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resident macrophage

Akira Katsube, Hisamitsu Hayashi, Hiroyuki Kusuhara
OBJECTIVE: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) exerts an atheroprotective action through the biogenesis of high-density lipoprotein in hepatocytes and prevents the formation of foam cells from macrophages. Controlling ABCA1 is a rational approach to improving atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Although much is known about the regulatory mechanism of ABCA1 synthesis, the molecular mechanism underpinning its degradation remains to be clearly described. APPROACH AND RESULTS: ABCA1 possesses potential sites of phosphorylation by serine/threonine-protein kinase Pim-1 (Pim-1)...
October 20, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Kipp Weiskopf, Peter J Schnorr, Wendy W Pang, Mark P Chao, Akanksha Chhabra, Jun Seita, Mingye Feng, Irving L Weissman
The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is a multipotent stem cell that resides in the bone marrow and has the ability to form all of the cells of the blood and immune system. Since its first purification in 1988, additional studies have refined the phenotype and functionality of HSCs and characterized all of their downstream progeny. The hematopoietic lineage is divided into two main branches: the myeloid and lymphoid arms. The myeloid arm is characterized by the common myeloid progenitor and all of its resulting cell types...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Ellen Van Damme, Kim Thys, Marianne Tuefferd, Carl Van Hove, Jeroen Aerssens, Marnix Van Loock
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a betaherpesvirus which rarely presents problems in healthy individuals, yet may result in severe morbidity in immunocompromised patients and in immune-naïve neonates. HCMV has a large 235 kb genome with a coding capacity of at least 165 open reading frames (ORFs). This large genome allows complex gene regulation resulting in different sets of transcripts during lytic and latent infection. While latent virus mainly resides within monocytes and CD34+ progenitor cells, reactivation to lytic infection is driven by differentiation towards terminally differentiated myeloid dendritic cells and macrophages...
2016: PloS One
Elizabeth M Todd, Julie Y Zhou, Taylor P Szasz, Lauren E Deady, June A D'Angelo, Matthew D Cheung, Alfred H J Kim, Sharon Celeste Morley
Alveolar macrophages are lung-resident sentinel cells that develop perinatally and protect against pulmonary infection. Molecular mechanisms controlling alveolar macrophage generation have not been fully defined. Here we show that the actin-bundling protein L-plastin (LPL) is required for the perinatal development of alveolar macrophages. Mice expressing a conditional allele of LPL (CD11c.Cre(pos)-LPL(fl/fl)) exhibited significant reductions in alveolar macrophages and failed to effectively clear pulmonary pneumococcal infection, showing that immunodeficiency results from reduced alveolar macrophage numbers...
October 6, 2016: Blood
Nigora Mukhamedova, Anh Hoang, Huanhuan L Cui, Irena Carmichael, Ying Fu, Michael Bukrinsky, Dmitri Sviridov
OBJECTIVE: ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) is the principal protein responsible for cellular cholesterol efflux. Abundance and functionality of ABCA1 is regulated both transcriptionally and post-translationally, with endocytosis of ABCA1 being an important element of post-translational regulation. Functional ABCA1 resides on the plasma membrane but can be internalized and either degraded or recycled back to the plasma membrane. The interaction between the degradative and recycling pathways determines the abundance of ABCA1 and may contribute to the efflux of intracellular cholesterol...
October 6, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Erika M Palmieri, Alessio Menga, Aurore Lebrun, Douglas C Hooper, D Allan Butterfield, Massimiliano Mazzone, Alessandra Castegna
AIMS: Microglial cells are brain resident macrophages engaged in surveillance and maintained in a constant state of relative inactivity. However, their involvement in autoimmune diseases indicates that in pathological conditions microglia gain an inflammatory phenotype. The mechanisms underlying this change in the microglial phenotype are still unclear. Since metabolism is an important modulator of immune cell function, we focused our attention on glutamine synthetase (GS), a modulator of the response to LPS-activation in other cell types, which is expressed by microglia...
October 19, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Nynke Oosterhof, Inge R Holtman, Laura E Kuil, Herma C van der Linde, Erik W G M Boddeke, Bart J L Eggen, Tjakko J van Ham
Microglia are brain resident macrophages important for brain development, connectivity, homeostasis and disease. However, it is still largely unclear how microglia functions and their identity are regulated at the molecular level. Although recent transcriptomic studies have identified genes specifically expressed in microglia, the function of most of these genes in microglia is still unknown. Here, we performed RNA sequencing on microglia acutely isolated from healthy and neurodegenerative zebrafish brains...
