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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096392/continual-renewal-and-replication-of-persistent-leishmania-major-parasites-in-concomitantly-immune-hosts
#1
Michael A Mandell, Stephen M Beverley
In most natural infections or after recovery, small numbers of Leishmania parasites remain indefinitely in the host. Persistent parasites play a vital role in protective immunity against disease pathology upon reinfection through the process of concomitant immunity, as well as in transmission and reactivation, yet are poorly understood. A key question is whether persistent parasites undergo replication, and we devised several approaches to probe the small numbers in persistent infections. We find two populations of persistent Leishmania major: one rapidly replicating, similar to parasites in acute infections, and another showing little evidence of replication...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093525/mafb-determines-human-macrophage-anti-inflammatory-polarization-relevance-for-the-pathogenic-mechanisms-operating-in-multicentric-carpotarsal-osteolysis
#2
Víctor D Cuevas, Laura Anta, Rafael Samaniego, Emmanuel Orta-Zavalza, Juan Vladimir de la Rosa, Geneviève Baujat, Ángeles Domínguez-Soto, Paloma Sánchez-Mateos, María M Escribese, Antonio Castrillo, Valérie Cormier-Daire, Miguel A Vega, Ángel L Corbí
Macrophage phenotypic and functional heterogeneity derives from tissue-specific transcriptional signatures shaped by the local microenvironment. Most studies addressing the molecular basis for macrophage heterogeneity have focused on murine cells, whereas the factors controlling the functional specialization of human macrophages are less known. M-CSF drives the generation of human monocyte-derived macrophages with a potent anti-inflammatory activity upon stimulation. We now report that knockdown of MAFB impairs the acquisition of the anti-inflammatory profile of human macrophages, identify the MAFB-dependent gene signature in human macrophages and illustrate the coexpression of MAFB and MAFB-target genes in CD163(+) tissue-resident and tumor-associated macrophages...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091823/skeletal-muscle-inflammation-and-atrophy-in-heart-failure
#3
Kory J Lavine, Oscar L Sierra
Heart failure represents a systemic disease with profound effects on multiple peripheral tissues including skeletal muscle. Within the context of heart failure, perturbations in skeletal muscle physiology, structure, and function strongly contribute to exercise intolerance and the morbidity of this devastating disease. There is growing evidence that chronic heart failure imparts specific pathological changes within skeletal muscle beds resulting in muscle dysfunction and tissue atrophy. Mechanistically, systemic and local inflammatory responses drive critical aspects of this pathology...
January 14, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091624/paracrine-cross-talk-between-skeletal-muscle-and-macrophages-in-exercise-by-pgc-1%C3%AE-controlled-bnp
#4
Regula Furrer, Petra S Eisele, Alexander Schmidt, Markus Beer, Christoph Handschin
Activation of resident and infiltrating immune cells is a central event in training adaptation and other contexts of skeletal muscle repair and regeneration. A precise orchestration of inflammatory events in muscle fibers and immune cells is required after recurrent contraction-relaxation cycles. However, the mechanistic aspects of this important regulation remain largely unknown. We now demonstrate that besides a dominant role in controlling cellular metabolism, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) also has a profound effect on cytokine expression in muscle tissue...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090670/an-endoplasmic-reticulum-protein-nogo-b-facilitates-alcoholic-liver-disease-through-regulation-of-kupffer-cell-polarization
#5
Jin-Kyu Park, Mingjie Shao, Moon Young Kim, Soon Koo Baik, Mee Yon Cho, Teruo Utsumi, Ayano Satoh, Xinsho Ouyang, Chuhan Chung, Yasuko Iwakiri
Background Nogo-B (Reticulon 4B) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein that regulates ER structure and function. Since ER stress is known to induce M2 macrophage polarization, we examined whether Nogo-B regulates M1/M2 polarization of Kupffer cells and alters the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Methods M1 and M2 phenotypes were assessed in relation to Nogo-B expression and disease severity in liver specimens from ALD patients (NCT01875211). Liver specimens from wild-type (WT) and Nogo-B knockout (KO) mice fed control or Lieber-DeCarli ethanol liquid diet (5% ethanol) for 6 weeks were analyzed for liver injury and steatosis...
January 16, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090562/hepatitis-c-virus-induced-monocyte-differentiation-into-polarized-m2-macrophages-promotes-stellate-cell-activation-via%C3%A2-tgf-%C3%AE
#6
Banishree Saha, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Monocyte and macrophage (MΦ) activation contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Disease pathogenesis is regulated by both liver-resident MΦs and monocytes recruited as precursors of MΦs into the damaged liver. Monocytes differentiate into M1 (classic/proinflammatory) or M2 (alternative/anti-inflammatory) polarized MΦs in response to tissue microenvironment. We hypothesized that HCV-infected hepatoma cells (infected with Japanese fulminant hepatitis-1 [Huh7...
