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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935984/regulation-of-axonal-regeneration-by-the-level-of-function-of-the-endogenous-nogo-receptor-antagonist-lotus
#1
Tomoko Hirokawa, Yixiao Zou, Yuji Kurihara, Zhaoxin Jiang, Yusuke Sakakibara, Hiromu Ito, Kengo Funakoshi, Nobutaka Kawahara, Yoshio Goshima, Stephen M Strittmatter, Kohtaro Takei
Axonal regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system is limited in part by the non-permissive environment, including axonal growth inhibitors such as the Nogo-A protein. How the functions of these inhibitors can be blocked remains unclear. Here, we examined the role of LOTUS, an endogenous Nogo receptor antagonist, in promoting functional recovery and neural repair after spinal cord injury (SCI), as well as axonal regeneration after optic nerve crush. Wild-type untreated mice show incomplete but substantial intrinsic motor recovery after SCI...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917662/successful-optic-nerve-regeneration-in-the-senescent-zebrafish-despite-age-related-decline-of-cell-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-response-processes
#2
Jessie Van Houcke, Ilse Bollaerts, Emiel Geeraerts, Benjamin Davis, An Beckers, Inge Van Hove, Kim Lemmens, Lies De Groef, Lieve Moons
Dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS) in neurodegenerative diseases or after brain lesions seriously affects life quality of a growing number of elderly, since the adult CNS lacks the capacity to replace or repair damaged neurons. Despite intensive research efforts, full functional recovery after CNS disease and/or injury remains challenging, especially in an aging environment. As such, there is a rising need for an aging model in which the impact of aging on successful regeneration can be studied...
August 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913385/closed-internal-degloving-of-the-flank
#3
Lindsay F Remy, Jacob Azurdia, Ashraf Fansa, Nabil A Ebraheim
Originally described in 1853 by Dr. Morel-Lavellee, closed internal degloving injuries represent an important, although uncommon, source of morbidity in trauma patients. These injuries are typically the result of a shearing or crushing force that traumatically separates the skin and subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fat. This results in disruption of perforating blood vessels and lymphatics, leading to hematoma/seroma formation. We describe two cases in which industrial crush injuries resulted in lumbar transverse process fracture...
July 2017: Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894829/the-effect-of-n-acetyl-cysteine-on-recovery-of-the-facial-nerve-after-crush-injury
#4
Andrew Rivera, Mallory Raymond, Ariel Grobman, Marianne Abouyared, Simon I Angeli
OBJECTIVE: Facial nerve dysfunction can vary in severity and recovery is dependent on the character of the injury. N-acetyl-cysteine prevents oxidative stress and cellular damage, and its use in the setting of nerve dysfunction from crush injury has not yet been established. In this study, rats with facial nerve crush injury will be treated with n-acetyl-cysteine or control and functional recovery and electrophysiologic outcome will be compared. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized animal study...
June 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879494/regeneration-of-sciatic-nerve-crush-injury-by-a-hydroxyapatite-nanoparticle-containing-collagen-type-i-hydrogel
#5
Majid Salehi, Mahdi Naseri-Nosar, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Mohammdreza Nourani, Ahmad Vaez, Saeed Farzamfar, Jafar Ai
The current study aimed to enhance the efficacy of peripheral nerve regeneration using a hydroxyapatite nanoparticle-containing collagen type I hydrogel. A solution of type I collagen, extracted from the rat tails, was incorporated with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (with the average diameter of ~212 nm) and crosslinked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) to prepare the hydrogel. The Schwann cell cultivation on the prepared hydrogel demonstrated a significantly higher cell proliferation than the tissue culture plate, as positive control, after 48 h (n = 3, P < 0...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874967/behavior-of-injured-lamina-in-lumbar-burst-fractures-during-reduction-maneuvers-a-biomechanical-study
#6
Nihat Acar
STUDY DESIGN: An experimental biomechanical study. PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the behavior of a lamina injury in lumbar burst fractures during reduction maneuvers. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Lumbar burst fractures are frequently accompanied by a lamina fracture. Many researchers concluded that any reduction maneuver will close the fractured lamina edges and possibly crush the entrapped neural elements. This conclusion did not rely on solid biomechanical trials and was based primarily on clinical experience...
