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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238347/langerhans-cells-programmed-by-the-epidermis
#1
REVIEW
Kalum Clayton, Andres F Vallejo, James Davies, Sofia Sirvent, Marta E Polak
Langerhans cells (LCs) reside in the epidermis as a dense network of immune system sentinels. These cells determine the appropriate adaptive immune response (inflammation or tolerance) by interpreting the microenvironmental context in which they encounter foreign substances. In a normal physiological, "non-dangerous" situation, LCs coordinate a continuous state of immune tolerance, preventing unnecessary and harmful immune activation. Conversely, when they sense a danger signal, for example during infection or when the physical integrity of skin has been compromised as a result of a trauma, they instruct T lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system to mount efficient effector responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235509/in-vivo-metabolic-imaging-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Caroline Guglielmetti, Austin Chou, Karen Krukowski, Chloe Najac, Xi Feng, Lara-Kirstie Riparip, Susanna Rosi, Myriam M Chaumeil
Complex alterations in cerebral energetic metabolism arise after traumatic brain injury (TBI). To date, methods allowing for metabolic evaluation are highly invasive, limiting our understanding of metabolic impairments associated with TBI pathogenesis. We investigated whether 13C MRSI of hyperpolarized (HP) [1-13C] pyruvate, a non-invasive metabolic imaging method, could detect metabolic changes in controlled cortical injury (CCI) mice (n = 57). Our results show that HP [1-13C] lactate-to-pyruvate ratios were increased in the injured cortex at acute (12/24 hours) and sub-acute (7 days) time points after injury, in line with decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, suggesting impairment of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234000/peritoneal-tissue-resident-macrophages-are-metabolically-poised-to-engage-microbes-using-tissue-niche-fuels
#3
Luke C Davies, Christopher M Rice, Erika M Palmieri, Philip R Taylor, Douglas B Kuhns, Daniel W McVicar
The importance of metabolism in macrophage function has been reported, but the in vivo relevance of the in vitro observations is still unclear. Here we show that macrophage metabolites are defined in a specific tissue context, and these metabolites are crucially linked to tissue-resident macrophage functions. We find the peritoneum to be rich in glutamate, a glutaminolysis-fuel that is exploited by peritoneal-resident macrophages to maintain respiratory burst during phagocytosis via enhancing mitochondrial complex-II metabolism...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229199/microbiota-and-aging-a-review-and-commentary
#4
REVIEW
Carmen García-Peña, Teresa Álvarez-Cisneros, Ricardo Quiroz-Baez, Robert P Friedland
Although there is a consensus that the dominant species that make up the adult microbiota remains unchanged in elderly people, it has been reported that there are significant alterations in the proportion and composition of the different taxa, leading to reduced microbiota diversity, as well as an increase of enteropathogens that may lead to chronic inflammation. The ageing of mucosal immune and motor systems also contributes to these changes. As the individual ages, there is a loss in the number of Peyer's patches, an altered local capacity of T and B cell functions as well as chronic macrophage activation...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228214/oestrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-ligand-acts-on-cd11c-cells-to-mediate-protection-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#5
Roy Y Kim, Darian Mangu, Alexandria S Hoffman, Rojan Kovash, Eunice Jung, Noriko Itoh, Rhonda Voskuhl
Oestrogen treatments are neuroprotective in a variety of neurodegenerative disease models. Selective oestrogen receptor modifiers are needed to optimize beneficial effects while minimizing adverse effects to achieve neuroprotection in chronic diseases. Oestrogen receptor beta (ERβ) ligands are potential candidates. In the multiple sclerosis model chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, ERβ-ligand treatment is neuroprotective, but mechanisms underlying this neuroprotection remain unclear. Specifically, whether there are direct effects of ERβ-ligand on CD11c+ microglia, myeloid dendritic cells or macrophages in vivo during disease is unknown...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225599/promoter-specificity-and-efficacy-in-conditional-and-inducible-transgenic-targeting-of-lung-macrophages