May 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087927/genome-wide-approaches-to-defining-macrophage-identity-and-function
#7
Gregory J Fonseca, Jason S Seidman, Christopher K Glass
Macrophages play essential roles in the response to injury and infection and contribute to the development and/or homeostasis of the various tissues they reside in. Conversely, macrophages also influence the pathogenesis of metabolic, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic diseases. Mechanisms that contribute to the phenotypic diversity of macrophages in health and disease remain poorly understood. Here we review the recent application of genome-wide approaches to characterize the transcriptomes and epigenetic landscapes of tissue-resident macrophages...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087417/culture-media-based-selection-of-endothelial-cells-pericytes-and-perivascular-resident-macrophage-like-melanocytes-from-the-young-mouse-vestibular-system
#8
Jinhui Zhang, Songlin Chen, Jing Cai, Zhiqiang Hou, Xiaohan Wang, Allan Kachelmeier, Xiaorui Shi
The vestibular blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) is comprised of perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocytes (PVM/Ms) and pericytes (PCs), in addition to endothelial cells (ECs) and basement membrane (BM), and bears strong resemblance to the cochlear BLB in the stria vascularis. Over the past few decades, in vitro cell-based models have been widely used in blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-retina barrier (BRB) research, and have proved to be powerful tools for studying cell-cell interactions in their respective organs...
January 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087004/gimme-a-complex-resident-mononuclear-phagocytes-in-the-kidney-as-monitors-of-circulating-antigens-and-immune-complexes
#9
Wulf Tonnus, Christian Hugo, Andreas Linkermann
Over the past decade, researchers have made substantial progress in characterizing a network of mononuclear phagocytes in the kidney, which variously have been referred to as resident macrophages or dendritic cells. Two recent studies, published in Cell and Kidney International, have identified these resident macrophages/dendritic cells as local immune monitors of peritubular capillaries for circulating antigens and immune complexes. These cells appear to represent an early line of defense against circulating infectious particles and immune complexes, but the resulting inflammatory response may also contribute to interstitial inflammation and kidney disease progression...
February 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077081/antigen-presenting-capacity-of-murine-splenic-myeloid-cells
#10
Ying-Ying Hey, Benjamin Quah, Helen C O'Neill
BACKGROUND: The spleen is an important site for hematopoiesis. It supports development of myeloid cells from bone marrow-derived precursors entering from blood. Myeloid subsets in spleen are not well characterised although dendritic cell (DC) subsets are clearly defined in terms of phenotype, development and functional role. Recently a novel dendritic-like cell type in spleen named 'L-DC' was distinguished from other known dendritic and myeloid cells by its distinct phenotype and developmental origin...
January 11, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073370/expression-site-of-p2ry12-in-residential-microglial-cells-in-astrocytomas-correlates-with-m1-and-m2-marker-expression-and-tumor-grade
#11
Changbin Zhu, Johan M Kros, Marcel van der Weiden, PingPin Zheng, Caroline Cheng, Dana A M Mustafa
The role of resident microglial cells in the pathogenesis and progression of glial tumors is still obscure mainly due to a lack of specific markers. Recently P2RY12, a P2 purinergic receptor, was introduced as a specific marker for microglial cells under normal and pathologic conditions. Here we analyzed the expression of P2RY12 in astrocytomas of various malignancy grades in relation to markers for M1 and M2 macrophage activation profiles by using two web-based glioma datasets and confocal immunohistochemistry to 28 astrocytoma samples grades II-IV...
January 10, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069607/lysophosphatidic-acid-converts-monocytes-into-macrophages-in-both-mice-and-humans
#12
Rashmi Ray, Vivek Rai
Monocytes and macrophages represent critical arms of the innate immune system and are considered regulators and effectors of inflammation and innate immune response. Monocytes can mobilize from bone marrow, traffic to their required destination and differentiate into effector cells depending on the local tissue environment to perform multiple roles during infection or inflammation, making them an important component of body's immune defense. Macrophages have diverse roles in tissue homeostasis, development as well as tissue repair following injury...
January 9, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069025/interaction-of-biomedical-nanoparticles-with-the-pulmonary-immune-system
#13
REVIEW
Fabian Blank, Kleanthis Fytianos, Emilie Seydoux, Laura Rodriguez-Lorenzo, Alke Petri-Fink, Christophe von Garnier, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser
Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) offer site-specific delivery, deposition and cellular uptake due to their unique physicochemical properties and were shown to modulate immune responses. The respiratory tract with its vast surface area is an attractive target organ for innovative immunomodulatory therapeutic applications by pulmonary administration of such NPs, enabling interactions with resident antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells and macrophages. Depending on the respiratory tract compartment, e...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067461/phagocytosis-and-immune-response-studies-of-macrophage-nanodiamond-interactions-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#14
K-J Huang, C-Y Lee, Y-C Lin, C-Y Lin, E Perevedentseva, S-F Hung, C-L Cheng
The applications of nanodiamond as drug delivery and bio-imaging can require the relinquishing ND-drug conjugate via blood flow, where interaction with immune cells may occur. In this work, we investigated the ND penetration in macrophage and the immune response using the tissue-resident murine macrophages (RAW 264.7). Confocal fluorescence imaging, immunofluorescence analysis of nuclear translocation of interferon regulatory factor IRF-3 and transcriptional factor NF-κΒ, analysis of pro-inflammatory cytokines production IL-1β, IL-6 IL-10 with a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique were applied...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065277/dynamic-intravital-imaging-of-cell-cell-interactions-in-the-lymph-node
#15
REVIEW
Jens V Stein, Santiago F Gonzalez
In the last decade, the application of 2-photon intravital microscopy as a tool to study cell interactions in different areas of the immune system has offered an unprecedented opportunity to understand the complexity of cell behavior in relation to immune functions. In this review we describe the latest advances in the field of live imaging in the lymph nodes, grouping the different cell populations in 2 compartments according to their motility: the sessile compartment, which is formed by resident cells of stromal origin, macrophages, and resident dendritic cells, and the motile compartment, which is mainly formed by T and B lymphocytes...
