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David A Schwartz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Michael A Woodley Of Menie, Joseph A Schwartz, Kevin M Beaver
Utilizing a newly released cognitive Polygenic Score (PGS) from Wave IV of Add Health (n = 1,886), structural equation models (SEMs) examining the relationship between PGS and fertility (which is approximately 50% complete in the present sample), employing measures of verbal IQ and educational attainment as potential mediators, were estimated. The results of indirect pathway models revealed that verbal IQ mediates the positive relationship between PGS and educational attainment, and educational attainment in turn mediates the negative relationship between verbal IQ and a latent fertility measure...
October 20, 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Susan E Luczak, Rubin Khoddam, Sheila Yu, Tamara L Wall, Anna Schwartz, Steve Sussman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We conducted a review of the prevalence and co-occurrence of 12 types of addictions in US ethnic/racial groups and discuss the implications of the results for genetic research on addictions. METHODS: We utilized MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases to review the literature on alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, illicit drugs, gambling, eating/food, internet, sex, love, exercise, work, and shopping. We present results for each addiction based on total US prevalence, prevalence within ethnic groups, and co-occurrence of addictions among ethnic groups when available...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Stephen G Schwartz, Darius M Moshfeghi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Kyungho Kim, Jing Li, Andrew Barazia, Alan Tseng, Seock-Won Youn, Giovanni Abbadessa, Yi Yu, Brian Schwartz, Robert K Andrews, Victor R Gordeuk, Jaehyung Cho
Previous studies identified the Ser/Thr protein kinase, AKT, as a therapeutic target for thromboinflammatory diseases. Here we report that specific inhibition of AKT with ARQ 092, an orally-available AKT inhibitor currently in Phase Ib clinical trials as an anti-cancer drug, attenuates the adhesive function of neutrophils and platelets from sickle cell disease patients in vitro and cell-cell interactions in a mouse model of sickle cell disease. Studies using neutrophils and platelets isolated from sickle cell disease patients revealed that treatment with 50-500 nM ARQ 092 significantly blocks αMβ2 integrin function in neutrophils and reduces P-selectin exposure and glycoprotein Ib/IX/V-mediated agglutination in platelets...
October 6, 2016: Haematologica
Michael J Manfredo, Jeremy T Bruskotter, Tara L Teel, David Fulton, Shalom H Schwartz, Robert Arlinghaus, Shigehiro Oishi, Ayse K Uskul, Kent Redford, Shinobu Kitayama, Leeann Sullivan
The hope for creating widespread change in social values has endured among conservation professionals since early calls by Aldo Leopold for a "Land Ethic". However, there has been little serious attention in conservation to the fields of investigation that address values, how they are formed, and how they change. We introduce a social-ecological systems approach in which values are seen not just as motivational goals that people hold, but they are also deeply embedded in the world around us, in our material culture, collective behaviors, traditions, and social institutions...
October 19, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Daniel S Roberts, Steve Otto, Brian Chen, Kevin A Peng, Marc S Schwartz, Derald E Brackmann, John W House
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether an auditory brainstem implant (ABI) can impact levels of tinnitus in neurofibromatosis type-2 (NF2) patients who have undergone translabyrinthine craniotomy for vestibular schwannoma (VS) removal and to evaluate the burden of tinnitus in these patients. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case series and patient survey. SETTING: Tertiary neurotologic referral center. PATIENTS: NF2 patients who underwent translabyrinthine removal of VS and ABI placement between 1994 and 2015...
October 12, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Erica O Miller, Saurabh Malhotra, Ronald G Schwartz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Jack Drescher, Alan Schwartz, Flávio Casoy, Christopher A McIntosh, Brian Hurley, Kenneth Ashley, Mary Barber, David Goldenberg, Sarah E Herbert, Lorraine E Lothwell, Marlin R Mattson, Scot G McAfee, Jack Pula, Vernon Rosario, D Andrew Tompkins
Conversion therapies are any treatments, including individual talk therapy, behavioral (e.g. aversive stimuli), group therapy or milieu (e.g. "retreats or inpatient treatments" relying on all of the above methods) treatments, which attempt to change an individual's sexual orientation from homosexual to heterosexual. However these practices have been repudiated by major mental health organizations because of increasing evidence that they are ineffective and may cause harm to patients and their families who fail to change...
2016: J Med Regul
Abhik Bhattacharya, Bhavana B Rao, Ioannis E Koutroubakis, Benjamin Click, Eric J Vargas, Miguel Regueiro, Marc Schwartz, Jason M Swoger, Dmitriy Babichenko, Douglas Hartmann, Claudia R Rivers, Arthur Barrie, Jana G Hashash, Michael A Dunn, David G Binion
BACKGROUND: Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) in clinical remission with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) have been labeled "silent CD" and have increased 2-year hospitalization rates when compared with asymptomatic patients with no biochemical evidence of inflammation. The risk of cumulative bowel damage in patients with silent CD is unknown. METHODS: Observational study of patients with CD prospectively followed in a tertiary referral natural history registry...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Oren Schwartz, Tal Libenson, Nadav Astman, Lavon Haim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Military Medicine
Anya Alayev, Rachel S Salamon, Subrata Manna, Naomi S Schwartz, Adi Y Berman, Marina K Holz
Homologous recombination (HR) is a conserved process that maintains genome stability and cell survival by repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The RAD51-related family of proteins is involved in repair of DSBs; consequently, deregulation of RAD51 causes chromosomal rearrangements and stimulates tumorigenesis. RAD51C has been identified as a potential tumor suppressor and a breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene. Recent studies have also implicated estrogen as a DNA-damaging agent that causes DSBs...
