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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040326/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-modulates-adipose-tissue-biology
#1
Macarena Beigier-Bompadre, Georgina N Montagna, Anja A Kühl, Laura Lozza, January Weiner, Andreas Kupz, Alexis Vogelzang, Hans-Joachim Mollenkopf, Delia Löwe, Silke Bandermann, Anca Dorhoi, Volker Brinkmann, Kai Matuschewski, Stefan H E Kaufmann
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) primarily resides in the lung but can also persist in extrapulmonary sites. Macrophages are considered the prime cellular habitat in all tissues. Here we demonstrate that Mtb resides inside adipocytes of fat tissue where it expresses stress-related genes. Moreover, perigonadal fat of Mtb-infected mice disseminated the infection when transferred to uninfected animals. Adipose tissue harbors leukocytes in addition to adipocytes and other cell types and we observed that Mtb infection induces changes in adipose tissue biology depending on stage of infection...
October 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035391/a-gammaherpesvirus-provides-protection-against-allergic-asthma-by-inducing-the-replacement-of-resident-alveolar-macrophages-with-regulatory-monocytes
#2
Bénédicte Machiels, Mickael Dourcy, Xue Xiao, Justine Javaux, Claire Mesnil, Catherine Sabatel, Daniel Desmecht, François Lallemand, Philippe Martinive, Hamida Hammad, Martin Guilliams, Benjamin Dewals, Alain Vanderplasschen, Bart N Lambrecht, Fabrice Bureau, Laurent Gillet
The hygiene hypothesis postulates that the recent increase in allergic diseases such as asthma and hay fever observed in Western countries is linked to reduced exposure to childhood infections. Here we investigated how infection with a gammaherpesvirus affected the subsequent development of allergic asthma. We found that murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) inhibited the development of house dust mite (HDM)-induced experimental asthma by modulating lung innate immune cells. Specifically, infection with MuHV-4 caused the replacement of resident alveolar macrophages (AMs) by monocytes with regulatory functions...
October 16, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032512/il-33-signalling-in-liver-immune-cells-enhances-drug-induced-liver-injury-and-inflammation
#3
Maísa Mota Antunes, Alan Moreira Araújo, Ariane Barros Diniz, Rafaela Vaz Sousa Pereira, Débora Moreira Alvarenga, Bruna Araújo David, Renata Monti Rocha, Maria Alice Freitas Lopes, Sarah Cozzer Marchesi, Brenda Naemi Nakagaki, Érika Carvalho, Pedro Elias Marques, Bernhard Ryffel, Valérie Quesniaux, Rodrigo Guabiraba Brito, José Carlos Alves Filho, Denise Carmona Cara, Rafael Machado Rezende, Gustavo Batista Menezes
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of IL-33/ST2 axis in the onset and progression of acute liver injury using a mice model of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). MATERIAL AND TREATMENTS: DILI was induced by overdose administration of acetaminophen (APAP) by oral gavage in wild-type BALB/c, ST2-deficient mice and in different bone marrow chimeras. Neutrophils were depleted by anti-Ly6G and macrophages with clodronate liposomes (CLL)...
October 14, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031872/accumulation-and-localization-of-macrophage-phenotypes-with-human-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#4
Kenneth R Nakazawa, Benjamin A Walter, Damien M Laudier, Divya Krishnamoorthy, Grace E Mosley, Kara L Spiller, James C Iatridis
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Chronic inflammation is an important component of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, but there is limited knowledge about the identity and source of inflammatory cells involved with the degenerative processes. Macrophages can exhibit multiple phenotypes and are known inflammatory regulators in many tissues, but their phenotypes have not been characterized in IVD degeneration. PURPOSE: To characterize accumulation and localization of macrophages in IVD degeneration...
