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Crush injury

M Angeles Montero, Javier de Gracia, Mario Culebras, Jacqueline Mugnier, Antonio Álvarez, Cristina Berastegui, Cristian Ortiz-Villalón
INTRODUCTION: Lung transplant monitoring is usually assessed by forceps transbronchial biopsies. These types of biopsies show limited reliability and high degree of variability due to insufficient material and compression artefact, which lead to misinterpretation and eventually mistreatment of the transplanted patients. The following study was undertaken to assess the diagnostic yield, histological quality and safety of cryobiopsy in comparison with conventional forceps biopsy for sampling lung tissue in transplant recipients...
May 19, 2018: Histopathology
Jennifer L Shadrach, Brian A Pierchala
The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a specialized synapse that is formed by motor axon innervation of skeletal muscle fibers. The maintenance of motor-muscle connectivity is critical for the preservation of muscle tone and generation of movement. Injury can induce a robust regenerative response in motor axons, but severe trauma or chronic denervation resulting from neurodegenerative disease typically leads to inefficient repair and poor functional recovery. The axon guidance molecule Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) has been implicated as a negative regulator of motor innervation...
May 2018: ENeuro
Alexander M Solomon, Teleza Westbrook, Greg D Field, Aaron W McGee
A variety of conditions ranging from glaucoma to blunt force trauma lead to optic nerve atrophy. Identifying signaling pathways for stimulating axon growth in the optic nerve may lead to treatments for these pathologies. Inhibiting signaling by the nogo-66 receptor 1 (NgR1) promotes the re-extension of axons following a crush injury to the optic nerve, and while NgR1 mRNA and protein expression are observed in the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer and inner nuclear layer, which retinal cell types express NgR1 remains unknown...
2018: PloS One
Damla Torul, Mehmet Cihan Bereket, Mehmet Emin Onger, Gamze Altun
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) on peripheral nerve injury in the early period of healing. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty Wistar albino rats were used in this study. Rats were divided into control (C), damaged (D), PRF, and PRGF groups. The left sciatic nerves of each group were identified as group C. Crush-type injury was performed on the right sciatic nerves of the D, PRF, and PRGF groups...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Craig S Pearson, Caitlin P Mencio, Amanda C Barber, Keith R Martin, Herbert M Geller
The failure of mammalian CNS neurons to regenerate their axons derives from a combination of intrinsic deficits and extrinsic factors. Following injury, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) within the glial scar inhibit axonal regeneration, an action mediated by the sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of CSPGs, especially those with 4-sulfated (4S) sugars. Arylsulfatase B (ARSB) selectively cleaves 4S groups from the non-reducing ends of GAG chains without disrupting other, growth-permissive motifs...
May 15, 2018: ELife
Zengbing Liu, Kai Ma, Dong Huang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical effect of treating mallet finger deformity using a modified palmaris longus tendon graft through a bone tunnel. METHODS: Altogether, 21 patients with mallet finger deformity (16 men, 5 women; average age 31 years, range 19-47 years) were treated with a modified palmaris longus tendon graft through a bone tunnel during 18 months (2014-2016). Four index fingers, seven middle fingers, eight ring fingers, and two little fingers were treated for four cutting injuries, eleven finger sprains, four crush injuries, and two twist injuries (7 open and 14 closed injuries)...
2018: International Journal of Burns and Trauma
Binbin Deng, Wenjing Lv, Weisong Duan, Yakun Liu, Zhongyao Li, Yanqin Ma, Guisen Zhang, Xueqin Song, Can Cui, Xiaoming Qi, Yuan Li, Chunyan Li
BACKGROUND: Myelination, degeneration and regeneration are implicated in crucial responses to injury in the peripheral nervous system. Considering the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we used the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1)-G93A transgenic mouse model of ALS to investigate the effects of mutant SOD1 on the peripheral nerves. METHODS: Changes in peripheral nerve morphology were analyzed in SOD1 mutant mice at various stages of the disease by toluidine blue staining and electron microscopy (EM)...
