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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450906/factors-affecting-the-occurrence-of-enteritis-in-10-to-12-month-old-eastern-grey-kangaroos-macropus-giganteus
#1
Nobuhide Kido, Sohei Tanaka, Yuko Wada, Sumito Sato
Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) younger than 19 months at Kanazawa Zoological Gardens, Japan, frequently died of enteritis. The main cause of death was coccidiosis. This study aimed to reveal retrospectively the clinical features of enteritis and factors contributing to its high occurrence. In addition, haematological and serum biochemical parameters in kangaroos younger than 24 months were analyzed. The findings suggested that enteritis occurrence was higher in 10- to 12-month-old kangaroos than other ages and during seasons with high temperature and humidity than during seasons with low temperature and humidity...
February 16, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450570/metals-in-feathers-of-african-penguins-spheniscus-demersus-considerations-for-the-welfare-and-management-of-seabirds-under-human-care
#2
S Squadrone, M C Abete, P Brizio, D Pessani, L Favaro
Bird feathers have been proven to be reliable indicators of metal exposure originating from contaminated food and polluted environments. The concentrations of 15 essential and non-essential metals were investigated in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) feathers from a Northwestern Italian zoological facility. These birds are exclusively fed with herring from the northeast Atlantic Ocean. Certain elements, such as Hg and Cd, reflected the bioaccumulation phenomena that occur through the marine food chain...
February 15, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437549/hepatic-and-renal-histology-and-mercury-concentrations-of-north-west-and-north-east-greenland-narwhals-monodon-monoceros
#3
Christian Sonne, Pall S Leifsson, Jens Søndergaard, Rune Dietz
Narwhals (Monodon monoceros) are at the top of the Arctic food web and therefore might biomagnify high total mercury (Hg) concentrations in organs and tissues. The aim of this study was to determine histopathology and Hg concentrations in liver and kidneys from 15 North East Greenland narwhals (3 subadult females, 8 adult females, 3 subadult males, and 1 adult male) and compare data with previous observations of 12 North West Greenland specimens (1 subadult female, 4 adult females, 1 subadult male, and 6 adult males)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433401/amdoparvovirus-infection-in-red-pandas-ailurus-fulgens
#4
Charles E Alex, Steven V Kubiski, Linlin Li, Mohammadreza Sadeghi, Raymund F Wack, Megan A McCarthy, Joseph B Pesavento, Eric Delwart, Patricia A Pesavento
Aleutian mink disease virus is the type species in the genus Amdoparvovirus, and in mink and other Mustelidae can cause either subclinical disease or fatal chronic immune stimulation and immune complex disease. The authors describe a novel amdoparvovirus in the endangered red panda ( Ailurus fulgens), discovered using viral metagenomics. The authors analyzed the prevalence, tissue distribution, and disease association by PCR, in situ hybridization, electron microscopy, and histology in a group of 6 red pandas from a single zoological collection...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426805/boveri-s-research-at-the-zoological-station-naples-rediscovery-of-his-original-microscope-slides-at-the-university-of-w%C3%A3-rzburg
#5
Ulrich Scheer
Eric Davidson once wrote about Theodor Boveri: "From his own researches, and perhaps most important, his generalized interpretations, derive the paradigms that underlie modern inquiries into the genomic basis of embryogenesis" (Davidson, 1985). As luck would have it, the "primary data" of Boveri's experimental work, namely the microscope slides prepared by him and his wife Marcella during several stays at the Zoological Station in Naples (1901/02, 1911/12 and 1914), have survived at the University of Würzburg...
February 6, 2018: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411297/trypanosoma-brucei-plimmer-bradford-1899-is-a-synonym-of-t-evansi-steel-1885-according-to-current-knowledge-and-by-application-of-nomenclature-rules
#6
Jesús Molinari, S Andrea Moreno
Proper application of the principles of biological nomenclature is fundamental for scientific and technical communication about organisms. As other scientific disciplines, taxonomy inherently is open to change, thus species names cannot be final and immutable. Nevertheless, altering the names of organisms of high economical, medical, or veterinary importance can become a complex challenge between the scientific need to have correct classifications, and the practical ideal of having fixed classifications. Trypanosoma evansi (Steel, 1885), T...
February 6, 2018: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405362/confronting-the-wildlife-trade-through-public-education-at-zoological-institutions-in-chengdu-p-r-china
#7
Susan Clayton, Sarah Bexell, Xu Ping, Zhang Zhihe, Li Wen Jing, Chen Hong Wei, Hu Yan
The wildlife trade poses substantial threats to global biodiversity. China is a significant source of threatened species and also a market for wildlife products. Zoological parks (zoos), which are a popular leisure attraction in China as elsewhere, are increasingly conceptualized as places to educate visitors about both animals and environmental threats more generally. This paper reports on an attempt to inform Chinese zoo visitors about the threats presented by the wildlife trade, and about the opportunity to take personal actions to help protect wildlife...
