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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222916/transplanting-hcv-positive-livers-into-hcv-negative-patients-with-preemptive-antiviral-treatment-a-modeling-study
#1
Jagpreet Chhatwal, Sumeyye Samur, Emily D Bethea, Turgay Ayer, Fasiha Kanwal, Chin Hur, Mark S Roberts, Norah Terrault, Raymond T Chung
Under current guidelines hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive livers are not transplanted into HCV-negative recipients because of adverse post-transplant outcomes associated with allograft HCV infection. However, HCV can now be cured post liver transplant (LT) using direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) with >90% success; therefore, HCV-negative patients on the liver transplant (LT) waiting list may benefit from accepting HCV-positive organs with preemptive treatment. Our objective was to evaluate if and in which HCV-negative patients the potential benefit of accepting an HCV-positive (i...
December 9, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222839/decellularized-human-liver-extracellular-matrix-hdlm-mediated-hepatic-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-hipsc
#2
Maria Jaramillo, Heidi Yeh, Martin L Yarmush, Basak E Uygun
Liver tissue engineering has emerged as a promising approach in organ transplantation, but has been hampered by the lack of a reliable and readily available cell source. Induced pluripotent cells (hiPSC) have been highlighted a desirable source, due to their differentiation potential, ability to self-renew and the possibility of making patient specific cells. We developed a decellularization protocol that efficiently removes cellular material, while retaining extracellular matrix components. Subsequently, hiPSC were differentiated on the decellularized human liver matrix (hDLM) scaffolds using an established hepatic differentiation protocol...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222397/indoxyl-sulfate-upregulates-liver-p-glycoprotein-expression-and-activity-through-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-signaling
#3
Tacy Santana Machado, Stéphane Poitevin, Pascale Paul, Nathalie McKay, Noémie Jourde-Chiche, Tristan Legris, Annick Mouly-Bandini, Françoise Dignat-George, Philippe Brunet, Rosalinde Masereeuw, Stéphane Burtey, Claire Cerini
In patients with CKD, not only renal but also, nonrenal clearance of drugs is altered. Uremic toxins could modify the expression and/or activity of drug transporters in the liver. We tested whether the uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate (IS), an endogenous ligand of the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor, could change the expression of the following liver transporters involved in drug clearance: SLC10A1, SLC22A1, SLC22A7, SLC47A1, SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, SLCO2B1, ABCB1, ABCB11, ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCC4, ABCC6, and ABCG2 We showed that IS increases the expression and activity of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) encoded by ABCB1 in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) without modifying the expression of the other transporters...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221886/a-model-including-sarcopenia-surpasses-the-meld-score-in-predicting-waiting-list-mortality-in-cirrhotic-liver-transplant-candidates
#4
Jeroen Laurens Ad van Vugt, Louise Johanna Maria Alferink, Stefan Buettner, Marcia Patricia Gaspersz, Daphne Bot, Sarwa Darwish Murad, Shirin Feshtali, Peter Martinus Adranius van Ooijen, Wojciech Grzegorz Polak, Robert Jan Porte, Bart van Hoek, Aad Pieter van den Berg, Herold Johnny Metselaar, Jan Nicolaas Maria IJzermans
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Frail patients with low MELD scores may be underprioritised. Low skeletal muscle mass (i.e. sarcopenia) has been identified as risk factor for waiting list mortality and a recent study proposed to incorporate sarcopenia in the MELD score (i.e. MELD-Sarcopenia score). We aimed to investigate the association between sarcopenia and waiting list mortality, and to validate the MELD-Sarcopenia score (i.e. MELD+10.35∗Sarcopenia). METHODS: We identified consecutive patients with cirrhosis listed for liver transplantation in the Eurotransplant registry between 2007-2014 and measured skeletal muscle mass on computed tomography (CT)...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220079/hepatitis-c-virus-genotyping-of-organ-donor-samples-to-aid-in-transplantation-of-hcv-positive-organs
#5
Caren Gentile, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, David S Goldberg, Peter P Reese, Richard D Hasz, Peter Abt, Emily Blumberg, Midhat S Farooqi
Given the availability of new highly efficacious anti-HCV therapies, some clinicians have advocated for wider use of kidneys from hepatitis C virus-positive (HCV+) donors, including transplanting them into HCV-negative recipients. Since treatment regimens for HCV are commonly guided by genotype, pre-transplant HCV genotyping of tissue donors would be beneficial. To our knowledge, donor HCV genotyping has never been reported. We retrieved archived frozen plasma samples for 17 previous organ donors through a local organ procurement organization...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219790/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-kidney-transplant-patients-current-treatment-options
#6
Pavlina Dzekova-Vidimliski, Aleksandar Sikole
Hepatitis C virus infection is highly prevalent among kidney transplant recipients, occurring consequently to their previous treatment with hemodialysis. Hepatitis C virus infection has been associated with lower graft and patient survival compared with that shown in patients without infection. The lower survival has been associated with the posttransplant progression of liver disease and increased risk for development of extrahepatic complications. The choice of immunosuppressive drugs could significantly affect the course of the infection with an accelerated viral replication after kidney transplant...