August 2017: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874532/schwann-cells-use-tam-receptor-mediated-phagocytosis-in-addition-to-autophagy-to-clear-myelin-in-a-mouse-model-of-nerve-injury
#7
Amanda Brosius Lutz, Won-Suk Chung, Steven A Sloan, Glenn A Carson, Lu Zhou, Emilie Lovelett, Sean Posada, J Bradley Zuchero, Ben A Barres
Ineffective myelin debris clearance is a major factor contributing to the poor regenerative ability of the central nervous system. In stark contrast, rapid clearance of myelin debris from the injured peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the keys to this system's remarkable regenerative capacity, but the molecular mechanisms driving PNS myelin clearance are incompletely understood. We set out to discover new pathways of PNS myelin clearance to identify novel strategies for activating myelin clearance in the injured central nervous system, where myelin debris is not cleared efficiently...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871521/astragaloside-iv-prevents-acute-kidney-injury-and-inflammation-by-normalizing-muscular-mitochondrial-function-associated-with-a-nitric-oxide-protective-mechanism-in-crush-syndrome-rats
#8
Isamu Murata, Yuji Abe, Yuka Yaginuma, Kayako Yodo, Yuka Kamakari, Yurika Miyazaki, Daichi Baba, Yuko Shinoda, Toru Iwasaki, Kunihiko Takahashi, Jun Kobayashi, Yutaka Inoue, Ikuo Kanamoto
BACKGROUND: Crush syndrome (CS) is a serious medical condition characterized by muscle cell damage resulting from decompression after compression (i.e., ischemia/reperfusion injury). A large number of CS patients develop cardiac failure, kidney dysfunction, and systemic inflammation, even when fluid therapy is administered. We evaluated whether the administration of astragaloside-IV (AS)-containing fluid improved survival by preventing kidney and muscular mitochondrial dysfunction in a rat model of CS...
September 4, 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869456/perfusion-control-of-a-partial-revascularized-hand-via-application-of-indocyanine-green-icg-and-near-infrared-fluorescence-imaging
#9
C Strauss, E Brix, A Anker, L Prantl, V Brébant, T Aung
BACKGROUND: Intra- and postoperative assessment of perfusion with near-infrared fluorescence imaging is commonly used among plastic surgeons to evaluate the quality of a microsurgical anastomosis in free flaps. OBJECTIVE: As microsurgical anastomosis can be monitored with near-infrared fluorescence imaging there is potential concerning revascularized fingers and hands with soft tissue depths not exceeding 7 mm above anastomosis. In a case of a severe crush injury of the hand more information about the perfusion was necessary as clinical assessment suspected loss of perfusion...
August 28, 2017: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856349/lower-limb-morel-lavall%C3%A3-e-lesion-treated-with-short-stretch-compression-bandaging
#10
Callista L Costopoulos, Ira C Sachs, Kenneth W Graf, Robin W Kauffman, Samir Mehta
Morel-Lavallée lesions (MLLs) classically occur in the greater trochanteric region, lateral thigh, buttocks, and back. A high percentage of large MLLs require surgical intervention, which comes with an increased risk of skin necrosis and infection. We report a rare case of a large MLL that was successfully treated with compression. The lesion was created when the patient, a 66-year-old man, sustained a low-velocity crush injury. Extending from the medial distal thigh to the proximal medial calf, the MLL was nonoperatively treated with the short-stretch compression bandaging that is used in lymphedema management...
July 2017: American Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856242/3d-visualization-of-individual-regenerating-retinal-ganglion-cell-axons-reveals-surprisingly-complex-growth-paths
#11
Eric R Bray, Markus Noga, Kinjal Thakor, Yunfang Wang, Vance P Lemmon, Kevin K Park, Pantelis Tsoulfas
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the sole output cells of the retina, are a heterogeneous population of neurons that project axons to visual targets in the brain. Like most CNS neurons, RGCs are considered incapable of mounting long distance axon regeneration. Using immunolabeling-enabled 3D imaging of solvent-cleared organs (iDISCO) in transgenic mice, we tracked the entire paths of individual RGC axons and show that adult RGCs are highly capable of spontaneous long-distance regeneration, even without any treatment...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847017/-transtrapezoid-carpal-dislocation-a-case-report
#12
David Latz, Sebastian Viktor Gehrmann, Pascal Jungbluth, Jan Grassmann, Erik Schiffner, Joachim Windolf
Fracture dislocations of the STT joint are extremely rare. We present the case of a 50-year-old worker, who sustained a crush injury of his left hand with a dorsal fracture dislocation of the trapezoid bone and the associated second metacarpal bone at the STT, and a concomitant compartment syndrome of the hand. The fracture was reduced immediately and compartment release was performed, followed by percutaneous stabilisation using three K-wires. Material removal after six weeks was followed by intensive physical therapy...