#6
Alexandra L McCubbrey, Kristen C Allison, Alisa B Lee-Sherick, Claudia V Jakubzick, William J Janssen
Conditional and inducible Cre-loxP systems are used to target gene deletion to specific cell lineages and tissues through promoter-restricted expression of the bacterial DNA recombinase, Cre. Although Cre-loxP systems are widely used to target gene deletion in lung macrophages, limited data are published on the specificity and efficiency of "macrophage targeting" Cre lines. Using R26-stopfl/fl-TdTomato and tetOn-GFP reporter lines, we assessed the specificity and efficiency of four commercially available Cre driver lines that are often considered "macrophage specific...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222823/dominant-role-of-microglial-and-macrophage-innate-immune-responses-in-human-ischemic-infarcts
#7
Tobias Zrzavy, Joana Machado-Santos, Sheren Christine, Christoph Baumgartner, Howard L Weiner, Oleg Butovsky, Hans Lassmann
Inflammatory mechanisms, involving granulocytes, T-cells, B-cells, macrophages and activated microglia, have been suggested to play a pathogenic role in experimental models of stroke and may be targets for therapeutic intervention. However, knowledge on the inflammatory response in human stroke lesions is limited. Here, we performed a quantitative study on the inflammatory reaction in human ischemic infarct lesions. We found increased numbers of T-lymphocytes, mainly CD8+ cells, but not of B-lymphocytes. Their number was very low in comparison to that seen in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system and they did not show signs of activation...
December 8, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222479/gdf15-deficiency-exacerbates-chronic-alcohol-and-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-injury
#8
Hyo Kyun Chung, Jung Tae Kim, Hyeon-Woo Kim, Minjoo Kwon, So Yeon Kim, Minho Shong, Koon Soon Kim, Hyon-Seung Yi
Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) has recently been shown to have an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial function and in the pathogenesis of complex human diseases. Nevertheless, the role of GDF15 in alcohol-induced or fibrotic liver diseases has yet to be determined. In this study, we demonstrate that alcohol- or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-mediated hepatic GDF15 production ameliorates liver inflammation and fibrosis. Alcohol directly enhanced GDF15 expression in primary hepatocytes, which led to increased oxygen consumption...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218601/regulation-of-myelopoiesis-by-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-infectious-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Yukino Chiba, Izuru Mizoguchi, Hideaki Hasegawa, Mio Ohashi, Naoko Orii, Taro Nagai, Miyaka Sugahara, Yasunori Miyamoto, Mingli Xu, Toshiyuki Owaki, Takayuki Yoshimoto
Hematopoiesis is hierarchically orchestrated by a very small population of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that reside in the bone-marrow niche and are tightly regulated to maintain homeostatic blood production. HSCs are predominantly quiescent, but they enter the cell cycle in response to inflammatory signals evoked by severe systemic infection or injury. Thus, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) can be activated by pathogen recognition receptors and proinflammatory cytokines to induce emergency myelopoiesis during infection...
December 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218036/the-macrophage-a-disputed-fortress-in-the-battle-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#10
REVIEW
Christophe J Queval, Roland Brosch, Roxane Simeone
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiological agent of human tuberculosis (TB), has plagued humans for thousands of years. TB still remains a major public health problem in our era, causing more than 4,400 deaths worldwide every day and killing more people than HIV. After inhaling Mtb-contaminated aerosols, TB primo-infection starts in the terminal lung airways, where Mtb is taken up by alveolar macrophages. Although macrophages are known as professional killers for pathogens, Mtb has adopted remarkable strategies to circumvent host defenses, building suitable conditions to survive and proliferate...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217759/opposing-roles-of-dendritic-cell-subsets-in-experimental-gn