December 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217891/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-a-renal-transplant-patient
#7
R Slim, N Asmar, C Yaghi, K Honein, R Sayegh, D Chelala
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) represents liver damage from various therapeutic drugs. Antimicrobials are among the most common causes of DILI. We report a case of hepatic toxicity due to Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) in a patient who underwent renal transplantation. Diagnosis has been made after a careful history taking, exclusion of competing etiologies and reversal of biochemical abnormalities after withdrawal of the antibiotic. TMP-SMX liver toxicity is well known but remains unpredictable and is rarely reported...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217822/hepatocyte-toll-like-receptor-4-mediates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-hepcidin-expression
#8
Yong-Soo Lee, Yong-Hoon Kim, Yoon Seok Jung, Ki-Sun Kim, Don-Kyu Kim, Soon-Young Na, Ji-Min Lee, Chul-Ho Lee, Hueng-Sik Choi
Hepcidin expression is induced by inflammatory molecules such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via a macrophage-mediated pathway. Although hepatocytes directly respond to LPS, the molecular mechanism underlying toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent hepcidin expression by hepatocytes is mostly unknown. Here we show that LPS can directly induce the mRNA expression and secretion of hepcidin by hepatocytes via TLR4 activation. Using hepatocytes deficient in TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-β (TRIF), we demonstrated that LPS-induced hepcidin expression by hepatocytes is regulated by its specific receptor, TLR4, via a MyD88-dependent signaling pathway...
December 8, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217749/hepatitis-delta-virus-persists-during-liver-regeneration-and-is-amplified-through-cell-division-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Katja Giersch, Oliver D Bhadra, Tassilo Volz, Lena Allweiss, Kristoffer Riecken, Boris Fehse, Ansgar W Lohse, Joerg Petersen, Camille Sureau, Stephan Urban, Maura Dandri, Marc Lütgehetmann
OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) was shown to persist for weeks in the absence of HBV and for months after liver transplantation, demonstrating the ability of HDV to persevere in quiescent hepatocytes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of cell proliferation on HDV persistence in vitro and in vivo. DESIGN: Genetically labelled human sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (hNTCP)-transduced human hepatoma(HepG2) cells were infected with HBV/HDV and passaged every 7 days for 100 days in the presence of the entry inhibitor Myrcludex-B...