January 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063059/experimental-arthritis-mouse-models-driven-by-adaptive-and-or-innate-inflammation
#16
W Razawy, C H Alves, M Molendijk, P S Asmawidjaja, A M C Mus, E Lubberts
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease mainly affecting synovial joints. The clinical presentation of RA shows the heterogeneity of this disease with its underlying complex interactions between the innate and adaptive immune system and flare-ups of disease. Different disease models such as collagen induced arthritis, antigen induced arthritis, and Streptococcal cell wall induced arthritis can be exploited to investigate different aspects of the pathogenesis of arthritis. The disease can be monitored macroscopically over time via scoring systems...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062701/widespread-virus-replication-in-alveoli-drives-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-aerosolized-h5n1-influenza-infection-of-macaques
#17
Elizabeth R Wonderlich, Zachary D Swan, Stephanie J Bissel, Amy L Hartman, Jonathan P Carney, Katherine J O'Malley, Adebimpe O Obadan, Jefferson Santos, Reagan Walker, Timothy J Sturgeon, Lonnie J Frye, Pauline Maiello, Charles A Scanga, Jennifer D Bowling, Anthea L Bouwer, Parichat A Duangkhae, Clayton A Wiley, JoAnne L Flynn, Jieru Wang, Kelly S Cole, Daniel R Perez, Douglas S Reed, Simon M Barratt-Boyes
Human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus are frequently fatal but the mechanisms of disease remain ill-defined. H5N1 infection is associated with intense production of proinflammatory cytokines, but whether this cytokine storm is the main cause of fatality or is a consequence of extensive virus replication that itself drives disease remains controversial. Conventional intratracheal inoculation of a liquid suspension of H5N1 influenza virus in nonhuman primates likely results in efficient clearance of virus within the upper respiratory tract and rarely produces severe disease...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062509/adam17-deficiency-promotes-atherosclerosis-by-enhanced-tnfr2-signaling-in-mice
#18
Alexandros Nicolaou, Zhen Zhao, Bernd H Northoff, Kristina Sass, Andreas Herbst, Alexander Kohlmaier, Athena Chalaris, Christian Wolfrum, Christian Weber, Sabine Steffens, Stefan Rose-John, Daniel Teupser, Lesca M Holdt
OBJECTIVE: ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17) is a sheddase releasing different types of membrane-bound proteins, including adhesion molecules, cytokines, and their receptors as well as inflammatory mediators. Because these substrates modulate important mechanisms of atherosclerosis, we hypothesized that ADAM17 might be involved in the pathogenesis of this frequent disease. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Because Adam17-knockout mice are not viable, we studied the effect of Adam17 deficiency on atherosclerosis in Adam17 hypomorphic mice (Adam17(ex/ex)), which have low residual Adam17 expression...
December 22, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061952/anti-mycobacterial-function-of-macrophages-is-impaired-in-a-diet-induced-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#19
Md Abdul Alim, Suchandan Sikder, Tahnee L Bridson, Catherine M Rush, Brenda L Govan, Natkunam Ketheesan
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the major risk factors for tuberculosis (TB). In this study, a diet induced murine model of T2D (DIMT2D) was developed and characterized in the context of metabolic, biochemical and histopathological features following diet intervention. Mycobacterial susceptibility was investigated using Mycobacterium fortuitum as a surrogate. Phagocytic capability of alveolar macrophages and resident peritoneal macrophages were determined by in vitro assays using mycolic acid coated beads and M...
January 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060378/cd73-regulates-anti-inflammatory-signaling-between-apoptotic-cells-and-endotoxin-conditioned-tissue-macrophages
#20
Patrick S Murphy, Jing Wang, Samir P Bhagwat, Joshua C Munger, William J Janssen, Terry W Wright, Michael R Elliott
The phagocytosis of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) shifts macrophages to an anti-inflammatory state through a set of still poorly understood soluble and cell-bound signals. Apoptosis is a common feature of inflamed tissues, and efferocytosis by tissue macrophages is thought to promote the resolution of inflammation. However, it is not clear how the exposure of tissue macrophages to inflammatory cues (e.g., PAMPs, DAMPs) in the early stages of inflammation affects immune outcomes of macrophage-apoptotic cell interactions occurring at later stages of inflammation...
January 6, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
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