#11
Sebastian Brähler, Bernd H Zinselmeyer, Saravanan Raju, Maximilian Nitschke, Hani Suleiman, Brian T Saunders, Michael W Johnson, Alexander M C Böhner, Susanne F Viehmann, Derek J Theisen, Nicole M Kretzer, Carlos G Briseño, Konstantin Zaitsev, Olga Ornatsky, Qing Chang, Javier A Carrero, Jeffrey B Kopp, Maxim N Artyomov, Christian Kurts, Kenneth M Murphy, Jeffrey H Miner, Andrey S Shaw
Dendritic cells (DCs) are thought to form a dendritic network across barrier surfaces and throughout organs, including the kidney, to perform an important sentinel function. However, previous studies of DC function used markers, such as CD11c or CX3CR1, that are not unique to DCs. Here, we evaluated the role of DCs in renal inflammation using a CD11c reporter mouse line and two mouse lines with DC-specific reporters, Zbtb46-GFP and Snx22-GFP. Multiphoton microscopy of kidney sections confirmed that most of the dendritically shaped CD11c+ cells forming a network throughout the renal interstitium expressed macrophage-specific markers...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214887/enhanced-efficacy-of-curcumin-with-phosphatidylserine-decorated-nanoparticles-in-the-treatment-of-hepatic-fibrosis
#12
Ji Wang, Wen Pan, Ying Wang, Wan Lei, Bin Feng, Caigan Du, Xiao-Juan Wang
Hepatic macrophages have been considered as a therapeutic target for liver fibrosis treatment, and phosphatidylserine (PS)-containing nanoparticles are commonly used to mimic apoptotic cells that can specifically regulate macrophage functions, resulting in anti-inflammatory effects. This study was designed to test the efficacy of PS-modified nanostructured lipid carriers (mNLCs) containing curcumin (Cur) (Cur-mNLCs) in the treatment of liver fibrosis in a rat model. Carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats was used as an experimental model, and the severity of the disease was examined by both biochemical and histological methods...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209305/unveiling-and-characterizing-early-bilateral-interactions-between-biofilm-and-the-mouse-innate-immune-system
#13
REVIEW
Christiane Forestier, Elisabeth Billard, Geneviève Milon, Pascale Gueirard
A very substantial progress has been made in our understanding of infectious diseases caused by invasive bacteria. Under their planktonic forms, bacteria transiently reside in the otherwise sterile mammal body tissues, as the physiological inflammation insures both their clearance and repair of any tissue damage. Yet, the bacteria prone to experience planktonic to biofilm developmental transition still need to be studied. Of note, sessile bacteria not only persist but also concur preventing the effectors and regulators of the physiological inflammation to operate...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205180/androgen-receptor-deficiency-in-monocytes-macrophages-does-not-alter-adiposity-or-glucose-homeostasis-in-male-mice
#14
Katya B Rubinow, Barbara Houston, Shari Wang, Leela Goodspeed, Kayoko Ogimoto, Gregory J Morton, Christopher McCarty, Robert E Braun, Stephanie T Page
Androgen deprivation in men leads to increased adiposity, but the mechanisms underlying androgen regulation of fat mass have not been fully defined. Androgen receptor (AR) is expressed in monocytes/macrophages, which are resident in key metabolic tissues and influence energy metabolism in surrounding cells. Male mice bearing a cell-specific knockout of the AR in monocytes/macrophages (M-ARKO) were generated to determine whether selective loss of androgen signaling in these cells would lead to altered body composition...
December 5, 2017: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203542/pro-inflammatory-role-of-monocyte-derived-cx3cr1int-macrophages-in-helicobacter-hepaticus-induced-colitis
#15
Calum C Bain, Christopher J Oliphant, Carolyn A Thomson, Marika C Kullberg, Allan McI Mowat
Cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage play important roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases, but they are also present in the normal healthy intestine, where they are critical for maintaining homeostasis. It has been unclear whether the pro-inflammatory roles of intestinal macrophages reflect altered behaviour of the existing resident cells, or if they involve recruitment of a distinct cell type. Here we have explored these ideas using the model of colitis induced by Helicobacter hepaticus (Hh) in the context of neutralisation or deletion of interleukin 10 (IL-10)...
