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Schwartz formula

Aprinda Indahlastari, Munish Chauhan, Benjamin Schwartz, Rosalind J Sadleir
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we determined efficient head model sizes relative to predicted current densities in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). APPROACH: Efficiency measures were defined based on a finite element (FE) simulations performed using nine human head models derived from a single MRI data set, having extents varying from 60%-100% of the original axial range. Eleven tissue types, including anisotropic white matter, and three electrode montages (T7-T8, F3-right supraorbital, Cz-Oz) were used in the models...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Afshin Safaei-Asl, Mercede Enshaei, Abtin Heydarzadeh, Shohreh Maleknejad
INTRODUCTION: Assessment of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is an important tool for monitoring renal function. OBJECTIVES: Regarding to limitations in available methods, we intended to calculate GFR by cystatin C (Cys C) based formulas and determine correlation rate of them with current methods. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 72 children (38 boys and 34 girls) with renal disorders. The 24 hour urinary creatinine (Cr) clearance was the gold standard method...
2016: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
Maureen B Huhmann, Kristen N Smith, Sherwyn L Schwartz, Stacie K Haller, Sarah Irvin, Sarah S Cohen
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this clinical trial was to compare the glucose usage of two oral nutritional supplement (ONS) products and to assess whether a diabetes-specific formulation provides improved glucose stabilization and management compared with a standard formula. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 12 subjects with type 2 diabetes (7 males and 5 females) completed a randomized, cross-over design trial. Each subject consumed isocaloric amounts of either the standard ONS or the diabetes-specific formula ONS on different dates, 1 week apart...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Benjamin L Schwartz, Munish Chauhan, Rosalind J Sadleir
Presented here is a model of neural tissue in a conductive medium stimulated by externally injected currents. The tissue is described as a conductively isotropic bidomain, i.e. comprised of intra and extracellular regions that occupy the same space, as well as the membrane that divides them, and the injection currents are described as a pair of source and sink points. The problem is solved in three spatial dimensions and defined in spherical coordinates [Formula: see text]. The system of coupled partial differential equations is solved by recasting the problem to be in terms of the membrane and a monodomain, interpreted as a weighted average of the intra and extracellular domains...
December 2016: Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience
Pankaj P Dangle, Omar Ayyash, Audry Kang, Carlton Bates, Janelle Fox, Heidi Stephany, Glenn Cannon
OBJECTIVE: To asses if cystatin c calculated GFR can reveal CKD not detected by creatinine-based calculations in a larger prospective cohort of children with MMC. Wheel chair bound meningomyelocele (MMC) patients frequently have low muscle mass, and assessing renal deterioration based on creatinine based glomerular filtration rate is imprecise. MMC patients are also at risk for end stage renal disease. METHODS: Prospectively enrolled patients with MMC underwent annual serum creatinine and cystatin c testing...
August 16, 2016: Urology
P Skrzypczyk, M Panczyk-Tomaszewska, J Przychodzien, M Mizerska-Wasiak, E Kuzma-Mroczkowska, E Gorska, A Stelmaszczyk-Emmel
OBJECTIVE: Renalase is a protein produced mainly by kidneys. Renalase inactivates circulating catecholamines catalyzing process of their oxidation. Studies in adults with kidney disease suggest that renalase may play a role in pathogenesis of hypertension and target organ damage. The aim of the study was to assess level of renalase in children with glomerular kidney diseases and to find the relation between renalase level and clinical parameters in this group of patients. DESIGN AND METHOD: In 78 children (47 M, 31F) aged from 3...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Patience Ngozi Obiagwu, Priya Gajjar, Mignon McCulloch, Christian Scott, Alp Numanoglu, Peter Nourse
BACKGROUND: Renal artery revascularisation procedures are usually carried out on children with renal artery stenosis from varied causes, including Takayasu's arteritis. Reports on the outcome of such procedures in children usually refer to the improvement in blood pressure, with only minimal mention of effects on renal function. OBJECTIVE: Salvageability of renal function in children who underwent renal revascularisation for Takayasu's arteritis-induced renal artery stenosis (TARAS) was the focus of this study...
