lesca M Holdt, Joachim Andrassy, Andrej Khandoga, Markus Rentsch
BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species- (ROS-) mediated ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) detrimentally impacts liver transplantation and resection. 12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX), an antagonistic protein of the glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) signaling cascade, was proven to mediate cell death in postischemic cerebral and myocardial tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of 12/15-LOX inhibition on hepatic IRI. METHODS: Livers of C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 60 minutes of partial warm ischemia and 90 minutes of reperfusion after previous Baicalein administration, an inhibitor of 12/15-LOX...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811709/bone-marrow-derived-monocyte-infusion-improves-hepatic-fibrosis-by-decreasing-osteopontin-tgf-%C3%AE-1-il-13-and-oxidative-stress
#7
Veruska Cintia Alexandrino de Souza, Thiago Almeida Pereira, Valéria Wanderley Teixeira, Helotonio Carvalho, Maria Carolina Accioly Brelaz de Castro, Carolline Guimarães D'assunção, Andréia Ferreira de Barros, Camila Lima Carvalho, Virgínia Maria Barros de Lorena, Vláudia Maria Assis Costa, Álvaro Aguiar Coelho Teixeira, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz Figueiredo, Sheilla Andrade de Oliveira
AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of bone marrow-derived CD11b(+)CD14(+) monocytes in a murine model of chronic liver damage. METHODS: Chronic liver damage was induced in C57BL/6 mice by administration of carbon tetrachloride and ethanol for 6 mo. Bone marrow-derived monocytes isolated by immunomagnetic separation were used for therapy. The cell transplantation effects were evaluated by morphometry, biochemical assessment, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809734/wait-time-for-curative-intent-radio-frequency-ablation-is-associated-with-increased-mortality-in-patients-with-early-stage-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
Mayur Brahmania, Osman Ahmed, Melissa Kelley, David Wong, Matthew Kowgier, Korosh Khalili, Rob Beecroft, Eberhard L Renner, Hemant Shah, Jordan Feld, Harry L A Janssen, Morris Sherman
INTRODUCTION: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a recommended curative intent treatment option for patients with early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated if wait times for RFA were associated with residual tumor, tumor recurrence, need for liver transplantation, or death. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with HCC between January 2010 and December 2013 presenting to University Health Network (UHN) in Toronto, Canada...
August 8, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809732/validation-of-the-simplified-criteria-for-the-diagnosis-of-autoimmune-hepatitis-in-chilean-hispanic-patients
#9
Roberto Candia, Blanca Norero, Carlos Agu Ero, Luis Díaz, Juan Pablo Ortega, Rodrigo Wolff, Cristian Hernández-Rocha, Ignacio Duarte, Alejandro Soza, Carlos Benítez, Marco Arrese
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: In 2008 the International autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) Group proposed the simplified diagnostic criteria for this disease. The original cohort study was performed in 11 international centers, but validation studies are scarce in Latin-America. The aim of this study is validate these criteria in Hispanic patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort of patients undergoing percutaneous liver biopsy and follow-up of at least 12 months was recruited from a Chilean University hospital...
August 8, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809730/transplanting-kidney-allografts-from-hepatitis-c-infected-donors-into-hepatitis-c-uninfected-recipients-re-thinking-the-thinker-trial
#10
Eric M Yoshida, Trana Hussaini
In the not so distant past, organs from hepatitis C infected donors were either discarded or rarely transplanted into HCV viremic recipients - but never allocated to non-infected patients. However, the simplicity, ease and unprecedented success rates of HCV direct acting antiviral regimens has raised the possibility of utilizing such organs in an attempt to expand the donor pool. The thinker trial reports the first of such attempts. However, caution must be exercised prior to the widespread adoption of such strategy...
August 8, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807252/role-of-hepatic-trisectionectomy-in-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
J S Tsang, K S H Chok, C M Lo
BACKGROUND: Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with underlying cirrhosis poses a major operative challenge. Patients have a dismal prognosis without curative resection. The role of hepatic trisectionectomy in these patients is not established. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the perioperative outcome and prognosis of patients undergoing trisectionectomy with hepatic resection of a lesser extent. METHODS: From 2000 to 2014, 48 patients underwent hepatic trisectionectomy for HCC with background cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis (Group A)...
September 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807057/inhibitory-effects-of-hnf4%C3%AE-on-migration-maltransformation-of-hepatic-progenitors-hnf4%C3%AE-overexpressing-hepatic-progenitors-for-liver-repopulation
#12
Ping Wang, Min Cong, Tianhui Liu, Hufeng Xu, Lin Wang, Guangyong Sun, Aiting Yang, Dong Zhang, Jian Huang, Yameng Sun, Wenshan Zhao, Hong Ma, Jidong Jia, Hong You
BACKGROUND: Although they are expandable in vitro, hepatic progenitors are immature cells and share many immunomarkers with hepatocellular carcinoma, raising potential concerns regarding maltransformation after transplantation. This study investigated the effects of hepatic nuclear factor (HNF) 4α on the proliferation, migration, and maltransformation of hepatic progenitors and determined the feasibility of using these manipulated cells for transplantation. METHODS: The effects of HNF4α on rat hepatic progenitors (i...
