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Crush injury

Steven F Shannon, Chelsea C Boe, Alexander Y Shin
Axial carpal injuries are rare entities where a traumatic force transmits through the intermetacarpal space, dissociating the carpometacarpal joint and disrupting the distal carpal row in an axial radial or axial ulnar pattern via true axial force or compressive crush mechanism. Differences in outcomes remain unclear with regard to the specific type of axial carpal injury pattern. A retrospective case series identified 37 wrists (in 37 patients) over 25 years who presented to a Level 1 trauma centre, with 20 wrists experiencing an axial radial injury and 17 wrists experiencing an axial ulnar injury...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
Forouzan Mohamadi, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Mohammad Reza Nourani, Akbar Ahmadi, Jafar Ai
Regeneration of peripheral nerve defects remained a remarkable clinical challenge. Engineered nerve conduits represent a promising strategy to improve functional recovery in peripheral nerve injury repair. However, nerve conduits require additional factors such as neurotrophic factors to create a more conducive microenvironment for nerve regeneration. Neurotrophic factors have well-demonstrated abilities to improve neurite outgrowth, making them great candidates for repairing of defected nerves. To this end, we examined the beneficial effects of repairing the transected rat sciatic nerve by loading of nerve growth factor (NGF) in nerve conduits...
March 20, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Jill Alexander, Jim Richards, Obed Attah, Sam Cheema, Joanna Snook, Chloe Wisdell, Karen May, James Selfe
Delayed effects of a 20-min crushed ice application on knee joint position sense assessed by a functional task during a re-warming period. INTRODUCTION: The effect of cryotherapy on joint positioning presents conflicting debates as to whether individuals are at an increased risk of injury when returning to play following cryotherapy application at the lower limb. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether a 20 min application of crushed ice at the knee affects knee joint kinematics immediately post and up to 20 mins post ice removal, during a small knee bend...
March 6, 2018: Gait & Posture
Laurent Mathieu, Michel Levadoux, Emmanuel Soucany de Landevoisin, Tarun J McBride Windsor, Sylvain Rigal
INTRODUCTION: Noncombat-related hand injuries are common in current theatres of operations. Crushing is one of the most frequent mechanisms that may cause traumatic amputations of digits. In the military setting, management of these digital amputations is challenging regarding limitation in microsurgical means in medical treatment facilities and aeromedical evacuation delays out of the combat zone. METHODS: Two cases of digital replantation performed in French forward surgical units are described...
2018: SICOT-J
Mohamed A Mohamed, Kewan A Hamid
Acute aortic dissection (AAD) classically manifests with sudden, severe chest pain radiating to the back or abdomen, often described as ripping or tearing sensation. Considering its abrupt onset, the diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion prompting immediate imaging using computed tomography (CT) with contrast. However, the use of contrast is a relative contraindication in the patients with renal compromise and acute care physicians are often deterred from contrast use in these patients. Herein, we present an unusual case of hematuria as the presenting symptom of a developing the Stanford type-A AAD...
January 12, 2018: Curēus
Sibel Türedi, Esin Yuluğ, Ahmet Alver, Akin Bodur, İmran İnce
The present study evaluated the neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of quercetin in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury using histopathological, morphometric and biochemical methods. A total of 48 male Sprague Dawley rats, aged 10-12 weeks old were randomly divided into eight groups, consisting of two sham groups (S-7, S-28), three quercetin-treated groups (Q-7, Q-28; 200 mg/kg/7 days), trauma (T-7, T-28; 1 min sciatic nerve crush injury) and three trauma+quercetin groups (T+Q-7, T+Q-28; trauma+quercetin 200 mg/kg/7 days)...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Deana Haralampieva, Souzan Salemi, Thomas Betzel, Ivana Dinulovic, Stefanie D Krämer, Roger Schibli, Tullio Sulser, Christoph Handschin, Simon M Ametamey, Daniel Eberli
While many groups demonstrated new muscle tissue formation after muscle precursor cell (MPC) injection, the capacity of these cells to heal muscle damage, for example, sphincter in stress urinary incontinence, in long-term is still limited. Therefore, the first goal of our project was to optimize the functional regenerative potential of hMPC by genetic modification to overexpress human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (hPGC-1 α ), key regulator of exercise-mediated adaptation...