August 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Gilad Hamdani, Edward J Nehus, David K Hooper, Mark M Mitsnefes
Masked hypertension is a common complication of pediatric kidney transplantation. While office hypertension is known to be associated with worse short- and long-term graft function, the role of masked hypertension in allograft dysfunction is not clear. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 77 consecutive pediatric kidney transplant recipients who had routine 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring with the aims to estimate the prevalence of masked hypertension and examine its association with allograft function...
June 28, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Steve Schwartz, Emily Frank, Dennis Gierhart, Paula Simpson, Robert Frumento
BACKGROUND: Dietary modification, through supplementation and elimination diets, has become an area of interest to help slow skin aging, reduce symptom severity or prevent reoccurrence of certain dermatologic conditions [Clinical Dermatology vol. 31 (2013) 677-700]. Free radical components (reactive oxygen species or ROS) or lipid peroxide (LPO) is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of accelerated skin aging when prolonged oxidative stress occurs. The use of antioxidant-related therapies such as nutraceuticals is of particular interest in restoring skin homeostasis...
June 17, 2016: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Johnathan W Broady, Dong Han, Jing Yuan, Chao Liao, Christy L Bratcher, Mark R Lilies, Elizabeth H Schwartz, Luxin Wang
Three brands of commercial roast beef were purchased and artificially inoculated with a 5-strain Listeria monocytogenes cocktail at 2 inoculation levels (approximately 3 and 6 Log CFU/g). Although all 3 brands contained sodium diacetate and sodium lactate, inoculated Listeria cocktail survived for 16 d in all 3 brands; significant increases in L. monocytogenes numbers were seen on inoculated Brand B roast beef on days 12 and 16. Numbers of L. monocytogenes increased to 4.14 Log CFU/g for the 3 Log CFU/g inoculation level and increased to 7...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science
Randula Ranawaka, Carla Lloyd, Pat J McKiernan, Sally A Hulton, Khalid Sharif, David V Milford
BACKGROUND: Combined liver-kidney transplantation (CLKT) is the accepted treatment for patients with both liver failure and progressive renal insufficiency. Long-term outcome data for CLKT in children is sparse and controversy exists as to whether simultaneous CLKT with organs from the same donor confers immunologic and survival benefit to the kidney allograft. We report the long-term renal graft outcomes of 40 patients who had simultaneous CLKT. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of kidney graft survival (time from transplantation to death, return to dialysis or last follow-up event) in all pediatric patients (age < 18 years old) who underwent CLKT from March 1994 to January 2015...
September 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Hossein-Emad Momtaz, Arash Dehghan, Mohammad Karimian
INTRODUCTION: The use of a simple and accurate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimating method aiming minute assessment of renal function can be of great clinical importance. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the association of a GFR estimating by equation that includes only cystatin C (Gentian equation) to equation that include only creatinine (Schwartz equation) among children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 31 children aged from 1 day to 5 years with the final diagnosis of unilateral or bilateral hydronephrosis referred to Besat hospital in Hamadan, between March 2010 and February 2011 were consecutively enrolled...
2016: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
Sarah J Kizilbash, Clifford E Kashtan, Blanche M Chavers, Qing Cao, Angela R Smith
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a well-documented complication of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Dialysis after HSCT is associated with a lower overall survival (OS); however, the association between less severe AKI and OS is unclear. We retrospectively studied 205 consecutive pediatric HSCT patients to determine the incidence and impact of all stages of AKI on OS in pediatric HSCT recipients. We used the peak pRIFLE grade during the first 100 days to classify AKI (ie, R = risk, I = injury, F = failure, L = loss of function, E = end-stage renal disease) and used the modified Schwartz formula to estimate glomerular filtration rate...
July 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Guido Filler, Anette Melk, Stephen D Marks
The management of non-renal pediatric solid organ transplant recipients has become complex over the last decade with innovations in immunosuppression and surgical techniques. Post-transplantation follow-up is essential to ensure that children have functioning allografts for as long as possible. CKD is highly prevalent in these patients, often under recognized, and has a profound impact on patient survival. These practice recommendations focus on the early detection and management of hypertension, proteinuria, and renal dysfunction in non-renal pediatric solid organ transplant recipients...