August 28, 2017: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844536/us-pediatric-trauma-patient-unplanned-30-day-readmissions
#13
Krista K Wheeler, Junxin Shi, Henry Xiang, Rajan K Thakkar, Jonathan I Groner
PURPOSE: We sought to determine readmission rates and risk factors for acutely injured pediatric trauma patients. METHODS: We produced 30-day unplanned readmission rates for pediatric trauma patients using the 2013 National Readmission Database (NRD). RESULTS: In US pediatric trauma patients, 1.7% had unplanned readmissions within 30days. The readmission rate for patients with index operating room procedures was no higher at 1.8%. Higher readmission rates were seen in patients with injury severity scores (ISS)=16-24 (3...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834941/selective-stimulation-of-facial-muscles-following-chronic-intraneural-electrode-array-implantation-and-facial-nerve-injury-in-the-feline-model
#14
Ronald Sahyouni, Yarah M Haidar, Omid Moshtaghi, Beverly Y Wang, Hamid R Djalilian, John C Middlebrooks, Harrison W Lin
BACKGROUND: Our group has previously shown that activation of specific facial nerve (FN) fiber populations and selective activation of facial musculature can be achieved through acute intraneural multichannel microelectrode array (MEA) implantation in the feline model. HYPOTHESIS: Selective stimulation of facial muscles will be maintained in the setting of 1) chronic and 2) acute MEA implantation after FN injury and subsequent recovery. METHODS: This study included seven cats...
October 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834578/phenotypic-change-in-trigeminal-ganglion-neurons-associated-with-satellite-cell-activation-via-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-phosphorylation-is-involved-in-lingual-neuropathic-pain
#15
Lou Mikuzuki, Hiroto Saito, Ayano Katagiri, Shinji Okada, Shiori Sugawara, Asako Kubo, Kinuyo Ohara, Jun Lee, Akira Toyofuku, Koichi Iwata
Iatrogenic trigeminal nerve injuries remain a common and complex clinical problem. Satellite glial cell (SGC) activation, associated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and neuropeptide expression in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) are known to be involved in trigeminal neuropathic pain related to trigeminal nerve injury. However, the involvement of these molecules in orofacial neuropathic pain mechanisms is still unknown. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in lingual nerve crush (LNC) rats was observed in SGCs...
August 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832213/combined-perihamate-peripisiform-and-peritrapezium-open-axial-carpal-dislocation-description-of-a-new-pattern-of-crush-injury
#16
Isidro Jiménez, Martine Dury
BACKGROUND: Axial carpal dislocations and fracture-dislocations remain difficult to understand and to treat. The outcome is directly related to the injury pattern and long-term results are not good in most cases. METHODS: 39-year-old male admitted to our emergency department after his left hand was caught between 2 rollers for 10 minutes. He was diagnosed of an open axial carpal dislocation type B (perihamate peripisiform) and type E (peritrapezium) of Garcia-Elias...
September 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827916/ring-finger-necrosis-due-to-a-ring
#17
B A Ramesh, J Satish Kumar
Crush injury to finger is one of the common traumas in clinical practice. The injured patients often have a ring on their finger. The ring can be removed by non-operative techniques or by cutting the ring off and thus avoiding any long-term consequences. If the ring is not removed, the finger may swell and gangrene could occur. We present an unusual case of gangrene terminal finger due to a ring. The gangrene of this type is rarely reported in literature. The case is presented to stress the importance of removal of any circumferential foreign body on limbs before surgery...
August 2017: Indian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827037/bilateral-cavernous-nerve-crush-injury-in-the-rat-model-a-comparative-review-of-pharmacologic-interventions
#18
REVIEW
Nora M Haney, Hoang M T Nguyen, Matthew Honda, Asim B Abdel-Mageed, Wayne J G Hellstrom
INTRODUCTION: It is common for men to develop erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy. The anatomy of the rat allows the cavernous nerve (CN) to be identified, dissected, and injured in a controlled fashion. Therefore, bilateral CN injury (BCNI) in the rat model is routinely used to study post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction. AIM: To compare and contrast the available literature on pharmacologic intervention after BCNI in the rat. METHODS: A literature search was performed on PubMed for cavernous nerve and injury and erectile dysfunction and rat...
August 18, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819815/-pediatric-finger-and-hand-injuries-an-epidemiological-study
#19
M Voth, Th Lustenberger, J Frank, I Marzi
BACKGROUND: The hand is the second most frequently injured region of the body in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate age-related injury patterns, trauma mechanisms, as well as the need for surgery in pediatric patients with injuries to the hand. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study analyzing the data between January 2008 and December 2014 at Frankfurt University Hospital. All patients were younger than 18 years old. All patients suffering trauma to the hand or the fingers were included...
August 17, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812542/the-effect-of-molecular-weight-and-concentration-of-hyaluronan-on-the-recovery-of-the-rat-sciatic-nerve-sustaining-acute-traumatic-injury
#20
Sheng-Min Lan, Cheng-Chang Yang, Chia-Lung Lee, Jung-Shun Lee, I-Ming Jou
Acute traumatic peripheral nerve injury remains a significant clinical issue affecting mostly young individuals and their productivity in spite of advances in current medicine. Hyaluronan has been explored in this scenario for its anti-adhesive and high biocompatibility properties for decades. The molecular weight and concentration of the locally applied hyaluronan has been overlooked and not optimized. We used different molecular weights and concentrations of hyaluronan in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model and found better overall outcomes with high molecular weight (3000 kDa) hyaluronan...
August 16, 2017: Biomedical Materials
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