2018: Stem Cells International
Huiyi H Chang, Jih-Chao Yeh, Ronaldo M Ichiyama, Larissa V Rodriguez, Leif A Havton
Spinal cord epidural stimulation (SCS) represents a form of neuromodulation for the management of spasticity and pain. This technology has recently emerged as a new approach for potentially augmenting locomotion and voiding function in humans and rodents after spinal cord injury. However, the effect of SCS on micturition has not been studied extensively. Here, SCS was first applied as a direct stimulus onto individual segmental levels of the lumbar spinal cord in rats to map evoked external urethral sphincter (EUS) electromyography activity and SCS-induced voiding contractions...
March 9, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Kimberly A Fernandes, Katherine L Mitchell, Amit Patel, Olivia J Marola, Peter Shrager, Donald J Zack, Richard T Libby, Derek S Welsbie
Optic neuropathies such as glaucoma are characterized by the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and the irreversible loss of vision. In these diseases, focal axon injury triggers a propagating axon degeneration and, eventually, cell death. Previous work by us and others identified dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) and JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK) as key mediators of somal cell death signaling in RGCs following axonal injury. Moreover, others have shown that activation of the DLK/JNK pathway contributes to distal axonal degeneration in some neuronal subtypes and that this activation is dependent on the adaptor protein, sterile alpha and TIR motif containing 1 (SARM1)...
March 8, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Maria Lindqvist, Margareta Persson, Margareta Nilsson, Eva Uustal, Inger Lindberg
OBJECTIVE: this study explores women's experiences of the first two months after obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) during childbirth with a focus on problematic recovery. METHODS: this qualitative study used inductive qualitative content analysis to investigate open-ended responses from 1248 women. The data consists of short and comprehensive written responses to open-ended questions focusing on recovery in the national quality register, the Perineal Laceration Register, two months after OASIS at childbirth...
February 20, 2018: Midwifery
Okihiro Onishi, Kazuya Ikoma, Ryo Oda, Tetsuro Yamazaki, Hiroyoshi Fujiwara, Shunji Yamada, Masaki Tanaka, Toshikazu Kubo
Although treatment protocols are available, patients experience both acute neuropathic pain and chronic neuropathic pain, hyperalgesia, and allodynia after peripheral nerve injury. The purpose of this study was to identify the brain regions activated after peripheral nerve injury using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sequentially and assess the relevance of the imaging results using histological findings. To model peripheral nerve injury in male Sprague-Dawley rats, the right sciatic nerve was crushed using an aneurysm clip, under general anesthesia...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Gunnar Poplawski, Tetsuhiro Ishikawa, Coralie Brifault, Corinne Lee-Kubli, Robert Regestam, Kenneth W Henry, Yasuhiro Shiga, HyoJun Kwon, Seiji Ohtori, Steven L Gonias, Wendy M Campana
Sensory neurons in the PNS demonstrate substantial capacity for regeneration following injury. Recent studies have identified changes in the transcriptome of sensory neurons, which are instrumental for axon regeneration. The role of Schwann cells (SCs) in mediating these changes remains undefined. We tested the hypothesis that SCs regulate expression of genes in sensory neurons before and after PNS injury by comparing mice in which LDL Receptor-related Protein-1 (LRP1) is deleted in SCs (scLRP1-/- mice) with wild-type (scLRP1+/+ ) littermates...
