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Diabetes and insulin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724270/synergistic-effects-of-ad-libitum-low-dose-fructose-drinking-and-low-dose-streptozotocin-treatment-in-wistar-rats-a-mild-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#1
Asie Sadeghi, Maani Beigy, Samira Alizadeh, Hossein Mazloom, Sanaz Vakili, Saideh Ahmadi, Reza Meshkani
To develop a convenient animal model of T2D by pretreatment with low-dose 10% w/v fructose (FRC) solution followed by the injection of low doses of streptozotocin (STZ) in Wistar rats. For this 8-week experimental study; rats were first fed a standard chow ad-libitum diet and either tap water (n=40) or 10% w/v FRC solution (n=40) for 4 weeks. Next, rats in each category were randomly allocated to 4 subgroups (n=10 each) of low-dose STZ (25,35, and 45 mg/kg). The final mean fasting blood sugar (FBG) of FRC+STZ45 (197±55...
May 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724177/natural-molecules-for-the-therapy-of-hyperandrogenism-and-metabolic-disorders-in-pcos
#2
V Cappelli, M C Musacchio, A Bulfoni, G Morgante, V De Leo
OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy of women of reproductive age and a complex endocrine condition, due to its heterogeneity and uncertainty about its etiology. However, PCOS is also associated with other metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and diabetes. There are few medications that are approved for the most common symptoms of PCOS, leading to the off-label use of medications that were approved for other indications...
June 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724173/a-comparative-study-between-myo-inositol-and-metformin-in-the-treatment-of-insulin-resistant-women
#3
K Nas, L Tűű
OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance (IR) is a common disorder, which can impair female fertility and is characterized by phenotypic heterogeneity. Life-style treatment and insulin sensitizers are commonly used in the management of women with IR and consequent hyperinsulinemia, in order to restore the normal endocrinological and clinical parameters. Metformin (MET) is considered one of the first approaches to this pathology but new evidences are showing promising results using myo-inositol (MYO) in the management of this pathology...
June 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724168/efficacy-and-safety-of-glp-1-receptor-agonists-across-the-spectrum-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Lawrence A Leiter, Michael A Nauck
For patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) generally exert robust glucose-lowering effects that are at least as effective as insulin. As monotherapies, changes from baseline in HbA1c with GLP-1RAs ranged from -1.9 to -0.7% in phase 3 trials. In addition, GLP-1RAs confer a low risk of hypoglycaemia and have a body-weight advantage (changes from baseline ranging from -4.0 to -0.4 kg). There is also evidence of significant reductions in risk for cardiovascular events with some of these agents, with a number of other trials underway...
July 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724059/screening-tests-for-distal-symmetrical-polyneuropathy-in-latin-american-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Nicolás Gómez-Banoy, Virginia Cuevas, Fernando Soler, Maria Fernanda Pineda, Ismena Mockus
Objective: This cross sectional study intended to evaluate two bedside tests (Neuropad and VibraTip) as screening tools for distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSPN) in Latin American patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Subjects and methods: Ninety-three Colombian patients diagnosed with T2D were recruited. Anthropometric variables, glycemic control parameters, lipid profile and renal function were assessed for each patient. DSPN was defined by a Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) clinical score greater than 2...
July 13, 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724056/prevalence-of-pancreatic-autoantibodies-in-non-diabetic-patients-with-autoimmune-thyroid-disease-and-its-relation-to-insulin-secretion-and-glucose-tolerance
#6
Carolina Sallorenzo, Regina Silva, Teresa Kasamatsu, Sérgio Dib
Objective: We evaluated the prevalence of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) and tyrosine phosphatase-protein antibodies (IA2A), their titers and their relation to first phase insulin response (FPIR) and glucose tolerance in autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) patients. Subjects and methods: Graves' disease (GD; n = 181) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT; n = 143) patients in addition to healthy controls (n = 93) were studied. Secondly, FPIR and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed in 11 anti-pancreatic islet-cell (+) and in 20 anti-pancreatic-cell (-) patients...