December 7, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217537/characteristics-and-performance-of-unilateral-kidney-transplants-from-deceased-donors
#10
Syed Ali Husain, Mariana C Chiles, Samnang Lee, Stephen O Pastan, Rachel E Patzer, Bekir Tanriover, Lloyd E Ratner, Sumit Mohan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The fraction of kidneys procured for transplant that are discarded is rising in the United States. Identifying donors from whom only one kidney was discarded allows us to control for donor traits and better assess reasons for organ discard. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using United Network for Organ Sharing Standard Transplant Analysis and Research file data to identify deceased donors from whom two kidneys were procured and at least one was transplanted...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216568/nigella-sativa-oil-modulates-the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-against-liver-injury-in-irradiated-rats
#11
Rasha R Radwan, Heba A Mohamed
Stem cell transplantation is a novel strategy for regenerative medicine in liver disease. This study was conducted to explore the modulatory effect of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) on the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) against irradiation-induced liver damage in rats. Liver damage was induced by a total body exposure to a single dose of 7Gy. NSO (2mg/kg/day) was then given orally for 4 consecutive weeks starting 24h after irradiation with or without a single intravenous MSCs administration, then rats were sacrificed four weeks after exposure to γ radiation...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216531/living-donor-liver-transplantation-for-adult-budd-chiari-syndrome-resection-without-replacement-of-retrohepatic-ivc-a-case-report
#12
Tarek Abdelazeem Sabra, Hideaki Okajima, Tetsuya Tajima, Ken Fukumitsu, Koichiro Hata, Kentaro Yasuchika, Toshihiko Masui, Kojiro Taura, Toshimi Kaido, Shinji Uemoto
INTRODUCTION: Suprahepatic caval resection and replacement of inferior vena cava (IVC) is standard procedure in deceased donor liver transplantation for patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS). However, replacement of IVC in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is difficult. We report a case of BCS successfully treated by LDLT without replacement of IVC. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 52-years-old female with a primary BCS due to IVC thrombosis. A vena cava (VC) stent placed after angioplasty without improvement of the hepatic, portal venous flow and liver functions, Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was considered and the patient had a rapid deterioration and increased ascites...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216213/a-multi-scale-spatial-model-of-hepatitis-b-viral-dynamics
#13
Quentin Cangelosi, Shawn A Means, Harvey Ho
Chronic hepatitis B viral infection (HBV) afflicts around 250 million individuals globally and few options for treatment exist. Once infected, the virus entrenches itself in the liver with a notoriously resilient colonisation of viral DNA (covalently-closed circular DNA, cccDNA). The majority of infections are cleared, yet we do not understand why 5% of adult immune responses fail leading to the chronic state with its collateral morbid effects such as cirrhosis and eventual hepatic carcinoma. The liver environment exhibits particularly complex spatial structures for metabolic processing and corresponding distributions of nutrients and transporters that may influence successful HBV entrenchment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215462/liver-transplantation-in-cryptogenic-cirrhosis-outcome-comparisons-between-nash-alcoholic-and-aih-cirrhosis
#14
Paul Joseph Thuluvath, Steven Hanish, Yulia Savva
BACKGROUND: The outcomes of liver transplantation (LT) in patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis (CC) have not been adequately examined except for small case series. We believe that patients currently listed as CC have truly cryptogenic liver disease and may have different post-LT outcomes compared to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: We compared the post-LT outcomes of adults with CC (n=3241) and compared them with cirrhosis from NASH (n=4089), alcohol (AC, n=7837) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH, n=1435) using the UNOS database from 2002-16...
