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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526177/two-cell-populations-participate-in-clearance-of-damaged-hair-cells-from-the-sensory-epithelia-of-the-inner-ear
#1
REVIEW
Keiko Hirose, Mark A Rutherford, Mark E Warchol
The cochlea and the vestibular organs are populated by resident macrophages, but their role in inner ear maintenance and pathology is not entirely clear. Resident macrophages in other organs are responsible for phagocytosis of injured or infected cells, and it is likely that macrophages in the inner ear serve a similar role. Hair cell injury causes macrophages to accumulate within proximity of damaged regions of the inner ear, either by exiting the vasculature and entering the labyrinth or by the resident macrophages reorganizing themselves through local movement to the areas of injury...
April 28, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522327/measurement-of-bacterial-capture-and-phagosome-maturation-of-kupffer-cells-by-intravital-microscopy
#2
Bas G J Surewaard, Paul Kubes
It is central to the field of bacterial pathogenesis to define how bacteria are killed by phagocytic cells. During phagocytosis, the microbe is localized to the phagolysosome where crucial defense mechanisms such as acidification and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are initiated. This process has extensively been studied in vitro, however many resident tissue phagocytes will phenotypically change upon isolation from their natural environment. Therefore, interrogation of phagocytosis and phagosomal function of cells in the context of their natural tissue environment enhances our understanding of the biological process in vivo...
May 15, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521131/diverse-requirements-for-microglial-survival-specification-and-function-revealed-by-defined-medium-cultures
#3
Christopher J Bohlen, F Chris Bennett, Andrew F Tucker, Hannah Y Collins, Sara B Mulinyawe, Ben A Barres
Microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, engage in various CNS-specific functions that are critical for development and health. To better study microglia and the properties that distinguish them from other tissue macrophage populations, we have optimized serum-free culture conditions to permit robust survival of highly ramified adult microglia under defined-medium conditions. We find that astrocyte-derived factors prevent microglial death ex vivo and that this activity results from three primary components, CSF-1/IL-34, TGF-β2, and cholesterol...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515043/brain-perivascular-macrophages-initiate-the-neurovascular-dysfunction-of-alzheimer-a%C3%AE-peptides
#4
Laibaik Park, Ken Uekawa, Lidia Garcia-Bonilla, Kenzo Koizumi, Michelle Murphy, Rose Pitstick, Linda H Younkin, Steven G Younkin, Ping Zhou, Geroge A Carlson, Josef Anrather, Costantino Iadecola
Rationale: Increasing evidence indicates that alterations of the cerebral microcirculation may play a role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading cause of late-life dementia. The amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), a key pathogenic factor in AD, induces profound alterations in neurovascular regulation through the innate immunity receptor CD36, which, in turn, activates a Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase leading to cerebrovascular oxidative stress. Brain perivascular macrophages (PVM) located in the perivascular space, a major site of brain Aβ collection and clearance, are juxtaposed to the wall of intracerebral resistance vessels and are a powerful source of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
May 17, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514690/genomic-characterization-of-murine-monocytes-reveals-c-ebp%C3%AE-transcription-factor-dependence-of-ly6c-cells
#5
Alexander Mildner, Jörg Schönheit, Amir Giladi, Eyal David, David Lara-Astiaso, Erika Lorenzo-Vivas, Franziska Paul, Louise Chappell-Maor, Josef Priller, Achim Leutz, Ido Amit, Steffen Jung
Monocytes are circulating, short-lived mononuclear phagocytes, which in mice and man comprise two main subpopulations. Murine Ly6C(+) monocytes display developmental plasticity and are recruited to complement tissue-resident macrophages and dendritic cells on demand. Murine vascular Ly6C(-) monocytes patrol the endothelium, act as scavengers, and support vessel wall repair. Here we characterized population and single cell transcriptomes, as well as enhancer and promoter landscapes of the murine monocyte compartment...