October 11, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031719/macrophage-alternative-activation-confers-protection-against-lipotoxicity-induced-cell-death
#5
Lingling Dai, Prerna Bhargava, Kristopher J Stanya, Ryan K Alexander, Yae-Huei Liou, David Jacobi, Nelson H Knudsen, Alexander Hyde, Matthew R Gangl, Sihao Liu, Chih-Hao Lee
OBJECTIVE: Alternative activation (M2) of adipose tissue resident macrophage (ATM) inhibits obesity-induced metabolic inflammation. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that dysregulated lipid homeostasis caused by increased lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) in the obese state is a trigger of inflammatory responses. We investigated the role of M2 macrophages in lipotoxicity-induced inflammation. METHODS: We used microarray experiments to profile macrophage gene expression regulated by two M2 inducers, interleukin-4 (Il-4), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta/gamma (Pparδ/Pparγ) agonists...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030904/development-and-maintenance-of-the-brain-s-immune-toolkit-microglia-and-non-parenchymal-brain-macrophages
#6
REVIEW
Jose P Lopez-Atalaya, Katharine E Askew K, Amanda Sierra, Diego Gomez-Nicola
Microglia and non-parenchymal macrophages located in the perivascular space, the meninges and the choroid plexus are independent immune populations that play vital roles in brain development, homeostasis, and tissue healing. Resident macrophages account for a significant proportion of cells in the brain and their density remains stable throughout the lifespan thanks to constant turnover. Microglia develop from yolk sac progenitors, later evolving through intermediate progenitors in a fine-tuned process in which intrinsic factors and external stimuli combine to progressively sculpt their cell-type specific transcriptional profiles...
October 14, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022912/tenomodulin-is-essential-for-prevention-of-adipocyte-accumulation-and-fibrovascular-scar-formation-during-early-tendon-healing
#7
Dasheng Lin, Paolo Alberton, Manuel Delgado Caceres, Elias Volkmer, Matthias Schieker, Denitsa Docheva
Tenomodulin (Tnmd) is the best-known mature marker for tendon and ligament lineage cells. It is important for tendon maturation, running performance and has key implications for the resident tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs). However, its exact functions during the tendon repair process still remain elusive. Here, we established an Achilles tendon injury model in a Tnmd knockout (Tnmd(-/-)) mouse line. Detailed analyses showed not only a very different scar organization with a clearly reduced cell proliferation and expression of certain tendon-related genes, but also increased cell apoptosis, adipocyte and blood vessel accumulation in the early phase of tendon healing compared with their wild-type (WT) littermates...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022261/the-non-cardiomyocyte-cells-of-the-heart-their-possible-roles-in-exercise-induced-cardiac-regeneration-and-remodeling
#8
Ivan Varga, Jan Kyselovič, Paulina Galfiova, Lubos Danisovic
The non-cardiomyocyte cellular microenvironment of the heart includes diverse types of cells of mesenchymal origin. During development, the majority of these cells derive from the epicardium, while a subset derives from the endothelium/endocardium and neural crest derived mesenchyme. This subset includes cardiac fibroblasts and telocytes, the latter of which are a controversial type of "connecting cell" that support resident cardiac progenitors in the postnatal heart. Smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and endothelial cells are also present, in addition to adipocytes, which accumulate as epicardial adipose connective tissue...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020624/temporal-tracking-of-microglia-activation-in-neurodegeneration-at-single-cell-resolution
#9
Hansruedi Mathys, Chinnakkaruppan Adaikkan, Fan Gao, Jennie Z Young, Elodie Manet, Martin Hemberg, Philip L De Jager, Richard M Ransohoff, Aviv Regev, Li-Huei Tsai
Microglia, the tissue-resident macrophages in the brain, are damage sensors that react to nearly any perturbation, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, using single-cell RNA sequencing, we determined the transcriptome of more than 1,600 individual microglia cells isolated from the hippocampus of a mouse model of severe neurodegeneration with AD-like phenotypes and of control mice at multiple time points during progression of neurodegeneration. In this neurodegeneration model, we discovered two molecularly distinct reactive microglia phenotypes that are typified by modules of co-regulated type I and type II interferon response genes, respectively...