August 14, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806922/hepatitis-b-reactivation-characterized-by-hbsag-negativity-and-anti-hbsag-antibodies-persistence-in-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplanted-patient-after-lamivudine-withdrawal
#13
C Cerva, G Maffongelli, V Svicher, R Salpini, L Colagrossi, A Battisti, B Mariotti, R Cerretti, L Cudillo, L Sarmati
BACKGROUND: HBV reactivation is associated with high mortality rates in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and prophylactic lamivudine (LMV) treatment is suggested to prevent this phenomenon. However, the duration of LMV treatment in HSCT patients is not fully defined and the time of immune recovery is considered the best parameter for a drug to be safely interrupted. In patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT, the time of immune recovery is not easy to define and may take years after transplantation and prolonged LMV treatments, which can lead to drug-resistant viral strains...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805579/nonmotor-manifestations-of-wilson-s-disease
#14
Samar Biswas, Neelanjana Paul, Shyamal K Das
Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal genetic disorder characterized by excessive copper deposition initially in liver (hepatic variant) followed by brain (neuropsychiatric variant) and other organs such as cornea and kidney due to defect in biliary copper excretion. Predominant presentations of neuropsychiatric variant are extrapyramidal motor dysfunctions such as dystonias, Parkinsonism, choreoathetosis, tremor, and ataxias. Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) can appear before clinical disease expression and during ongoing disease process...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804572/bacterial-infections-post-living-donor-liver-transplantation-in-egyptian-hepatitis-c-virus-cirrhotic-patients-a-single-center-study
#15
Mohamed F Montasser, Nadia A Abdelkader, Sara M Abdelhakam, Hany Dabbous, Iman F Montasser, Yasmine M Massoud, Waleed Abdelmoaty, Shereen A Saleh, Mohamed Bahaa, Hany Said, Mahmoud El-Meteini
AIM: To determine risk factors, causative organisms and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial infections following living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: This prospective study included 45 patients with hepatitis C virus-related end-stage liver disease who underwent LDLT at Ain Shams Center for Organ Transplant, Cairo, Egypt from January 2014 to November 2015. Patients were followed-up for the first 3 mo after LDLT for detection of bacterial infections...
July 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804516/the-role-of-sebelipase-alfa-in-the-treatment-of-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency
#16
REVIEW
Angelika L Erwin
Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LALD) is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) characterized either by infantile onset with fulminant clinical course and very poor prognosis or childhood/adult-onset disease with an attenuated phenotype. The disorder is often misdiagnosed or remains undiagnosed in children and adults due to a rather unspecific clinical presentation with dyslipidemia and steatohepatitis. Until recently, no good treatment options were available for LALD. Despite supportive and symptomatic therapies, death occurred before 1 year of age in patients with infantile-onset disease and patients with childhood/adult-onset LALD suffered from significant complications, such as liver cirrhosis, requiring liver transplantation and early-onset cardiovascular disease...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804513/noncirrhotic-hepatocellular-carcinoma-etiology-and-occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-a-hepatitis-b-virus-endemic-area
#17
Chang Woo Shim, Joong-Won Park, So Hee Kim, Jin Sook Kim, Bo Hyun Kim, Sung Hoon Kim, Eun Kyung Hong
BACKGROUND: Although hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) usually develops in cirrhotic livers, a minority of cases occur in noncirrhotic livers (NCLs). We investigated etiology, clinicopathological features, and occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) in patients with NCL HCC in an HBV-endemic area. METHODS: A total of 710 patients who underwent resection or transplantation for HCC at the National Cancer Center (NCC), Korea, were enrolled. HCC and fibrosis stage were diagnosed pathologically...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802063/hepatitis-b-virus-pregenomic-rna-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-nosological-and-prognostic-determinant
#18
Boris Halgand, Christophe Desterke, Lise Rivière, Guillaume Fallot, Mylène Sebagh, Julien Calderaro, Paulette Bioulac-Sage, Christine Neuveut, Marie-Annick Buendia, Didier Samuel, Cyrille Féray
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, very little is known about the replication of HBV in HCC tissues. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analysed viral and cellular parameters in HCC (T) and non-tumor liver (NT) samples from 99 HBsAg-positive, virologically suppressed patients treated by tumour resection or liver transplantation. We examined total HBV DNA and RNA as well as covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) and pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), which are considered as markers of active HBV replication...
August 12, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801074/rational-heart-transplant-from-hepatitis-c-donor-new-antiviral-weapons-conquer-the-trojan
#19
Robert L Gottlieb, Teena Sam, Suzanne Y Wada, James F Trotter, Sumeet K Asrani, Brian Lima, Susan M Joseph, Gonzalo Gonzalez-Stawinski, Shelley A Hall
BACKGROUND: Donors with hepatitis C (HCV) viremia are rarely utilized for orthotopic heart transplantation (OHTx) due to post-transplant risks. New, highly effective HCV antivirals may alter the landscape. METHODS: An adult patient unsuitable for bridging mechanical support therapy accepted a heart transplant offer from a donor with HCV viremia. Upon daily logarithmic rise in HCV viral load and adequate titers to ensure successful genotyping, once daily sofosbuvir 400 mg / velpatasvir 100 mg (Epclusa) was initiated empirically pending HCV genotype (genotype 3a confirmed after initiation of therapy)...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800720/jc-virus-related-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-after-living-donor-liver-transplant-a-rare-case
#20
Archana Rastogi, Natasha Gulati, Chhagan Bihari, Ashok Chaudhary, Kalpana Bansal, Shridhar Sasturkar, Shalini Thapar, Viniyendra Pamecha
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy caused by polyoma JC virus is a rare and severe demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It occurs in immunocompromised patients and is scarcely reported in liver transplant recipients. Brain biopsy demonstrating demyelination with presence of foamy macrophages, relative preservation of axons, astrogliosis, and typical polyomavirus inclusions in the enlarged oligodendroglial nuclei is essential for diagnosis. Here, we report a case of JC virus-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a living-donor liver transplant recipient who was transplanted for hepatitis C virus-related decompensated cirrhosis...
August 12, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
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