May 4, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Solomon M Azouz, Nikki A Castel, Aparna Vijayasekaran, Alanna M Rebecca, Salvatore C Lettieri
Early soft-tissue coverage is critical for treating traumatic open lower-extremity wounds. As free-flap reconstruction evolves, injuries once thought to be nonreconstructable are being salvaged. Free-tissue transfer is imperative when there is extensive dead space or exposure of vital structures such as bone, tendon, nerves, or blood vessels. We describe 2 cases of lower-extremity crush injuries salvaged with the quad flap. This novel flap consists of parascapular, scapular, serratus, and latissimus dorsi free flaps in combination on one pedicle...
May 7, 2018: Microsurgery
Chunyang Wang, Jia Xu, Gen Wen, Yimin Chai
One-stage reconstruction of composite bone and soft-tissue defects in the forearm remains a tough challenge. Here, we present a case of reconstruction of complex tissue defect at forearm with a chimeric flap consisting of a sural neurocutaneous flap and a fibular graft. A 61-year-old man suffered from a machine crush injury in his left forearm, resulting in a complex tissue defect including extensive dorsomedial soft-tissue, digit extensor muscles of 2-4 fingers, the muscle flexor carpi ulnaris, the ulna bone with 5...
May 7, 2018: Microsurgery
Biljana Musicki, Anil K Bhunia, Serkan Karakus, Arthur L Burnett
cGMP-independent nitric oxide (NO) signaling occurs via S-nitrosylation. We evaluated whether aberrant S-nitrosylation operates in the penis under conditions of cavernous nerve injury and targets proteins involved in regulating erectile function. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral cavernous nerve crush injury (BCNI) or sham surgery. Rats were given a denitrosylation agent N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 300 mg/kg/day) or vehicle in drinking water starting 2 days before BCNI and continuing for 2 weeks following surgery...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Impotence Research
Hozo Matsuoka, Kosuke Ebina, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Makoto Hirao, Toru Iwahashi, Takaaki Noguchi, Koji Suzuki, Shunsuke Nishimoto, Tsuyoshi Murase, Hideki Yoshikawa
Ultra-fine bubbles (<200 nm in diameter) have several unique properties and have been tested in various medical fields. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of oxygen ultra-fine bubbles (OUBs) on a sciatic nerve crush injury (SNC) model rats. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with 1.5 mL saline, OUBs diluted in saline, or nitrogen ultra-fine bubbles (NUBs) diluted in saline three times per week for 4 weeks in four groups: (1) control, (sham operation + saline); (2) SNC, (crush + saline); (3) SNC+OUB, (crush + OUB-saline); (4) SNC+NUB, (crush + NUB-saline)...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Andrew P Harris, Avi D Goodman, Joseph A Gil, Andrew D Sobel, Neill Y Li, Jeremy E Raducha, Grayson L Baird, Julia A Katarincic
PURPOSE: Primary revision amputation is the most common treatment method for traumatic digit amputations in the United States. Few studies have reported secondary revision rates after primary revision amputation. The primary aim of our study was to identify risk factors for secondary revision within 1 year of the index procedure. Secondarily, we describe the incidence and timing of complications requiring secondary revision. METHODS: Our institution's emergency department (ED) database was reviewed for traumatic digit amputations over a 6-year period...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Mehmet Ali Uysal, Deniz Gulabi, Güven Mete, Selçuk Tunalı, Arzu Avcı, Osman Arslan Bora
BACKGROUND: The success of replantation following traumatic amputation is determined by the quality of the vascular anastomoses. The purpose of this study was to assess the vascularity of injured arteries from traumatically amputated digits using arteriographic and histopathological analysis. METHODS: 25 amputated digits were included in the study. Crush and avulsion injuries were evaluated according to the Venkatramani classification. The amputated arteries were dissected under a microscope, and the arterial route determined with a transducer...
June 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
Elena G Sergeeva, Claudia Espinosa-Garcia, Fahim Atif, Machelle T Pardue, Donald G Stein
In adult mice with unilateral optic nerve crush injury (ONC), we studied visual response plasticity in the visual cortex following stimulation with sinusoidal grating. We examined visually evoked potentials (VEP) in the primary visual cortex ipsilateral and contralateral to the crushed nerve. We found that unilateral ONC induces enhancement of visual response on the side ipsilateral to the injury that is evoked by visual stimulation to the intact eye. This enhancement was associated with supranormal spatial frequency thresholds in the intact eye when tested using optomotor response...