May 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Jeong Eun Shin, Soon Min Lee, Ho Seon Eun, Min Soo Park, Kook In Park, Ran Namgung
PURPOSE: The vancomycin dosage regimen is regularly modified according to the patient's glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In the present study, we aimed to assess the usefulness of serum cystatin C (Cys-C) concentration, compared with serum creatinine (SCr) concentration, for predicting vancomycin clearance (CLvcm) in neonates. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the laboratory data of 50 term neonates who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit and received intravenous vancomycin, and assessed the pharmacokinetic profiles...
November 2015: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Carl Söderlund, Eveline Löfdahl, Johan Nilsson, Öyvind Reitan, Thomas Higgins, Göran Rådegran
We aimed to study the incidence, predictors and outcome of chronic kidney disease (CKD) after heart transplantation (HT). All our HT patients 1988-2010 were considered for inclusion. Of these, 134 came for annual follow-ups including evaluation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using iohexol clearance measurements, and the CKD-EPI (adults) or Schwartz (children) formulae. Median GFR (Q1-Q3) (ml/min/1.73 m(2) ) declined from 67.0 (50.0-82.0) during transplant assessment (TA) to 56.0 (45.0-69.0) at year 1, 53...
May 2016: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Małgorzata Janeczko, Ewa Niedzielska, Wojciech Pietras
BACKGROUND: Wilms' tumor is the most common kidney cancer in children. Treatment consists of pre- and post-operative chemotherapy, surgery and in some cases radiotherapy. The treatment of nephroblastomas is very effective. Hence, the population of adult patients cured of this cancer in their childhood is steadily growing, generating a need for long-term health assessment, including renal function, due to the specifications of the therapy and the location of the tumor. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate nephrological complications after treatment for nephroblastoma...
May 2015: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Nick Richards, Mohamed Hassan, Abdul Karim Saleh, Hormazdiar Dastoor, Bassam Bernieh, Samra Abouchacra, Omar Al Jabri, Alan Fleischmann, Marie Richards, Daniele Marcelli
According to estimates, the dialysis prevalence in Abu Dhabi is around 370 per million population. The annual growth is 12-15% and the dialysis population is likely to double in the next five years. Most patients present to dialysis as an emergency and only 2.7% have an arteriovenous fistula at the first dialysis. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Emirate is undefined. A study of the epidemiology of CKD and referral patterns was undertaken. SEHA, the Abu Dhabi Health Service delivery company, has a unified computer system containing all measurements made in its laboratories...
September 2015: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Siew Fen Lisa Wong, Vikram Agarwal, Jennifer H Mansfield, Nicolas Denans, Matthew G Schwartz, Haydn M Prosser, Olivier Pourquié, David P Bartel, Clifford J Tabin, Edwina McGlinn
The Hox genes play a central role in patterning the embryonic anterior-to-posterior axis. An important function of Hox activity in vertebrates is the specification of different vertebral morphologies, with an additional role in axis elongation emerging. The miR-196 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) are predicted to extensively target Hox 3' UTRs, although the full extent to which miR-196 regulates Hox expression dynamics and influences mammalian development remains to be elucidated. Here we used an extensive allelic series of mouse knockouts to show that the miR-196 family of miRNAs is essential both for properly patterning vertebral identity at different axial levels and for modulating the total number of vertebrae...
September 1, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
M-A C Bind, T J Vanderweele, B A Coull, J D Schwartz
Mediation analysis is a valuable approach to examine pathways in epidemiological research. Prospective cohort studies are often conducted to study biological mechanisms and often collect longitudinal measurements on each participant. Mediation formulae for longitudinal data have been developed. Here, we formalize the natural direct and indirect effects using a causal framework with potential outcomes that allows for an interaction between the exposure and the mediator. To allow different types of longitudinal measures of the mediator and outcome, we assume two generalized mixed-effects models for both the mediator and the outcome...
January 2016: Biostatistics
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