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Statins cancer chemoprevention

Jun Gong, Esha Sachdev, Lori A Robbins, Emily Lin, Andrew E Hendifar, Monica M Mita
Pancreatic cancer remains among the most lethal cancers, despite ongoing advances in treatment for all stages of the disease. Disease prevention represents another opportunity to improve patient outcome, with metabolic syndrome and its components, such as diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia, having been recognized as modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer. In addition, statins have been shown to potentially reduce pancreatic cancer risk and to improve survival in patients with a combination of metabolic syndrome and pancreatic cancer...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
Gagan Chhabra, Mary Ann Ndiaye, Liz Mariely Garcia-Peterson, Nihal Ahmad
The incidence of skin cancers, both nonmelanoma and melanoma, is increasing in the United States. The ultraviolet radiation, mainly from sun, is considered the major cause for these neoplasms. While nonmelanoma skin cancers are far more numerous, melanoma remains the most challenging. This is because melanoma can become extremely aggressive and its incidence is increasing worldwide due to lack of effective early detection, as well as disease recurrence, following both surgery and chemotherapy. Therefore, in addition to better treatment options, newer means are required to prevent melanomas from developing...
March 15, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Patrick O Richard, Ardalan E Ahmad, Shaheena Bashir, Robert J Hamilton, Robert K Nam, Ricardo Leao, Claudio Jeldres, Girish S Kulkarni
BACKGROUND: Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is especially prevalent among the elderly. Many patients with NMIBC also have significant concomitant comorbidities, including cardiovascular diseases and hypercholesterolemia. Statins are the most commonly used cholesterol-depleting agents, and they may possess anticancer properties. The objective of this population-based study was to evaluate the effect of statins on the survival of individuals diagnosed with NMIBC. METHODS: This is a retrospective population-based cohort study that used administrative databases to identify individuals 66 years of age and older who were diagnosed with NMIBC between 1992 and 2012...
February 9, 2017: Urologic Oncology
Cristina Bezzio, Stefano Festa, Simone Saibeni, Claudio Papi
Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Surveillance colonoscopy is currently recommended for patients with long-standing extensive colitis for reducing CRC risk. Chemoprevention is an attractive complementary strategy. Areas covered: Inflammation is a major determinant of CRC risk and is potentially modifiable. Reducing inflammation is supposed to reduce CRC risk. Several medications have been evaluated in this setting: 5-ASA, thiopurines, anti-TNFα agents and ursodeoxycholic acid (UCDA) in patients with associated primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)...
April 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Adam C Ehrlich, Shyam Patel, Andrew Meillier, Robin D Rothstein, Frank K Friedenberg
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are at an increased risk of colorectal cancer when compared to the general population. Chronic inflammation is thought to be the underlying cause, and medications that reduce inflammation have the potential to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. Areas covered: After conducting a PubMed search for relevant literature, we examined several classes of medications that have been studied as potential chemopreventive agents. These include 5-aminosalicylates, thiopurines, tumor necrosis factor antagonists, ursodeoxycholic acid, NSAIDs, and statins...
March 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Darren Micallef, Sarah Micallef, Pierre Schembri-Wismayer, Jean Calleja-Agius
Recent evidence shows that commonly prescribed drugs, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), metformin, and statins, may have beneficial roles in the primary chemoprevention of breast cancer. Therefore, these drugs could potentially be used in addition to the hormonal drugs currently used for this purpose (namely, selective estrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors) due to their alternative mechanisms of action.
2016: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
Rimi Murakami, Chiehfeng Chen, Shu-Yu Lyu, Ching-En Lin, Pei-Chuan Tzeng, Tzu-Feng Wang, Juei-Chin Chang, Ying-Hua Shieh, I-Fan Chen, Shihping Kevin Huang, Hui-Wen Lin
BACKGROUND: Laboratory studies have demonstrated statin-induced apoptosis of cancer cells, including breast cancer cells, and evidence is accumulating on the mechanism of statin-induced apoptosis. However, despite numerous epidemiological studies, no consensus has been reached regarding the relationship between statin use and breast cancer risk. METHODS: This retrospective case-control study enrolled 4332 breast cancer patients and 21,660 age-matched controls registered in the National Health Insurance program of Taiwan, which covers approximately 99% of the population...