May 16, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511285/increased-f4-80-hi-macrophages-is-associated-with-suppression-of-serum-transfer-induced-arthritis-in-mice-with-flip-reduced-in-myeloid-cells
#6
Qi-Quan Huang, Robert Birket, Renee E Doyle, G Kenneth Haines, Harris Perlman, Bo Shi, Philip Homan, Lianping Xing, Richard M Pope
OBJECTIVE: Macrophages are critical in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We recently demonstrated that FLIP (FLICE-like inhibitory protein) is necessary for the differentiation and/or survival of macrophages. We also identified that FLIP is highly expressed in RA synovial macrophages. This study was performed to determine if the reduction of Flip in macrophages would reduce synovial tissue macrophages and ameliorate serum transfer induced arthritis (STIA). METHODS: Mice with Flip deleted in myeloid cells (Flip(f/f) LysM(c/+) mice) and littermate controls were employed...
May 16, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505157/structurally-optimized-analogs-of-the-retrograde-trafficking-inhibitor-retro-2cycl-limit-leishmania-infections
#7
Evan Craig, Charles-Eugene Huyghues-Despointes, Chun Yu, Emma L Handy, Jason K Sello, Peter E Kima
In infected mammalian cells, Leishmania parasites reside within specialized compartments called parasitophorous vacuoles (LPVs). We have previously shown that Retro-2, a member of a novel class of small retrograde pathway inhibitors caused reduced LPV sizes and lower parasite numbers during experimental L. mexicana sp. infections. The purpose of this study was to determine if structural analogs of Retro-2cycl reported to have superior potency in the inhibition of retrograde pathway-dependent phenomena (i.e...
May 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504838/human-innate-lymphoid-cells-ilcs-in-filarial-infections
#8
Sandra Bonne-Année, Thomas B Nutman
Filarial infections are characteristically chronic and can cause debilitating diseases governed by parasite-induced innate and adaptive immune responses. Filarial parasites traverse or establish niches in the skin (migrating infective larvae), in non-mucosal tissues (adult parasite niche) and in the blood or skin (circulating microfilariae) where they intersect with the host immune response. While several studies have demonstrated that filarial parasites and their antigens can modulate myeloid cells (monocyte, macrophage, and dendritic cell subsets), T- and B-lymphocytes and skin resident cell populations the role of innate lymphoid cells during filarial infections has only recently emerged...
May 15, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504685/spleen-derived-lipocalin-2-in-the-portal-vein-regulates-kupffer-cells-activation-and-attenuates-the-development-of-liver-fibrosis-in-mice
#9
Tomonori Aoyama, Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai, Akira Uchiyama, Kazuyoshi Kon, Hironao Okubo, Shunhei Yamashina, Kenichi Ikejima, Shigehiro Kokubu, Akihisa Miyazaki, Sumio Watanabe
The liver has an immune tolerance against gut-derived products from the portal vein (PV). A disruption of the gut-liver axis leads to liver injury and fibrosis. The spleen is connected to the PV and regulates immune functions. However, possible splenic effects on liver fibrosis development are unclear. Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) is an antimicrobial protein that regulates macrophage activation. To clarify the role of the spleen in liver fibrosis development, we induced liver fibrosis in mice after splenectomy, and investigated liver fibrosis development...