July 13, 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724042/hyperglycemia-in-critical-patients-determinants-of-insulin-dose-choice
#7
Aline Klitzke Paliosa, Cassiano Teixeira, Regis Goulart Rosa, Carine Raquel Blatt
Objective: To identify factors that can determine the choice of intermittent subcutaneous regular insulin dose in critically ill patients with hyperglycemia. Method: Cross-sectional study in a general adult ICU with 26 beds, data collected between September and October 2014. The variables analyzed were: sex, age, previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, use of corticosteroids, use of lactulose, sepsis, fasting, enteral nutrition, use of dextrose 5% in water, NPH insulin prescription and blood glucose level...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723844/associations-of-physical-activity-intensities-with-markers-of-insulin-sensitivity
#8
Charlotte Jelleyman, Charlotte L Edwardson, Joseph Henson, Laura J Gray, Alex V Rowlands, Kamlesh Khunti, Melanie J Davies, Thomas Yates
BACKGROUND: Objectively measured physical activity (PA) intensity has traditionally been categorised as light, moderate and vigorous using laboratory calibrated cut-points. The relative contribution of time spent across a spectrum of accelerometer-determined intensities on health outcomes is less clear. PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between objectively measured PA intensity on a continuous scale and markers of insulin sensitivity. METHODS: Participants at high risk of type 2 diabetes were recruited from primary care (Leicestershire, UK)...
July 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723729/wnt-signaling-in-cardiovascular-disease-opportunities-and-challenges
#9
Austin Gay, Dwight A Towler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiometabolic diseases increasingly afflict our aging, dysmetabolic population. Complex signals regulating low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and frizzled protein family members - the plasma membrane receptors for the cadre of Wnt polypeptide morphogens - contribute to the control of cardiovascular homeostasis. RECENT FINDINGS: Both canonical (β-catenin-dependent) and noncanonical (β-catenin-independent) Wnt signaling programs control vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cell phenotypic modulation in cardiometabolic disease...
July 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723688/trigonelline-inhibits-inflammation-and-protects-%C3%AE-cells-to-prevent-fetal-growth-restriction-during-pregnancy-in-a-mouse-model-of-diabetes
#10
Ji-Yin Zhou, Xiao-Huang Du, Zuo Zhang, Gui-Sheng Qian
BACKGROUND: As an active component from traditional Chinese medicine, trigonelline has a protective effect on diabetes. This study evaluated the protective effects of trigonelline on diabetic mice during pregnancy. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in female mice by intraperitoneal injection for continuous 5-day of 40 mg/kg/day streptozotocin. Female mice were divided into 4 groups after they were allowed to mate with normal male mice: nondiabetic, nondiabetic treated with trigonelline (70 mg/kg) for 18 days, diabetic, and diabetic treated with trigonelline (70 mg/kg)...
July 20, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722798/angptl8-betatrophin-role-in-diabetes-and-metabolic-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Mohamed Abu-Farha, Jehad Abubaker, Jaakko Tuomilehto
Diabetes is a major disease worldwide that is reaching epidemic stage. Its increased prevalence as well as its association with a high number of complications such as cardiovascular diseases, nephropathy and retinopathy makes it an important disease for investigation. ANGPTL8 is a recently identified hormone that has been associated with two functionally important processes in the development of type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance as well as lipid metabolism. Initial work has showed that ANGPTL8 was expressed in liver, white adipose and brown adipose tissues...
July 19, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722480/efficacy-and-safety-of-biosimilar-sar342434-insulin-lispro-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-also-using-insulin-glargine-sorella-1-study
#12
Satish Garg, Karin Wernicke-Panten, Maria Rojeski, Suzanne Pierre, Yvonne Kirchhein, Krystyna Jedynasty
BACKGROUND: SAR342434 is a biosimilar (follow-on) of insulin lispro-Humalog®. This study aimed to show similar efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of SAR342434 (SAR-Lis) versus insulin lispro-Humalog (Ly-Lis) in adult patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) treated with multiple daily injections while using basal insulin glargine (Lantus®; GLA100GLA-100). MATERIALS AND METHODS: SORELLA-1 was a randomized, open-label Phase 3 study (NCT02273180). Patients completing the 6-month main study continued on SAR-Lis or Ly-Lis, as randomized, for a 6-month safety extension...
July 19, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722290/development-of-a-cardiovascular-diseases-risk-prediction-model-and-tools-for-chinese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study
#13
Eric Yuk Fai Wan, Daniel Yee Tak Fong, Colman Siu Cheung Fung, Esther Yee Tak Yu, Weng Yee Chin, Anca Ka Chun Chan, Cindy Lo Kuen Lam
AIMS: Evidence-based cardiovascular diseases(CVD) risk prediction models and tools specific for Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) are currently unavailable. This study aimed to develop and validate a CVD risk prediction model for Chinese T2DM patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 137 935 Chinese patients aged 18-79 years with T2DM and without prior history of CVD, who had received public primary care services between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2010...