2016: SpringerPlus
Chun-Chao Chen, Yi-Ping Hsu, Ju-Chi Liu, Pai-Feng Kao, Li-Chin Sung, Chao-Feng Lin, Wen-Rui Hao, Shing-Hwa Liu, Szu-Yuan Wu
PURPOSE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with an increased cancer risk. We evaluated the chemopreventive effect of statins against all cancers in COPD patients and identified the statin with the strongest chemopreventive effect. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients diagnosed with COPD at health care facilities in Taiwan (n = 116,017) from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2012, were recruited. Each patient was followed to assess the following protective and risk factors for all cancers: age; sex; comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia) and the Charlson comorbidity index [CCI]); urbanization level; monthly income; and nonstatin drug use...
2016: Journal of Cancer
Ju-Chi Liu, Wen-Rui Hao, Yi-Ping Hsu, Li-Chin Sung, Pai-Feng Kao, Chao-Feng Lin, Alexander T H Wu, Kevin Sheng-Po Yuan, Szu-Yuan Wu
PURPOSE: We evaluated the chemopreventive effect of statins on colon cancer in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and identified the statin exerting the strongest chemopreventive effect. METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified patients who received a COPD diagnosis in Taiwan between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2012, and included them in the study cohort. Each patient was followed to assess the colon cancer risk and protective factors...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
Tzu-Tang Wei, Yi-Ting Lin, Ruo-Yu Tseng, Chia-Tung Shun, Yu-Chin Lin, Ming-Shiang Wu, Jim-Min Fang, Ching-Chow Chen
PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer is a worldwide cancer with rising annual incidence. Inflammation is a well-known cause of colorectal cancer carcinogenesis. Metabolic inflammation (metaflammation) and altered gut microbiota (dysbiosis) have contributed to colorectal cancer. Chemoprevention is an important strategy to reduce cancer-related mortality. Recently, various polypharmacologic molecules that dually inhibit histone deacetylases (HDAC) and other therapeutic targets have been developed...
August 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Ju-Chi Liu, Tsung-Yeh Yang, Yi-Ping Hsu, Wen-Rui Hao, Pai-Feng Kao, Li-Chin Sung, Chun-Chao Chen, Szu-Yuan Wu
PURPOSE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased lung cancer risk. We evaluated the association of statin use with lung cancer risk in COPD patients and identified which statins possess the highest chemopreventive potential. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, sex, CCI, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, urbanization level, and monthly income according to propensity scores, lung cancer risk in the statin users was lower than that in the statin nonusers (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0...
September 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Jessica Mounessa, Rosie Qin, Cory A Dunnick, Robert P Dellavalle
A well-established link between ultraviolet exposure and the carcinogenesis of keratinocyte carcinomas exists. Despite increased sun protection efforts, skin cancer remains the most common cancer in the USA. Numerous studies on the topic of chemoprevention investigate alternative topical, oral, and injectable agents to reduce skin cancer incidence in those at risk. Such agents include sunscreen, numerous vitamins and minerals, difluoromethylornithine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, various peptides, field therapy, statins, and polyphenols...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Thunyarat Anothaisintawee, Umaporn Udomsubpayakul, Mark McEvoy, Panuwat Lerdsitthichai, John Attia, Ammarin Thakkinstian
BACKGROUND: Statins are proposed as a chemoprevention agent for breast cancer due to their anti-inflammatory effect. The effects of lipophilic and hydrophilic statins on breast cancer risk might be different due to their different pharmacologic properties. Therefore, this study aimed to assess a casual-effect of lipophilic and hydrophilic statins on breast cancer risk using a counterfactual framework approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 15,718 women who were screened for breast cancer at Mammographic center, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, was conducted during September 2011 to 2012...