October 19, 2016: Glia
Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Kaya Miyazaki, Kazuhisa Hashiba, Kiyoshi Okuda, Toshihiko Iwanaga
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms regulating the function and regression of the corpus luteum (CL) have not yet been elucidated in detail. The regressed CL of cows was previously reported to be filled with unusual vessels like arteriovenous anastomosis (AVA); however how these vessels are being established during luteolysis remains unknown. METHODS: The bovine CL at different luteal stages and regressing bovine CL induced by prostaglandin F2α (PGF) were histologically analyzed using light and electron microscopic levels...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Ovarian Research
Matthias Holzlechner, Katharina Strasser, Elitsa Zareva, Luise Steinhaeuser, Hanna Birnleitner, Andrea Beer, Michael Bergmann, Rudolf Oehler, Martina Marchetti-Deschmann
Tissue-resident immune cells differ from the corresponding blood cells in many functional aspects. Although the proteome of blood immune cells is well investigated there are almost no data on tissue-resident immune cells. Here we explored the potential of MALDI-TOF-MS imaging (MSI) to investigate these cells in colon tissue, which exhibits a strong immune infiltration. MSI identified several proteinaceous markers that colocalized with specific structures of the colon such as mucosa or muscularis mucosae in six patients...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Emeline Puissant, Marielle Boonen
Osteoclasts are giant bone-resorbing cells originating from monocytes/macrophages. During their differentiation, they overexpress two lysosomal enzymes, cathepsin K and TRAP, which are secreted into the resorption lacuna, an acidified sealed area in contact with bone matrix where bone degradation takes place. Here we report that the acid hydrolase HYAL1, a hyaluronidase able to degrade the glycosaminoglycans hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate, is also upregulated upon osteoclastogenesis. The mRNA expression and protein level of HYAL1 are markedly increased in osteoclasts differentiated from RAW264...
2016: PloS One
Andreas Schlitzer, Joachim L Schultze
Tissue macrophages of fetal and adult origin have pivotal roles in tissue homeostasis and organ inflammation. Recently several functional and transcriptomic studies have revealed their unique module-like transcriptomic organization leading to enormous tissue-dependent functional plasticity. In this review, we discuss the development, tissue adaption and function of resident murine and human macrophages. Finally, we discuss our limited knowledge on human tissue macrophages and provide our opinion on their relevance during disease and for clinical application...
October 18, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
Yanqing Zhang, Cheng Wang, Yunli Tian, Fengxiao Zhang, Wenjing Xu, Xiangrao Li, Zhiping Shu, Yan Wang, Kai Huang, Dan Huang
Activation of Kupffer cells (KCs) by gut-derived endotoxin plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). Limiting the activation of resident KCs attenuates chronic ethanol-induced liver steatosis and injury. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 is suggested to play a role in a number of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this study, we found a significant increase of hepatic PARP activity in mice with short-term and long-term ethanol-induced ALD. Male mice on a long-term ethanol diet exhibited severe hepatic steatosis and apoptosis and enhanced KC activation and neutrophil infiltration...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Jennifer Jurkin, Corinna Krump, René Köffel, Christina Fieber, Christopher Schuster, Patrick M Brunner, Izabela Borek, Gregor Eisenwort, Clarice Lim, Jörg Mages, Roland Lang, Wolfgang Bauer, Diana Mechtcheriakova, Anastasia Meshcheryakova, Adelheid Elbe-Bürger, Georg Stingl, Herbert Strobl
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cell (LC) networks play key roles in immunity and tolerance at body surfaces. LCs are established prenatally and can be replenished from blood monocytes. Unlike skin-resident dermal/interstitial-type DCs (d/intDCs) and inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells (IDECs) appearing in dermatitis/eczema lesions, LCs lack key monocyte-affiliated markers. Inversely, LCs express various epithelial genes critical for their long-term peripheral tissue residency. OBJECTIVE: DCs are functionally involved in inflammatory diseases; however, mechanisms remained poorly understood...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Ting Yuan, Weitong Yao, Kenzo Tokunaga, Rongge Yang, Binlian Sun
BACKGROUND: Several members of the TRIM family have been implicated in antiviral defense. Our previous report showed that human TRIM11 potently inhibited HIV-1 transduction by reducing the viral reverse transcripts. These results prompted us to examine the effect of TRIM11 on HIV-1 uncoating, which is closely related to viral reverse transcription. RESULTS: Using a combination of in vitro binding and in situ proximity ligation assay, we showed that TRIM11 could interact with HIV-1 capsid...