February 5, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399953/history-and-highlights-of-the-teratological-collection-in-the-museum-anatomicum-of-leiden-university-the-netherlands
#8
Lucas L Boer, Peter L J Boek, Andries J van Dam, Roelof-Jan Oostra
The anatomical collection of the Anatomical Museum of Leiden University Medical Center (historically referred to as Museum Anatomicum Academiae Lugduno-Batavae) houses and maintains more than 13,000 unique anatomical, pathological and zoological specimens, and include the oldest teratological specimens of The Netherlands. Throughout four centuries hundreds of teratological specimens were acquired by more than a dozen collectors. Due to the rich history of this vast collection, teratological specimens can be investigated in a unique retrospective sight going back almost four centuries...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399864/in-house-monitoring-of-steroid-hormone-metabolites-in-urine-informs-breeding-management-of-a-giant-anteater-myrmechophaga-tridactyla
#9
Laura Amendolagine, Tad Schoffner, Lynn Koscielny, Mandi Schook, Debra Copeland, James Casteel, Brianna Duff, Diana Koester
Although numbers of giant anteaters within North American facilities have been steadily increasing for the last 15 years, the population now exhibits an unstable age distribution with genetically valuable individuals nearing reproductive senescence. Contributing to this issue is the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) described lack of standardization of breeding introduction practices and high risk of female injury occurring during such pairings. This report describes the development of a successful breeding protocol at Cleveland Metroparks Zoo based on hormone monitoring and efficient communication between science and animal management teams that minimizes risk of female injury...
February 5, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385275/identification-of-possible-nutritional-and-stress-risk-factors-in-the-development-of-marmoset-wasting-syndrome
#10
Francis Cabana, Rina Maguire, Chia-Da Hsu, Amy Plowman
Marmoset wasting syndrome (MWS) describes a series of symptoms in callitrichids that lead to general weakness and a failure to thrive in captive conditions such as zoological institutions. Though the cause of MWS has not been identified, the majority of hypotheses are linked to deficiencies of specific nutrients and increased stress levels. Questionnaires were sent to zoos requesting information on diets and housing of currently living and dead callitrichids before their deaths, as well as their postmortem reports...
January 31, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380035/the-ontogeny-of-limulus-polyphemus-xiphosura-s-str-euchelicerata-revised-looking-under-the-skin
#11
Carolin Haug, Marie A I N Rötzer
In recent years, methods for investigating the exo-morphology of zoological specimens have seen large improvements. Among new approaches, auto-fluorescence imaging offers possibilities to document specimens under high resolution without introducing additional artifacts as, for example, seen in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging. Additionally, while SEM imaging is restricted to the outer morphology of the current instar, auto-fluorescence imaging can be used to document changes of the outer morphology of the next instar underneath the cuticle of the current instar...
January 29, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371547/isolation-of-ovicidal-fungi-from-fecal-samples-of-captive-animals-maintained-in-a-zoological-park
#12
José A Hernández, Rosa A Vázquez-Ruiz, Cristiana F Cazapal-Monteiro, Esther Valderrábano, Fabián L Arroyo, Iván Francisco, Silvia Miguélez, Rita Sánchez-Andrade, Adolfo Paz-Silva, María S Arias
Abstract: There are certain saprophytic fungi in the soil able to develop an antagonistic effect against eggs of parasites. Some of these fungal species are ingested by animals during grazing, and survive in their feces after passing through the digestive tract. To identify and isolate ovicidal fungi in the feces of wild captive animals, a total of 60 fecal samples were taken from different wild animals kept captive in the Marcelle Natureza Zoological Park (Lugo, Spain). After the serial culture of the feces onto Petri dishes with different media, their parasicitide activity was assayed against eggs of trematodes (Calicophoron daubneyi) and ascarids (Parascaris equorum)...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351082/prevalence-of-endoparasitic-infections-of-birds-in-zoo-gardens-in-serbia
#13
Tamara Ilić, Zsolt Becskei, Bojan Gajić, József Özvegy, Predrag Stepanović, Katarina Nenadović, Sanda Dimitrijević
This report represents the prevalence of endoparasitic infections of birds in zoological gardens in Serbia. Coprological examination conducted during 2015 and 2016, involved samples from 318 individual birds belonging to 112 species, in three zoo gardens (Belgrade, Palić and Bor). Individual faeces samples were analysed by the flotation method in salt solution. The presence of endoparasites was established in 51.96% (Belgrade), 46.16% (Palić) and 16.66% (Bor) of the tested birds. We diagnosed coccidian oocysts, eggs of Capillaria spp, Heterakis spp, Trichostrongylus spp, Ascaridia spp, Syngamus trachea and eggs of yet unidentified trematode...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349635/the-diving-reflex-and-asphyxia-working-across-species-in-physiological-ecology
#14
Joel B Hagen
Beginning in the mid-1930s the comparative physiologists Laurence Irving and Per Fredrik (Pete) Scholander pioneered the study of diving mammals, particularly harbor seals. Although resting on earlier work dating back to the late nineteenth century, their research was distinctive in several ways. In contrast to medically oriented physiology, the approaches of Irving and Scholander were strongly influenced by natural history, zoology, ecology, and evolutionary biology. Diving mammals, they argued, shared the cardiopulmonary physiology of terrestrial mammals, but evolution had modified these basic adaptive processes in extreme ways...
