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heart macrophage

Robert D Johnson, Patrizia Camelliti
The heart is a complex organ composed of multiple cell types, including cardiomyocytes and different non-myocyte populations, all working closely together to determine the hearts properties and maintain normal cardiac function. Connexins are abundantly expressed proteins that form plasma membrane hemichannels and gap junctions between cells. Gap junctions are intracellular channels that allow for communication between cells, and in the heart they play a crucial role in cardiac conduction by coupling adjacent cardiomyocytes...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Paulino Alvarez, Alexandros Briasoulis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune system activation plays a central role in heart failure progression. Large-scale immune modulatory clinical trials targeting tumor necrosis factor-α and broad spectrum immune modulation have been negative. The objective of this review is to highlight past, present, and what is in the horizon for the immunomodulation in heart failure with a focus of biologics. RECENT FINDINGS: Strategies targeting interleukin-1 pathway are currently undergoing clinical evaluation and data from pilot studies are promising...
March 15, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Weihui Gou, Zhen Zhang, Chunfeng Yang, Yumei Li
Macrophage polarization plays a crucial role in regulating myocardial inflammation and injuries of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced viral myocarditis (VM). It has been reported that miR-223 is a potent regulator of inflammatory responses that involved in macrophage polarization. However, the functional roles of miR-223 in CVB3-induced VM still remain unknown. Here, we found that miR-223 expression was significantly down-regulated in heart tissues and heart-infiltrating macrophages of CVB3-infected mice. Up-regulation of miR-223 in vivo protected the mice against CVB3-induced myocardial injuries characterized by the increased body weight and survival, enhanced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS), relieved inflammation, depressed creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels, reduced production of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6 as well as increased IL-10...
March 7, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Dong-Mei Wu, Yong-Jian Wang, Xin-Rui Han, Xin Wen, Lei Li, Lan Xu, Jun Lu, Yuan-Lin Zheng
In this study, we aim to investigate the role of tanshinone IIA in myocardial infarction (MI), especially in left ventricular remodelling (VR) and the underlying mechanism involving the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signalling pathway. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 96) were selected, and 12 of them underwent sham surgery. The remaining 84 rats were subjected to MI modelling. HE and MT staining were carried out to estimate infract size, histopathological changes and fibrosis degree. Macrophage infiltration and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Timothy D Bryson, Xiaosong Gu, Remonda M Khalil, Safa Khan, Liping Zhu, Jiang Xu, Edward Peterson, Xiao-Ping Yang, Pamela Harding
BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) signals through 4 separate G-protein coupled receptor sub-types to elicit a variety of physiologic and pathophysiological effects. We recently reported that PGE2 via its EP3 receptor could reduce cardiac contractility of isolated myocytes and the working heart preparation. We thus hypothesized that there is an imbalance in the EP3/EP4 ratio towards EP3 in the failing heart and that overexpression of EP4 in a mouse model of heart failure would improve cardiac function...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Lindsay T McDonald, Michael R Zile, Yuhua Zhang, An O Van Laer, Catalin F Baicu, Robert E Stroud, Jeffrey A Jones, Amanda C LaRue, Amy D Bradshaw
Myocardial fibrosis and the resultant increases in LV stiffness represent pivotal consequences of chronic pressure-overload (PO) that impact both functional capacity and the rates of morbid and mortal events. However, the time course and cellular mechanisms that underlie PO-induced fibrosis have not been completely defined. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein shown to be required for insoluble collagen deposition and increased myocardial stiffness in response to murine PO...
March 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Sarah Onuora
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
Lei Wang, Yun-Long Zhang, Qiu-Yue Lin, Yu Liu, Xu-Min Guan, Xiao-Lei Ma, Hua-Jun Cao, Ying Liu, Jie Bai, Yun-Long Xia, Jie Du, Hui-Hua Li
Aims: Chemokine-mediated monocyte infiltration into the damaged heart represents an initial step in inflammation during cardiac remodelling. Our recent study demonstrates a central role for chemokine receptor CXCR2 in monocyte recruitment and hypertension; however, the role of chemokine CXCL1 and its receptor CXCR2 in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac remodelling remain unknown. Methods and results: Angiotensin II (1000 ng kg-1 min-1) was administrated to wild-type (WT) mice treated with CXCL1 neutralizing antibody or CXCR2 inhibitor SB265610, knockout (CXCR2 KO) or bone marrow (BM) reconstituted chimeric mice for 14 days...