December 5, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212014/massive-and-reproducible-production-of-liver-buds-entirely-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#15
Takanori Takebe, Keisuke Sekine, Masaki Kimura, Emi Yoshizawa, Satoru Ayano, Masaru Koido, Shizuka Funayama, Noriko Nakanishi, Tomoko Hisai, Tatsuya Kobayashi, Toshiharu Kasai, Rina Kitada, Akira Mori, Hiroaki Ayabe, Yoko Ejiri, Naoki Amimoto, Yosuke Yamazaki, Shimpei Ogawa, Momotaro Ishikawa, Yasujiro Kiyota, Yasuhiko Sato, Kohei Nozawa, Satoshi Okamoto, Yasuharu Ueno, Hideki Taniguchi
Organoid technology provides a revolutionary paradigm toward therapy but has yet to be applied in humans, mainly because of reproducibility and scalability challenges. Here, we overcome these limitations by evolving a scalable organ bud production platform entirely from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). By conducting massive "reverse" screen experiments, we identified three progenitor populations that can effectively generate liver buds in a highly reproducible manner: hepatic endoderm, endothelium, and septum mesenchyme...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211941/impact-of-aberrant-left-hepatic-artery-ligation-on-the-outcome-of-liver-transplantation
#16
Roberto Montalti, Andrea Benedetti Cacciaguerra, Daniele Nicolini, Emad Alì Ahmed, Martina Coletta, Lesley De Pietri, Andrea Risaliti, Roberto Ivan Troisi, Federico Mocchegiani, Marco Vivarelli
BACKGROUND: The preservation of a graft's aberrant left hepatic artery (LHA) during liver transplantation (LT) ensures optimal vascularization of the left liver but can also be considered a risk factor for hepatic artery thrombosis. In contrast, ligation of an aberrant LHA may lead to hepatic ischaemia with the potential risk of graft dysfunction and biliary complications. The aim of this study was to prospectively analyse the impact on the surgical strategy for LT of 5 tests performed to establish whether an aberrant LHA was an accessory or a replaced artery, thus leading to the design of a decisional algorithm...
December 6, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211918/decellularized-human-placenta-supports-hepatic-tissue-and-allows-rescue-in-acute-liver-failure
#17
Zurab Kakabadze, Anne Kakabadze, David Chakhunashvili, Lika Karalashvili, Ekaterine Berishvili, Yogeshwar Sharma, Sanjeev Gupta
Tissue engineering with scaffolds to form transplantable organs is of wide interest. Decellularized tissues have been tested for this purpose, although supplies of healthy donor tissues, vascular recellularization for perfusion and tissue homeostasis in engineered organs pose challenges. We hypothesized decellularized human placenta will be suitable for tissue engineering. The universal availability and unique structures of placenta for accommodating tissue, including presence of embedded vessels, were major attractions...
December 6, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209135/first-case-of-cross-auxiliary-double-domino-donor-liver-transplantation
#18
Zhi-Jun Zhu, Lin Wei, Wei Qu, Li-Ying Sun, Ying Liu, Zhi-Gui Zeng, Liang Zhang, En-Hui He, Hai-Ming Zhang, Ji-Dong Jia, Zhong-Tao Zhang
We report a case of double domino liver transplantation in a 32-year-old woman who was diagnosed with familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) and liver dysfunction. A two-stage surgical plan was designed, and one domino graft was implanted during each stage. During the first stage, an auxiliary domino liver transplantation was conducted using a domino graft from a 4-year-old female child with Wilson's disease. After removing the right lobe of the FAP patient's liver, the graft was rotated 90 degrees counterclockwise and placed along the right side of the inferior vena cava (IVC)...
November 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209112/epidemiology-and-natural-history-of-wilson-s-disease-in-the-chinese-a-territory-based-study-in-hong-kong-between-2000-and-2016
#19
Ka-Shing Cheung, Wai-Kay Seto, James Fung, Lung-Yi Mak, Ching-Lung Lai, Man-Fung Yuen
AIM: To investigate the epidemiology and natural history of Wilson's disease in the Chinese. METHODS: Data were retrieved via electronic search of hospital medical registry of the Hong Kong Hospital Authority, which covers all the public healthcare services. We identified cases of Wilson's disease between 2000 and 2016 by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 code. We analyzed the incidence rate, prevalence and adverse outcomes of Wilson's disease...
November 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206676/hepatobiliary-hands-of-hopkins
#20
Henry A Pitt
OBJECTIVE: This historical perspective documents the role that John L. Cameron played in advancing hepatobiliary research, education, and surgery at Johns Hopkins in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Dating back to William S. Halsted in the 19th century, leaders of the Department of Surgery at Johns Hopkins have been interested in hepatobiliary disease and surgery. John L. Cameron had broad hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) interests when he completed his surgical training...
December 4, 2017: Annals of Surgery
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