October 13, 2016: Retrovirology
R Krishnan Kutty, William Samuel, Kaifa Boyce, Aswini Cherukuri, Todd Duncan, Cynthia Jaworski, Chandrasekharam N Nagineni, T Michael Redmond
PURPOSE: Proinflammatory cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) secreted by infiltrating lymphocytes or macrophages may play a role in triggering RPE dysfunction associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Binding of these proinflammatory cytokines to their specific receptors residing on the RPE cell surface can activate signaling pathways that, in turn, may dysregulate cellular gene expression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1β have an adverse effect on the expression of genes essential for RPE function, employing the RPE cell line ARPE-19 as a model system...
2016: Molecular Vision
Reinhild Feuerstein, Julia Kolter, Philipp Henneke
The dermis, a major reservoir of immune cells in immediate vicinity to the colonizing skin microflora, serves as an important site of host-pathogen interactions. Macrophages (Mϕ) are the most frequent resident immune cell type in the dermis. They protect the host from invasive infections by highly adapted bacteria, such as staphylococci via pattern recognition of bacterial effectors, phagocytosis, and recruitment of other myeloid cells from the blood. Already under homeostatic conditions, the dermal Mϕ population receives a dynamic input of monocytes invading from the bloodstream...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Sarrabeth Stone, Anne Camille La Flamme
Macrophages can be activated into several distinct activation states. One of these states, type II activation, has a regulatory phenotype characterized by decreased IL-12 and increased IL-10, and has been shown to bias naïve CD4+ T cells to a Th2 response. Microglia, the resident macrophage-like cells in the central nervous system (CNS), are important contributors to neuroinflammation and, thus, we investigated if type II activated microglia could bias CD4+ T cell responses in a similar manner as type II activated macrophages...
2016: PloS One
Pia Rantakari, Norma Jäppinen, Emmi Lokka, Elias Mokkala, Heidi Gerke, Emilia Peuhu, Johanna Ivaska, Kati Elima, Kaisa Auvinen, Marko Salmi
Macrophages are required for normal embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis and immunity against microorganisms and tumours. Adult tissue-resident macrophages largely originate from long-lived, self-renewing embryonic precursors and not from haematopoietic stem-cell activity in the bone marrow. Although fate-mapping studies have uncovered a great amount of detail on the origin and kinetics of fetal macrophage development in the yolk sac and liver, the molecules that govern the tissue-specific migration of these cells remain completely unknown...
October 12, 2016: Nature
Maren Jannasch, Tobias Weigel, Lisa Engelhardt, Judith Wiezoreck, Sabine Gaetzner, Heike Walles, Tobias Schmitz, Jan Hansmann
Surgical implantation of a biomaterial triggers foreign-body-induced fibrous encapsulation. Two major mechanisms of this complex physiological process are (I) chemotaxis of fibroblasts from surrounding tissue to the implant region, followed by (II) tissue remodeling. As an alternative to animal studies, we here propose anprocess-aligned in vitrotest platform to investigate the material dependency of fibroblast chemotaxis and tissue remodeling, mediated by material-resident macrophages. Embedded in a biomimetic three-dimensional collagen hydrogel, chemotaxis of fibroblasts in direction of macrophage-material-incubated cell culture supernatant was analysed by live-cell imaging...
October 11, 2016: ALTEX
Takeru Amiya, Nobuhiro Nakamoto, Po-Sung Chu, Toshiaki Teratani, Hideaki Nakajima, Yumi Fukuchi, Nobuhito Taniki, Akihiro Yamaguchi, Shunsuke Shiba, Rei Miyake, Tadashi Katayama, Hirotoshi Ebinuma, Takanori Kanai
The fundamental mechanism how heterogeneous hepatic macrophage (Mφ) subsets fulfill diverse functions in health and disease has not been elucidated. We recently reported that CCR9(+) inflammatory Mφs play a critical role in the course of acute liver injury. To clarify the origin and differentiation of CCR9(+)Mφs, we used a unique partial bone marrow (BM) chimera model with liver shielding for maintaining hepatic resident Mφs. First, irradiated mice developed less liver injury with less Mφs accumulation by Concanavalin A (Con A) regardless of liver shielding...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
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