January 18, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348339/draft-genome-sequences-of-strains-tre-1-tre-d-tre-h-and-tri-7-isolated-from-tamarins-and-belonging-to-four-putative-novel-bifidobacterium-species
#15
Edoardo Puglisi, Paola Mattarelli, Monica Modesto, Andrea Bonetti, Caterina Spiezio, Camillo Sandri, Lorenzo Morelli
Bifidobacterium sp. strains TRE 1, TRE D, TRE H, and TRI 7 were isolated from two tamarins housed in Parco Natura Viva, Garda Zoological Park S.r.l. (Bussolengo, Verona, Italy). These strains belong to four putative novel species of the genus Bifidobacterium The genome sizes were 2.7 Mb for TRE 1, 2.7 Mb for TRE D, 2.4 Mb for TRE H, and 2.7 Mb for TRI 7. The average GC contents were 63.18% for TRE 1, 58.27% for TRE D, 57.11% for TRE H, and 63.79% for TRI 7.
January 18, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343579/identification-of-poxvirus-genome-uncoating-and-dna-replication-factors-with-mutually-redundant-roles
#16
Baoming Liu, Debasis Panda, Jorge D Mendez-Rios, Sundar Ganesan, Linda S Wyatt, Bernard Moss
Genome uncoating is essential for replication of most viruses. For poxviruses, the process is divided into two stages: removal of the envelope allowing early gene expression, and breaching of the core wall allowing DNA release, replication and late gene expression. Subsequent studies showed that the host proteasome and the viral D5 protein, which has an essential role in DNA replication, are required for vaccinia virus (VACV) genome uncoating. In a search for additional VACV uncoating proteins, we noted a report that described a defect in DNA replication and late expression when the gene encoding a 68 kDa ankyrin-repeat/F box protein (68k-ank), associated with the cellular SCF ubiquitin ligase complex, was deleted from the attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319715/identification-and-return-of-a-skull-from-tasmania-in-the-berlin-anatomical-collection
#17
Andreas Winkelmann, Barbara Teßmann
Following a request by the Australian government, human remains of Australian origin were identified in the anatomical collection of Charité, the medical faculty of Berlin. We initiated an interdisciplinary provenance research on such remains to ensure their identity, elucidate their history, and prepare for a possible return to Australia. Here, we present results regarding a skull in the collection labeled as stemming from Tasmania. The non-invasive anthropological investigation revealed the skull to stem from a girl of about 15 years of age who most likely died of a massive otitis/petrositis with subsequent meningitis...
December 7, 2017: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302103/babesia-odocoilei-as-a-cause-of-mortality-in-captive-cervids-in-canada
#18
Amélie Mathieu, Adriana R Pastor, Charlene N Berkvens, Carolyn Gara-Boivin, Michel Hébert, Alexandre N Léveillé, John R Barta, Dale A Smith
Nine cases of fatal infection with Babesia odocoilei were confirmed in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and elk (Cervus canadensis) housed in zoological institutions located in southern Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba, Canada between 2013 and 2016. All animals died of a hemolytic crisis. Frequent postmortem findings were extensive hemorrhage, pigmenturia, and intrahepatic cholestasis. The described ante- and postmortem signs are consistent with those of previously reported cases in the United States. Diagnosis was confirmed in all cases by polymerase chain reaction performed on DNA extracted from whole blood or frozen spleen...
January 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297824/detection-of-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis-in-rock-hyraxes-procavia-capensis-imported-from-south-africa
#19
Kim Fechner, Jenny Schäfer, Pia Münster, Kerstin Ternes, Susanne Döring, Inger Völkel, Franz-Josef Kaup, Claus-Peter Czerny
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic, progressive, and consecutively fatal enteritis, especially in ruminants. MAP distribution among wildlife is not yet clear. In this study, three wild-born rock hyraxes ( Procavia capensis) had been imported from South Africa to a German zoological garden. During the quarantine period, four young animals were born. The wild-born animals showed symptoms of mild diarrhea shortly after their arrival in the zoological garden, but all routine parasitological and bacteriologic tests performed were negative...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297808/captive-management-of-wild-impala-aepyceros-melampus-during-intensive-immobilization-and-general-anesthesia-study-trials
#20
Gareth E Zeiler, Leith C R Meyer
Immobilization and anesthesia of impala ( Aepyceros melampus) has become a popular research theme. This demand is brought about by the increased need to immobilize and anesthetize impala and other medium-sized wild ungulates because of their increased value in game ranching and zoological collections. To improve our understanding of immobilization and general anesthesia in these species, it is paramount to be able to study them in a practical, safe research environment that does not cause harm or unnecessary stress to the animals...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
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