March 5, 2018: European Heart Journal
Ganesh V Halade, Paul C Norris, Vasundhara Kain, Charles N Serhan, Kevin A Ingle
Inflammation promotes healing in myocardial infarction but, if unresolved, leads to heart failure. To define the inflammatory and resolving responses, we quantified leukocyte trafficking and specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) in the infarcted left ventricle and spleen after myocardial infarction, with the goal of distinguishing inflammation from its resolution. Our data suggest that the spleen not only served as a leukocyte reservoir but also was the site where SPMs were actively generated after coronary ligation in mice...
March 6, 2018: Science Signaling
Agnieszka Kołodzińska, Katarzyna Czarzasta, Benedykt Szczepankiewicz, Renata Główczyńska, Anna Fojt, Tomasz Ilczuk, Monika Budnik, Krzysztof Krasuski, Miłosz Folta, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jędrzejewska, Barbara Górnicka, Grzegorz Opolski
AIMS: Toll-like receptors (TLR) and apoptosis were indicated as important factors in heart failure. Our aim was to characterize the morphological pattern of apoptosis, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6 expression in female rat hearts in the model of takotsubo syndrome (TTS). MAIN METHODS: 60 Sprague-Dawley female rats were treated with a single dose of 150 mg/kg b.wt. of isoprenaline (ISO) or 0.9% NaCl (controls). Hearts were collected 24, 48, 72 h and 7 days post-ISO injection...
March 1, 2018: Life Sciences
Yang Zhao, Xiao-Fei Shen, Ke Cao, Jie Ding, Xing Kang, Wen-Xian Guan, Yi-Tao Ding, Bao-Rui Liu, Jun-Feng Du
How to induce immune tolerance without long-term need for immunosuppressive drugs has always been a central problem in solid organ transplantation. Modulating immunoregulatory cells represents a potential target to resolve this problem. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are novel key immunoregulatory cells in the context of tumor development or transplantation, and can be generated in vitro . However, none of current systems for in vitro differentiation of MDSCs have successfully achieved long-term immune tolerance...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Gregory B Lim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Nan Chiang, Ian R Riley, Jesmond Dalli, Ana R Rodriguez, Bernd W Spur, Charles N Serhan
Resolution of acute inflammation is governed, in part, by lipid mediator class switching from proinflammatory eicosanoids to specialized proresolving mediators, including a recently identified new pathway of mediators, termed maresin conjugates in tissue regeneration (MCTR), which includes MCTR1, MCTR2, and MCTR3. Here, we addressed whether each MCTR can impact the known vascular actions of cysteinyl leukotrienes. Leukotriene D4 (LTD4 ; 1.5 nmol/mouse) initiated vascular leakage in mouse cremaster vessels, which was reduced (>75%) by MCTR1 and MCTR2 (0...
February 28, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Kalina Paunovska, Cory D Sago, Christopher M Monaco, William H Hudson, Marielena Gamboa Castro, Tobi G Rudoltz, Sujay Kalathoor, Daryll A Vanover, Philip J Santangelo, Rafi Ahmed, Anton V Bryskin, James Dahlman
Endothelial cells and macrophages play active roles in disease, and as a result, are important targets for nucleic acid therapies. While thousands of chemically distinct lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) can be synthesized to deliver nucleic acids, studying more than a few LNPs in vivo is challenging. As a result, it is difficult to understand how nanoparticles target these cells in vivo. Using high throughput LNP barcoding, we quantified how well LNPs delivered DNA barcodes to endothelial cells and macrophages in vitro, as well as endothelial cells and macrophages isolated from the lung, heart, and bone marrow in vivo...