2016: Journal of Cancer
Yao-Yao Zhou, Gui-Qi Zhu, Yue Wang, Ji-Na Zheng, Lu-Yi Ruan, Zhang Cheng, Bin Hu, Shen-Wen Fu, Ming-Hua Zheng
OBJECTIVES: Usage of statins is suggested to decrease the incidence of HCC. When it comes to different statin subtypes, the chemopreventive action remains controversial. We aim to compare the usage of different statins and reduction of HCC risk. METHODS: We searched PubMed, and Cochrane Library database up to August 10, 2015. Duplicated or overlapping reports were eliminated. We performed a traditional pair-wise meta-analysis and a Bayesian network meta-analysis to compare different treatments with a random-effects model...
April 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, Andrew Cagan, Tianxi Cai, Vivian S Gainer, Stanley Y Shaw, Susanne Churchill, Elizabeth W Karlson, Shawn N Murphy, Katherine P Liao, Isaac Kohane
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Chemopreventive strategies have produced weak or inconsistent results. Statins have been associated inversely with sporadic CRC. We examined their role as chemopreventive agents in patients with IBD. METHODS: We collected data from 11,001 patients with IBD receiving care at hospitals in the Greater Boston metropolitan area from 1998 through 2010...
July 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Rajesh Krishnamoorthi, Bijan Borah, Herbert Heien, Ananya Das, Amitabh Chak, Prasad G Iyer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Rates of progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma in subjects with Barrett's esophagus (BE) are lower than previously estimated. Identification of predictors of progression will enable risk stratification of BE subjects, potentially making current surveillance programs more efficient. We aimed to assess the potential of demographic and lifestyle factors, obesity, and medications in predicting progression in BE. METHODS: BE subjects were identified from the General Practice Research Database using validated diagnostic codes...
July 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Robert P Young, Raewyn J Hopkins
Current evidence suggests that persisting and/or exaggerated inflammation in the lungs initiated by smoking, and up-regulated through genetic susceptibility, may result in lung remodelling and impaired repair. The mevalonate pathway, through its modifying effects on innate immune responsiveness, may be involved in these processes providing a plausible pathogenic link between the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. The mevalonate pathway, mediates these effects through important intra-cellular signalling molecules called guanine phosphate transferases (GTPases) such as Rho-A...
2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
Chris Wakeman, Jacqueline Keenan, Jimmy Eteuati, Paul Hollington, Tim Eglinton, Frank Frizelle
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is a common and often fatal malignancy. Currently, the modifications that alter disease outcome include early symptom recognition, population screening as well as improved surgical and adjuvant treatments. Preventative strategies have been limited with little evidence that lifestyle changes significantly alter risk. There is however a growing awareness of a potential role for chemoprevention in some patient groups. This study aimed to review the literature associated with chemoprevention in colorectal cancer...
December 21, 2015: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Anton Pottegård, Peter Clark, Søren Friis, Jesper Hallas, Lars Lund
BACKGROUND: Use of statins has been suggested to protect against renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, studies have typically been underpowered, and the results are conflicting. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the use of statins is associated with a reduced risk of RCC using high-quality registry data. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a nationwide case-control study based on all histologically verified cases of RCC in Denmark between 2002 and 2012 (n=4606) matched 1:10 to cancer-free controls...
May 2016: European Urology
Supriya Mallick, Rony Benson, P K Julka
There is a potential for reducing the incidence of breast cancer by modifying or changing the reversible risk factors like dietary modifications, modifications in the sedentary life habits, etc. One of such methods which has gained popularity now is chemoprevention. Many agents have been evaluated in the chemoprevention setting in females with increased risk of breast cancers. Metformin, NSAIDS, Bisphosphonates, and statins were evaluated by various investigators with variable results. One of the agents that have been proven to be beneficial in this setting is the anti-estrogens...
March 2016: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
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