October 18, 2016: Cell Cycle
Renée M Symonds, Wei Wei Lee, Adam Kohn, Odelia Schwartz, Sarah Witkowski, Elyse S Sussman
The auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) component of event-related potentials (ERPs) has served as a neural index of auditory change detection. MMN is elicited by presentation of infrequent (deviant) sounds randomly interspersed among frequent (standard) sounds. Deviants elicit a larger negative deflection in the ERP waveform compared to the standard. There is considerable debate as to whether the neural mechanism of this change detection response is due to release from neural adaptation (neural adaptation hypothesis) or from a prediction error signal (predictive coding hypothesis)...
October 17, 2016: Brain Topography
Saskya Claasens, Ilan S Schwartz, Henry F Jordaan, Johann W Schneider
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: IDCases
Thomas Schwartz, Louise Pyndt Diederichsen, Ingrid E Lundberg, Ivar Sjaastad, Helga Sanner
Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) include the main subgroups polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), inclusion body myositis (IBM) and juvenile DM (JDM). The mentioned subgroups are characterised by inflammation of skeletal muscles leading to muscle weakness and other organs can also be affected as well. Even though clinically significant heart involvement is uncommon, heart disease is one of the major causes of death in IIM. Recent studies show an increased prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in JDM and DM/PM, which need attention...
2016: RMD Open
Melinda Y Chang, Andrew Shin, Joseph Park, Aaron Nagiel, Robert A Lalane, Steven D Schwartz, Joseph L Demer
PURPOSE: To ascertain deformation of the optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary tissues caused by horizontal duction. DESIGN: Prospective, experimental study. METHODS: Optical coherence tomography of the ONH region was performed in 23 eyes of twelve normal volunteers in central gaze and increasing (10, 20, and 30°) adduction and abduction. Main outcome measures were changes from central gaze in the configuration of the ONH and peripapillary tissues in eccentric gazes...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Jonathan J Lyons, Xiaomin Yu, Jason D Hughes, Quang T Le, Ali Jamil, Yun Bai, Nancy Ho, Ming Zhao, Yihui Liu, Michael P O'Connell, Neil N Trivedi, Celeste Nelson, Thomas DiMaggio, Nina Jones, Helen Matthews, Katie L Lewis, Andrew J Oler, Ryan J Carlson, Peter D Arkwright, Celine Hong, Sherene Agama, Todd M Wilson, Sofie Tucker, Yu Zhang, Joshua J McElwee, Maryland Pao, Sarah C Glover, Marc E Rothenberg, Robert J Hohman, Kelly D Stone, George H Caughey, Theo Heller, Dean D Metcalfe, Leslie G Biesecker, Lawrence B Schwartz, Joshua D Milner
Elevated basal serum tryptase levels are present in 4-6% of the general population, but the cause and relevance of such increases are unknown. Previously, we described subjects with dominantly inherited elevated basal serum tryptase levels associated with multisystem complaints including cutaneous flushing and pruritus, dysautonomia, functional gastrointestinal symptoms, chronic pain, and connective tissue abnormalities, including joint hypermobility. Here we report the identification of germline duplications and triplications in the TPSAB1 gene encoding α-tryptase that segregate with inherited increases in basal serum tryptase levels in 35 families presenting with associated multisystem complaints...
October 17, 2016: Nature Genetics
Aleksandra M Kwasnik, Shelly A Miller, Randall S Schwartz, Stefanie Krick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
D Löffler, K Landgraf, D Rockstroh, J T Schwartze, H Dunzendorfer, W Kiess, A Körner
BACKGROUND: Meteorin-like (METRNL) is a recently described circulating protein shown to be highly expressed in white adipose tissue and to beneficially affect energy metabolism in mice. OBJECTIVE: We systematically evaluated the role of METRNL for human adipogenesis and its association with obesity, browning and hyperinsulinemia in children. In addition, we assessed the functional relevance of METRNL for human adipogenesis. RESULTS: METRNL expression decreased during human adipocyte differentiation in vitro...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Céline Marban, Faezeh Forouzanfar, Amina Ait-Ammar, Faiza Fahmi, Hala El Mekdad, Fadoua Daouad, Olivier Rohr, Christian Schwartz
One of the top research priorities of the international AIDS society by the action "Towards an HIV Cure" is the purge or the decrease of the pool of all latently infected cells. This strategy is based on reactivation of latently reservoirs (the shock) followed by an intensifying combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to kill them (the kill). The central nervous system (CNS) has potential latently infected cells, i.e., perivascular macrophages, microglial cells, and astrocytes that will need to be eliminated...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
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