May 15, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501577/probucol-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-leukocyte-recruitment-and-inflammatory-hyperalgesia-effect-on-nf-%C3%B0%C2%BAb-activation-and-cytokine-production
#10
Amanda Z Zucoloto, Marília F Manchope, Larissa Staurengo-Ferrari, Felipe A Pinho-Ribeiro, Ana C Zarpelon, André L L Saraiva, Tatiana N Cecílio, José C Alves-Filho, Thiago M Cunha, Gustavo B Menezes, Fernando Q Cunha, Rubia Casagrande, Waldiceu A Verri
Probucol (4,4'- (Isopropylidenedithio)bis(2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) is a synthetic molecule clinically used for prevention and treatment of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial effects of probucol mainly derive from its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Gram-negative bacteria are common infectious agents and their wall components, e.g. lipopolysaccharide (LPS), are important elicitors of inflammation. LPS is sensed by tissue resident cells and it triggers a Toll-like receptor 4/MyD88-dependent signaling cascade resulting in endothelial activation, leukocyte recruitment and nociception...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500078/a-time-and-compartment-specific-activation-of-lung-macrophages-in-hypoxic-pulmonary-hypertension
#11
Steven C Pugliese, Sushil Kumar, William J Janssen, Brian B Graham, Maria G Frid, Suzette R Riddle, Karim C El Kasmi, Kurt R Stenmark
Studies in various animal models suggest an important role for pulmonary macrophages in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Yet, the molecular mechanisms characterizing the functional macrophage phenotype relative to time and pulmonary localization and compartmentalization remain largely unknown. In this study, we used a hypoxic murine model of PH in combination with FACS to quantify and isolate lung macrophages from two compartments over time and characterize their programing via RNA sequencing approaches...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500076/stat5-is-required-for-cd103-dendritic-cell-and-alveolar-macrophage-development-and-protection-from-lung-injury
#12
William E Eddy, Ke-Qin Gong, Bryan Bell, William C Parks, Steven F Ziegler, Anne M Manicone
We tested the role of Stat5 in dendritic cell and alveolar macrophage (AM) homeostasis in the lung using CD11c-cre mediated deletion (Cre(+)5(f/f)). We show that Stat5 is required for CD103(+) dendritic cell and AM development. We found that fetal monocyte maturation into AMs was impaired in Cre(+)5(f/f) mice, and we also confirmed impaired AM development of progenitor cells using mixed chimera experiments. In the absence of Stat5 signaling in AMs, mice developed alveolar proteinosis with altered lipid homeostasis...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495875/macrophage-function-in-tissue-repair-and-remodeling-requires-il-4-or-il-13-with-apoptotic-cells
#13
Lidia Bosurgi, Y Grace Cao, Mar Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Andrea Tucci, Lindsey D Hughes, Yong Kong, Jason S Weinstein, Paula Licona-Limon, Edward T Schmid, Facundo Pelorosso, Nicola Gagliani, Joseph E Craft, Richard A Flavell, Sourav Ghosh, Carla V Rothlin
Tissue repair is a subset of a broad repertoire of IL-4/IL-13-dependent host responses during helminth infection. Here, we show that IL-4/IL-13 alone were not sufficient, but IL-4/IL-13 together with apoptotic cells induced the tissue repair program in macrophages. Genetic ablation of sensors of apoptotic cells impaired the proliferation of tissue-resident macrophages and the induction of anti-inflammatory/tissue repair genes in the lung following helminth infection or in the gut following induction of colitis...
May 11, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490277/il-33-promotes-recruitment-of-microglia-macrophages-in-response-to-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Grzegorz Wicher, Ulrika Wallenquist, Ying Lei, Mattias Enoksson, Xiaofei Li, Barbara Fuchs, Sami Abu Hamdeh, Niklas Marklund, Lars Hillered, Gunnar Nilsson, Karin Forsberg-Nilsson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating condition, often leading to life-long consequences for the patients. Even though modern neurointensive care has improved functional and cognitive outcomes, efficient pharmacological therapies are still lacking. Targeting peripherally derived, or resident inflammatory cells that are rapid responders to brain injury is promising, but complex, since the contribution of inflammation to exacerbation versus improved recovery varies with time after injury. The injury-induced inflammatory response is triggered by release of alarmins, and in the present study we asked if Interleukin-33 (IL-33), an injury-associated nuclear alarmin, is involved in TBI...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487545/mechanisms-of-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation
#15
REVIEW
Takuma Tsuchida, Scott L Friedman
Hepatic fibrosis is a dynamic process characterized by the net accumulation of extracellular matrix resulting from chronic liver injury of any aetiology, including viral infection, alcoholic liver disease and NASH. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) - transdifferentiation of quiescent, vitamin-A-storing cells into proliferative, fibrogenic myofibroblasts - is now well established as a central driver of fibrosis in experimental and human liver injury. Yet, the continued discovery of novel pathways and mediators, including autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, retinol and cholesterol metabolism, epigenetics and receptor-mediated signals, reveals the complexity of HSC activation...