March 9, 2018: Glia
Susan Yoong, Ravi Kothari, Adam Brooks
INTRODUCTION: Whole body computed tomography has become standard practice in many centres in the management of severely injured trauma patients, however, the evidence for it's diagnostic accuracy is limited. AIM: To assess the sensitivity of whole body CT in major trauma. METHOD: Retrospective review of all patients with injury severity score (ISS) > 15 presenting with blunt trauma to a UK Major Trauma Centre between May 2012 and April 2014...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Juhyun Park, Sung Yong Cho, Kwanjin Park, Ji Sun Chai, Hwancheol Son, Soo Woong Kim, Jae-Seung Paick, Min Chul Cho
We evaluated whether LIM-kinase 2 inhibitor (LIMK2i) could improve erectile function by suppressing corporal fibrosis through the normalization of the Rho-associated coiled-coil protein kinase 1 (ROCK1)/LIMK2/Cofilin pathway in a rat model of cavernous nerve crush injury (CNCI). Sixty 11-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into five groups: sham surgery (S), CNCI (I), and CNCI treated with low-dose (L), medium-dose (M), and high-dose (H) LIMK2i. The L, M, and H groups were treated with a daily intraperitoneal injection of LIMK2i (2...
March 6, 2018: Asian Journal of Andrology
Adrian Mendez, Alex Hopkins, Vincent L Biron, Hadi Seikaly, Lin Fu Zhu, David W J Côté
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have examined the effects of brief electrical stimulation (BES) on nerve regeneration, with some suggesting that BES accelerates facial nerve recovery. However, the facial nerve outcome measurement in these studies has not been precise or accurate. Furthermore, no previous studies have been able to demonstrate the effect of BES on synkinesis. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of brief electrical stimulation (BES) on facial nerve function and synkinesis in a rat model...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Jun Kobayashi, Isamu Murata
Crush syndrome is characterized by ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). The protective effect of nitrite on experimentally induced IRI has been demonstrated in the heart, kidney, liver, and skeletal muscle. IRI in tissues and systemic organs occurs due to the massive generation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent systemic inflammation. Therefore, ischemic pre and postconditioning are performed in clinical practice. Intravenous administration of nitrite inhibits IRI through nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Jae Hyun Kwon, Ji Hoon Shin
The most common anatomical variation of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) is hypoplasia or aplasia associated with a persistent sciatic artery. We report a case exhibiting SFA hypoplasia combined with connection of the deep femoral artery (DFA) to the popliteal artery (in other words, the DFA became the popliteal artery). A 41-year-old man was admitted with a crush injury of the left foot. Computed tomography angiography revealed an SFA branched off the anteromedial side of the common femoral artery and exhibited severe hypoplasia and the DFA branched off the posterolateral side of the CFA and continued to become the popliteal artery...
February 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Meena M Archie, Johnathon C Rollo, Hugh A Gelabert
INTRODUCTION: Surgical management of spontaneous subclavian thrombosis due to venous thoracic outlet syndrome (vTOS) results in durable relief of symptoms. The need to re-operate is rare. We report our experience with re-operation for vTOS. METHODS: Patients evaluated for vTOS between 1996 and 2016 were identified in a prospective database. Data recorded included demographics, initial presentation, initial surgery, recurrent presentation, re-operation, and final outcomes...
February 22, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Ling-Ping Cen, Tsz Kin Ng, Jia-Jian Liang, Xi Zhuang, Xiaowu Yao, Gary Hin-Fai Yam, Haoyu Chen, Herman S Cheung, Mingzhi Zhang, Chi Pui Pang
Optic neuropathies are the leading cause of irreversible blindness and visual impairment in the developed countries, affecting more than 80 million people worldwide. While most optic neuropathies have no effective treatment, there is intensive research on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) protection and axon regeneration. We previously demonstrated potential of human periodontal ligament-derived stem cells (PDLSCs) for retinal cell replacement. Here, we report the neuroprotective effect of human PDLSCs to ameliorate RGC degeneration and promote axonal regeneration after optic nerve crush (ONC) injury...
February 24, 2018: Stem Cells
Shatha M Sulaiman, Abdulmalik A Alkhodair, Shahd M Sulaiman, Lama M Sulaiman, Ahmed S Elkafafy
Replantation is the reattachment of a severed body part, with attempts to restore neurovascular and musculoskeletal integrity, function, and aesthetics. On September 7, 1964, the first extremity replantation-a completely amputated hand-by vascular anastomosis technique was successfully performed.1 Soon after, the first replantation of a complete thumb amputation using microvascular anastomosis in a human was successfully conducted by Komatsu et al.2 in 1968. The overall success rate of limb replantation surgery is around 83...
January 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
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