February 28, 2018: Nano Letters
Li-Wang Yang, Dong-Ze Qin, Erskine James, Robert J McKallip, Ning-Ping Wang, Wei-Wei Zhang, Rong-Hua Zheng, Qing-Hua Han, Zhi-Qing Zhao
This study tested the hypothesis that CD44 is involved in development of cardiac fibrosis via angiotensin II (Ang II) AT1 receptor stimulated TNFα/NFκB/IκB signaling pathways. Study was conducted in C57BL/6 wild type and CD44 knockout mice subjected to Ang II infusion (1000 ng/kg/min) using osmotic minipumps up to 4 weeks or with gastric gavage administration of the AT1 receptor blocker, telmisartan at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day. Results indicated that Ang II enhances expression of the AT1 receptor, TNFα, NFκB and CD44 as well as downregulates IκB...
February 21, 2018: Shock
Tara L Croston, Angela R Lemons, Donald H Beezhold, Brett J Green
Fungal bioaerosols are ubiquitous in the environment and human exposure can result in a variety of health effects ranging from systemic, subcutaneous, and cutaneous infections to respiratory morbidity including allergy, asthma, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Recent research has focused on the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) following fungal exposure and is overlooked, yet important, group of regulators capable of influencing fungal immune responses through a variety of cellular mechanisms. These small non-coding ribose nucleic acids function to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and have been shown to participate in multiple disease pathways including cancer, heart disease, apoptosis, as well as immune responses to microbial hazards and occupational allergens...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Rosanna Di Paola, Roberta Fusco, Enrico Gugliandolo, Ramona D'Amico, Michela Campolo, Saverio Latteri, Arianna Carughi, Giuseppina Mandalari, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for the development of heart pathology. Myocardial infarction is the cause of death occurring after prolonged ischemia of the coronary arteries. Restoration of blood flow is the first intervention against heart attack, although the process of restoring blood flow to the ischemic myocardium could cause additional injury. This phenomenon, termed myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI-R) injury, is characterized by the formation of oxygen radicals. Pistachios have significant glucose- and insulin-lowering effects and can improve the inflammatory contest by downregulating both the expression and the circulating levels of several metabolic risk markers...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Nicola Wilck, Lajos Markó, András Balogh, Kristin Kräker, Florian Herse, Hendrik Bartolomaeus, István A Szijártó, Maik Gollasch, Nadine Reichhart, Olaf Strauss, Arnd Heuser, Damian Brockschnieder, Axel Kretschmer, Ralf Lesche, Florian Sohler, Johannes-Peter Stasch, Peter Sandner, Friedrich C Luft, Dominik N Müller, Ralf Dechend, Nadine Haase
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) can arise from cardiac and vascular remodeling processes following long-lasting hypertension. Efficacy of common HF therapeutics is unsatisfactory in HFpEF. Evidence suggests that stimulators of the nitric oxide-sensitive soluble guanylyl cyclase (NOsGC) could be of use here. We aimed to characterize the complex cardiovascular effects of NOsGC stimulation using NO-independent stimulator BAY 41-8543 in a double-transgenic rat (dTGR) model of HFpEF. We show a drastically improved survival rate of treated dTGR...
February 22, 2018: JCI Insight
Jian Wu, Olan Jackson-Weaver, Jian Xu
TGFβ superfamily includes the transforming growth factor βs (TGFβs), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), growth and differentiation factors (GDFs) and Activin/Inhibin families of ligands. Among the 33 members of TGFβ superfamily ligands, many act on multiple types of cells within the heart, including cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts/myofibroblasts, coronary endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and immune cells (e.g. monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils). In this review, we highlight recent discoveries on TGFβs, BMPs, and GDFs in different cardiac residential cellular components, in association with functional impacts in heart development, injury repair, and dysfunction...
February 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Raiyan T Zaman, Silvan Tuerkcan, Morteza Mahmoudi, Toshinobu Saito, Phillip C Yang, Frederick T Chin, Michael V McConnell, Lei Xing
OBJECTIVES: Myocardial infarction (MI) causes significant loss of cardiomyocytes, myocardial tissue damage, and impairment of myocardial function. The inability of cardiomyocytes to proliferate prevents the heart from self-regeneration. The treatment for advanced heart failure following an MI is heart transplantation despite the limited availability of the organs. Thus, stem-cell-based cardiac therapies could ultimately prevent heart failure by repairing injured myocardium that reverses cardiomyocyte loss...
2018: PloS One
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