May 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482136/incorporation-of-resident-macrophages-in-engineered-tissues-multiple-cell-type-response-to-microenvironment-controlled-macrophage-laden-gelatin-hydrogels
#16
Camille Dollinger, Sait Ciftci, Helena Knopf-Marques, Rabia Guner, Amir M Ghaemmaghami, Christian Debry, Julien Barthès, Nihal Engin Vrana
The success of tissue engineering strategy is strongly related to the inflammatory response, mainly through the activity of macrophages that are key cells in initial immune response to implants. For engineered tissues, the presence of resident macrophages can be beneficial for maintenance of homeostasis and healing. Thus, incorporation of macrophages in engineered tissues can facilitate the integration upon implantation. In this study, we developed an in-vitro model of interaction between encapsulated naive monocytes, macrophages induced with M1/M2 stimulation and incoming cells for immune assisted tissue engineering applications...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472979/concurrent-infection-with-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-and-haemophilus-parasuis-in-two-types-of-porcine-macrophages-apoptosis-production-of-ros-and-formation-of-multinucleated-giant-cells
#17
Lenka Kavanová, Katarína Matiašková, Lenka Levá, Hana Štěpánová, Kateřina Nedbalcová, Ján Matiašovic, Martin Faldyna, Jiří Salát
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most significant and economically important infectious diseases affecting swine worldwide and can predispose pigs to secondary bacterial infections caused by, e.g. Haemophilus parasuis. The aim of the presented study was to compare susceptibility of two different types of macrophages which could be in contact with both pathogens during infection with PRRS virus (PRRSV) and in co-infection with H. parasuis. Alveolar macrophages (PAMs) as resident cells provide one of the first lines of defence against microbes invading lung tissue...
May 4, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462530/the-many-ways-tissue-phagocytes-respond-to-dying-cells
#18
REVIEW
J Magarian Blander
Apoptosis is an important component of normal tissue physiology, and the prompt removal of apoptotic cells is equally essential to avoid the undesirable consequences of their accumulation and disintegration. Professional phagocytes are highly specialized for engulfing apoptotic cells. The recent ability to track cells that have undergone apoptosis in situ has revealed a division of labor among the tissue resident phagocytes that sample them. Macrophages are uniquely programmed to process internalized apoptotic cell-derived fatty acids, cholesterol and nucleotides, as a reflection of their dominant role in clearing the bulk of apoptotic cells...
May 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461703/does-niche-competition-determine-the-origin-of-tissue-resident-macrophages
#19
REVIEW
Martin Guilliams, Charlotte L Scott
Most tissue-resident macrophages are derived from embryonic precursors but, under certain circumstances, circulating monocytes can differentiate into self-maintaining tissue-resident macrophages that resemble their embryonic counterparts. In this Opinion article, we propose that distinct macrophage precursors have an almost identical potential to develop into resident macrophages but they compete for a restricted number of niches. The tight regulation of the niche ensures that monocytes do not differentiate into macrophages when the niche is full but that these cells can differentiate efficiently into macrophages when the niche is available...
May 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461571/characterization-of-the-micro-environment-of-the-testis-that-shapes-the-phenotype-and-function-of-testicular-macrophages
#20
Ming Wang, Monika Fijak, Hamid Hossain, Melanie Markmann, Rolf M Nüsing, Günter Lochnit, Michaela F Hartmann, Stefan A Wudy, Lizong Zhang, Huanpeng Gu, Lutz Konrad, Trinad Chakraborty, Andreas Meinhardt, Sudhanshu Bhushan
Macrophages are important in the activation of innate immune responses and in a tissue-specific manner in the maintenance of organ homeostasis. Testicular macrophages (TM), which reside in the testicular interstitial space, comprise the largest leukocyte population in the testes and are assumed to play a relevant function in maintaining testicular immune privilege. Numerous studies have indicated that the interstitial fluid (IF) surrounding the TM has immunosuppressive properties, which may influence the phenotype of TM...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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