October 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018052/intratumoral-hpv16-specific-t-cells-constitute-a-type-1-oriented-tumor-microenvironment-to-improve-survival-in-hpv16-driven-oropharyngeal-cancer
#10
Marij J P Welters, Wenbo Ma, Saskia J Santegoets, Renske Goedemans, Ilina Ehsan, Katja S Jordanova, Vanessa J van Ham, Vincent van Unen, Frits Koning, Sylvia I van Egmond, Pornpimol Charoentong, Zlatko Trajanoski, Lilly-Ann van der Velden, Sjoerd H van der Burg
PURPOSE: Human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OPSCC) has a much better prognosis than HPV-negative OPSCC and this is linked to dense tumor immune infiltration. Since the viral antigens may trigger potent immunity, we studied the relationship between the presence of intratumoral HPV-specific T-cell responses, the immune contexture in tumor microenvironment and clinical outcome. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To this purpose an in-depth analysis of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in a prospective cohort of 97 HPV16-positive and -negative OPSCC patients was performed using functional T-cell assays, mass cytometry (CyTOF), flow cytometry and fluorescent immunostaining of tumor tissues...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993690/spred2-deficiecy-protects-mice-from-polymicrobial-septic-peritonitis-by-enhancing-inflammation-and-bacterial-clearance
#11
Junya Itakura, Miwa Sato, Toshihiro Ito, Megumi Mino, Soichiro Fushimi, Sakuma Takahashi, Teizo Yoshimura, Akihiro Matsukawa
Sepsis is an infection-induced systemic inflammatory syndrome and a major cause of death for critically ill patients. Here, we examined whether the absence of Sprouty-related EVH1-domain-containing protein 2 (Spred2), a negative regulator of the Ras/Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway, influences host defense against polymicrobial sepsis (PMS) induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Compared to wild-type mice, Spred2(-/-) mice exhibited higher survival rates with increased level of leukocyte infiltration and local chemokine production and reduced plasma and peritoneal bacterial loads after CLP...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990564/-mirnas-new-actors-in-the-physiopathology-of-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Ferdinand Jagot, Nathalie Davoust
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an auto-immune demyelinating disorder characterized by a chronic neuro-inflammatory process associated with an infiltration of the central nervous system (CNS) by autoreactive lymphocytes. The etiology of the disease remains unclear but the recent discovery of a dysregulated miRNA network in both cells and extracellular fluids of MS patients has brought new insights on the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in this disorder. miRNAs can induce a T cell polarization towards a pathological Th17 or Th1 phenotype and a deleterious activation of microglia, the CNS-resident macrophages...
June 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990052/macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-knockdown-inhibit-viability-and-induce-apoptosis-of-pvm-ms
#13
Wenjing Zhang, Jian Zheng, Juan Meng, Lingling Neng, Xiaohua Chen, Zhaobing Qin
Previous studies have suggested that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) serves an important role in hearing function; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, perivascular‑resident macrophage‑like melanocytes (PVM/Ms) from the stria vascularis of the lateral cochlear wall in young and aged mice were isolated. The mRNA and protein expression levels of MIF were determined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, and western blotting, respectively...
October 2, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989540/immunotheranostic-polymersomes-modularly-assembled-from-tetrablock-and-diblock-copolymers-with-oxidation-responsive-fluorescence
#14
Fanfan Du, Yu-Gang Liu, Evan Alexander Scott
INTRODUCTION: Intracellular delivery is a key step for many applications in medicine and for investigations into cellular function. This is particularly true for immunotherapy, which often requires controlled delivery of antigen and adjuvants to the cytoplasm of immune cells. Due to the complex responses generated by the stimulation of diverse immune cell populations, it is critical to monitor which cells are targeted during treatment. To address this issue, we have engineered an immunotheranostic polymersome delivery system that fluorescently marks immune cells following intracellular delivery...