December 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202771/selective-proliferative-response-of-microglia-to-alternative-polarization-signals
#16
Giovanna Pepe, Marcella De Maglie, Lucia Minoli, Alessandro Villa, Adriana Maggi, Elisabetta Vegeto
BACKGROUND: Microglia are resident myeloid cells of the central nervous system (CNS) that are maintained by self-renewal and actively participate in tissue homeostasis and immune defense. Under the influence of endogenous or pathological signals, microglia undertake biochemical transformations that are schematically classified as the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype and the alternatively activated M2 state. Dysregulated proliferation of M1-activated microglia has detrimental effects, while an increased number of microglia with the alternative, pro-resolving phenotype might be beneficial in brain pathologies; however, the proliferative response of microglia to M2 signals is not yet known...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202448/cd11c-resident-macrophages-drive-hepatocyte-death-triggered-liver-fibrosis-in-a-murine-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#17
Michiko Itoh, Takayoshi Suganami, Hideaki Kato, Sayaka Kanai, Ibuki Shirakawa, Takeru Sakai, Toshihiro Goto, Masahiro Asakawa, Isao Hidaka, Hiroshi Sakugawa, Koji Ohnishi, Yoshihiro Komohara, Kenichi Asano, Isao Sakaida, Masato Tanaka, Yoshihiro Ogawa
Although recent evidence has pointed to the role of organ- and pathogenesis-specific macrophage subsets, it is still unclear which subsets are critically involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Using melanocortin-4 receptor-deficient (MC4R-KO) mice fed Western diet (WD), which exhibit liver phenotypes similar to those of human NASH, we found a histological structure, termed hepatic crown-like structure (hCLS), in which CD11c+ macrophages surround dead/dying hepatocytes, a prominent feature of NASH...
November 16, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200200/wogonin-protects-against-cisplatin-induced-acute-kidney-injury-by-targeting-ripk1-mediated-necroptosis
#18
Xiao-Ming Meng, Hai-Di Li, Wei-Feng Wu, Patrick Ming-Kuen Tang, Gui-Ling Ren, Li Gao, Xiao-Feng Li, Yang Yang, Tao Xu, Tao-Tao Ma, Zeng Li, Cheng Huang, Lei Zhang, Xiong-Wen Lv, Jun Li
Acute kidney injury (AKI), characterized by aggressive inflammatory responses and destruction of renal resident cells, can cause abrupt kidney dysfunction. To date, effective therapy for AKI is lacking. In this study, we evaluated the renoprotective effect of wogonin, an herbal active compound, using a cisplatin-induced AKI mouse model. In vivo results show that wogonin substantially suppressed the increased levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) almost to the normal level. Wogonin also attenuated tubular damage, shown by PAS staining, electron microscopy and molecular analysis of KIM-1...
December 4, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196883/magnesium-lithospermate-b-suppresses-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation-in-bv2-microglial-cells-and-attenuates-neurodegeneration-in-lipopolysaccharide-injected-mice
#19
Yaojun Tai, Yujiao Qiu, Zhicheng Bao
Chronic inflammation in the brain plays a critical role in major neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Microglia, the resident macrophages and intrinsic components of the central nervous system (CNS), appear to be the main effectors in this pathological process. Magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) is one of the major bioactive components of Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae, which has been documented to protect neurons against multiple types of neuronal injury...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195137/the-nadph-organizers-noxo1-and-p47phox-are-both-mediators-of-diabetes-induced-vascular-dysfunction-in-mice
#20
Flávia Rezende, Franziska Moll, Maria Walter, Valeska Helfinger, Fabian Hahner, Patrick Janetzko, Christian Ringel, Andreas Weigert, Ingrid Fleming, Norbert Weissmann, Carsten Kuenne, Mario Looso, Michael A Rieger, Peter Nawroth, Thomas Fleming, Ralf P Brandes, Katrin Schröder
AIM: NADPH oxidases are important sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Several Nox homologues are present together in the vascular system but whether they exhibit crosstalk at the activity level is unknown. To address this, vessel function of knockout mice for the cytosolic Nox organizer proteins p47phox, NoxO1 and a p47phox-NoxO1-double knockout were studied under normal condition and during streptozotocin-induced diabetes. RESULTS: In the mouse aorta, mRNA expression for NoxO1 was predominant in smooth muscle and endothelial cells, whereas p47phox was markedly expressed in adventitial cells comprising leukocytes and tissue resident macrophages...
November 22, 2017: Redox Biology
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