May 2, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Shun Gong, Hai Jin, Danfeng Zhang, Wei Zou, Chunhui Wang, Zhenxing Li, Rongbin Chen, Yan Dong, Lijun Hou
Background: Existing evidence suggests the potential therapy of transplanting olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC) either alone or in combination with neurotrophic factors or other cell types in optic nerve injury (ONI). However, clinical use of autologous OEC in the acute stages of ONI is not possible. On the other hand, acute application of heterologous transplantation may bring the issue of immune rejection. The olfactory mucosa (OM) with OEC in the lamina propria layer is located in the upper region of the nasal cavity and is easy to dissect under nasal endoscopy, which makes it a candidate as autograft material in acute stages of ONI...
2018: BioMed Research International
James M Haan, Donald Hauschild, Christine Patterson, Jeanette G Ward, Stephen D Helmer
Agricultural work results in numerous injuries and deaths. Efficacy of farm equipment safety interventions remains unclear. This study evaluated agricultural mortality pre- and postimplementation of safety initiatives. A 31-year retrospective review of mortality data from agriculture-related injuries was conducted. Demographics and injury patterns were evaluated by mechanism of injury. There were 660 deaths (mean age 48.6 years). Female deaths increased from 5.2 to 11.7 per cent (P = 0.032). Mortality associated with tractors decreased (75...
April 1, 2018: American Surgeon
L Muratori, S Gnavi, F Fregnan, A Mancardi, S Raimondo, I Perroteau, S Geuna
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) represents one of the main factor involved not only in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis but also in neuritogenesis, VEGF plays its function acting via different receptors: VEGF receptor1 (VEGFR-1), VEGF receptor2 (VEGFR-2), VEGF receptor3 (VEGFR-3) and co-receptors Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and Neuropilin-2 (NRP2). This study reports on the first in vivo analysis of the expression of VEGF and VEGF family molecules in peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration: for this purpose, different model of nerve lesion in rat were adopted, the median nerve crush injury and the median nerve transaction followed or not by end-to end microsurgical repair...
April 30, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Hong-Jiang Li, Yuan-Bo Pan, Zhao-Liang Sun, Yi-Yu Sun, Xi-Tao Yang, Dong-Fu Feng
Optic nerve injury is a leading cause of irreversible visual impairment worldwide and can even cause blindness. Excessive activation of astrocytes has negative effects on the repair and recovery of retinal ganglion cells following optic nerve injury. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying astrocyte activation after optic nerve injury remain largely unknown. In the present study, we explored the effects of microRNA-21 (miR-21) on axon regeneration and flash visual evoked potential (F-VEP) and the underlying mechanisms of these effects based on astrocyte activation in the rat model of optic nerve crush (ONC)...
April 27, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Kim A Bjorklund, Dahlia M Rice, Ashley N Amalfi
BACKGROUND: Pediatric digital necrosis resulting in revision amputation is a devastating outcome following digital dressing application. METHODS: We report a series of 4 pediatric patients (age: 21 months-11 years) who presented for surgical consultation related to digital ischemia and irreversible necrosis following the application of Coban digital dressings. A review of the literature demonstrated that such injuries had not previously been described. RESULTS: In our case series, Coban dressing was utilized as a deterrent for thumb sucking, fingertip tuft fractures with nail bed lacerations, and a phalanx fracture secondary to crush injury...
April 1, 2018: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
Bao Qi, Gui-Jun Cao, Qing-Wei Li, Guo-Wu Chen, Xiao Liang, Yu-Zhong Wang, Chun-Yang Meng
The role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the regulation of energy metabolism and the control of skeletal muscle regeneration post injury has been described previously. It remains unknown whether this metabolic sensor plays a role in the mechanism of axonal regeneration post injury. In this study, we used a sciatic nerve crushed mouse model to detect the expression of AMPK in sciatic nerve and spinal motor neurons at 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks after injury by immunofluorescence staining. Electrophysiological and histopathological studies were used to confirm the nerve injury and regeneration...
May 2018: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
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