October 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988241/macrophage-extracellular-traps-a-scoping-review
#15
Ryan S Doster, Lisa M Rogers, Jennifer A Gaddy, David M Aronoff
Tissue macrophages are derived from either circulating blood monocytes that originate in the bone marrow, or embryonic precursors that establish residence in tissues and are maintained independent of bone marrow progenitors. Macrophages perform diverse functions including tissue repair, the maintenance of homeostasis, and immune regulation. Recent studies have demonstrated that macrophages produce extracellular traps (ETs). ETs are an immune response by which a cell undergoes "ETosis" to release net-like material, with strands composed of cellular DNA that is studded with histones and cellular proteins...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987879/thioaptamer-targeted-discoidal-microparticles-increase-self-immunity-and-reduce-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-burden-in-mice
#16
Fransisca Leonard, Ngan P Ha, Preeti Sule, Jenolyn F Alexander, David E Volk, Ganesh L R Lokesh, Xuewu Liu, Jeffrey D Cirillo, David G Gorenstein, Jinyun Yuan, Soumya Chatterjee, Edward A Graviss, Biana Godin
Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most prevalent infectious diseases causing morbidity and death in >1.5 million patients annually. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiologic agent of TB, usually resides in the alveolar macrophages. Current tuberculosis treatment methods require more than six months, and low compliance often leads to therapeutic failure and multidrug resistant strain development. Critical to improving TB-therapy is shortening treatment duration and increasing therapeutic efficacy...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986440/genetic-control-of-lyme-arthritis-by-borrelia-burgdorferi-arthritis-associated-locus-1-is-dependent-on-localized-differential-production-of-ifn-%C3%AE-and-requires-upregulation-of-myostatin
#17
Jackie K Paquette, Ying Ma, Colleen Fisher, Jinze Li, Sang Beum Lee, James F Zachary, Yong Soo Kim, Cory Teuscher, Janis J Weis
Previously, using a forward genetic approach, we identified differential expression of type I IFN as a positional candidate for an expression quantitative trait locus underlying Borrelia burgdorferi arthritis-associated locus 1 (Bbaa1). In this study, we show that mAb blockade revealed a unique role for IFN-β in Lyme arthritis development in B6.C3-Bbaa1 mice. Genetic control of IFN-β expression was also identified in bone marrow-derived macrophages stimulated with B. burgdorferi, and it was responsible for feed-forward amplification of IFN-stimulated genes...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986407/ferumoxytol-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-acute-myocarditis
#18
Colin G Stirrat, Shirjel R Alam, Thomas J MacGillivray, Calum D Gray, Marc R Dweck, Kevin Dibb, Nick Spath, John R Payne, Sanjay K Prasad, Roy S Gardner, Saeed Mirsadraee, Peter A Henriksen, Scott Ik Semple, David E Newby
OBJECTIVES: Ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO)-enhanced MRI can detect tissue-resident macrophage activity and identify cellular inflammation within tissues. We hypothesised that USPIO-enhanced MRI would provide a non-invasive imaging technique that would improve the diagnosis and management of patients with acute myocarditis. METHODS: Ten volunteers and 14 patients with suspected acute myocarditis underwent T2, T2* and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) 3T MRI, with further T2* imaging at 24 hours after USPIO (ferumoxytol, 4 mg/kg) infusion, at baseline and 3 months...
October 6, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982665/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-macrophages-for-unraveling-human-macrophage-biology
#19
REVIEW
Hanrui Zhang, Muredach P Reilly
Despite a substantial appreciation for the critical role of macrophages in cardiometabolic diseases, understanding of human macrophage biology has been hampered by the lack of reliable and scalable models for cellular and genetic studies. Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived macrophages (IPSDM), as an unlimited source of subject genotype-specific cells, will undoubtedly play an important role in advancing our understanding of the role of macrophages in human diseases. In this review, we summarize current literature in the differentiation and characterization of IPSDM at phenotypic, functional, and transcriptomic levels...
October 5, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980000/increased-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-and-quinolinic-acid-expression-in-microglia-and-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-of-diabetic-human-and-rodent-retina
#20
Ping Hu, Nicholas H Hunt, Frank Arfuso, Lynn C Shaw, Mohammad Nasir Uddin, Meidong Zhu, Raj Devasahayam, Samuel J Adamson, Vicky L Benson, Tailoi Chan-Ling, Maria B Grant
Purpose: We investigated the relationship between inflammation, neuronal loss, and expression of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) and quinolinic acid (QUIN) in the retina of subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and in the retina of rats with T1D. Methods: Retinas from T1D (n = 7), T2D (n = 13), and 20 age-matched nondiabetic human donors and from T1D (n = 3) and control rats (n = 3) were examined using immunohistochemistry for IDO, QUIN, cluster of differentiation 39 (CD39), ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule (Iba-1, for macrophages and microglia), Vimentin (VIM; for Müller cells), neuronal nuclei (NeuN; for neurons), and UEA1 lectin (for blood vessels)...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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