July 19, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722271/beyond-glycemic-control-a-cross-over-double-blind-24-week-intervention-with-liraglutide-in-type-1-diabetes
#14
M-C Dubé, M D'Amours, S J Weisnagel
AIMS: To investigate the effects of 24 weeks of treatment with liraglutide added to basal/bolus insulin on anthropometric and metabolic parameters in overweight participants with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In a double-blind cross-over fashion, 15 participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive placebo (saline solution) or liraglutide for 24 weeks including a one-month titration period from 0.6 mg to 1.2 mg to 1.8 mg, in addition to their insulin. The treatment was followed by a 1 month wash-out period...
July 18, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722242/therapeutic-application-of-gpr119-ligands-in-metabolic-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Jin Won Yang, Hyo Seon Kim, Yong-Won Choi, Young-Mi Kim, Keon Wook Kang
GPR119 belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor family, and exhibits dual modes of action upon ligand-dependent activation: pancreatic secretion of insulin in a glucose-dependent manner, and intestinal secretion of incretins. Hence, GPR119 has emerged as a promising target for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus without causing hypoglycemia. However, despite continuous efforts by many major pharmaceutical companies, no synthetic GPR119 ligand has been approved as a new class of anti-diabetic agents thus far, nor has one passed beyond phase II clinical studies...
July 18, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722106/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-exercise-role-in-diabetes-and-cardiovascular-disease
#16
REVIEW
Bente Klarlund Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Persistent inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). AIMS: The aim of this review was to provide the reader with an update of the mechanisms whereby exercise-induced cytokines may impact cardiometabolic diseases. RESULTS: Evidence exists that interleukin (IL)-1β is involved in pancreatic β-cell damage, whereas TNF-α is a key molecule in peripheral insulin resistance...
July 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721941/blood-glucose-concentration-control-for-type-1-diabetic-patients-a-non-linear-suboptimal-approach
#17
Yazdan Batmani
In this study, a closed-loop treatment strategy is proposed for the control of blood glucose levels in type 1 diabetic patients. Toward this end, a non-linear technique for designing suboptimal tracking controllers, called the state-dependent Riccati equation tracker, is used based on a mathematical model of the glucose-insulin regulatory system. Since two state variables of the utilised model are not available to the controller, a non-linear filter is also designed to estimate these variables using the measured blood glucose concentration...
August 2017: IET Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721834/the-interaction-between-nutrition-and-exercise-for-promoting-health-and-performance
#18
Oliver C Witard, Derek Ball
The theme of The Nutrition Society Spring Conference 2017 was on the interaction between nutrition and exercise for promoting healthy ageing, maintaining cognitive function and improving the metabolic health of the population. The importance of this theme is highlighted by the public health issues surrounding obesity, diabetes and the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia). The opening symposium provided a historical perspective of both invasive and non-invasive methodologies for measuring exercise energetics and energy balance...
July 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721709/-paradoxal-decrease-and-metabolic-effects-of-bnp-in-obese-patient
#19
Rémy C Martin-Du-Pan, Alain Golay
Natriuretic peptides (NP), ANP and BNP, are produced by cardiomyocytes when there is stretching of the ventricular and auricular walls in heart failure (HF). Their vasodilatator and natriuretic effect oppose to volume and pressure overload occurring in HF. Several studies have observed decreased levels of NP in obese and diabetic people and in patients with insulin resistance. This decrease could contribute to hypertension, frequently observed in obesity. NP have also a lipolytic action. Low levels of NP could promote obesity...
March 22, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721686/rationale-for-initiation-and-titration-of-the-basal-insulin-glp-1ra-fixed-ratio-combination-products-ideglira-and-iglarlixi-for-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Virginia Valentine, Jennifer Goldman, Jay H Shubrook
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a progressive disease affecting glucose regulation and a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Many patients are not escalated up the treatment ladder appropriately despite failing to achieve glycemic control, with barriers such as fear of hypoglycemia, weight gain, and treatment burden recognized as factors. Exogenous basal insulin is titrated to address control of fasting plasma glucose and may preserve residual β-cell function, thus promoting a greater endogenous prandial insulin response...
July 18, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
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