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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031945/assessing-colour-preference-in-aldabra-giant-tortoises-geochelone-gigantea
#1
Caterina Spiezio, Carola Leonardi, Barbara Regaiolli
Tortoises perceive different colours and rely on the visual system to find food. However, few studies have considered colour preference in tortoises, especially in land species. The aim of this study is to investigate whether Aldabra giant tortoises (Geochelone gigantea) housed in Parco Natura Viva (VR), an Italian zoological garden, show a specific colour preference in their social context. The study was divided into two different periods in which red and yellow balls of the same size were scattered around in the outdoor enclosure...
October 12, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030716/prevalence-transmission-and-host-specificity-of-cryptosporidium-spp-in-various-animal-groups-from-two-french-zoos
#2
Marwan Osman, Dima El Safadi, Sadia Benamrouz-Vanneste, Amandine Cian, Romain Moriniere, Nausicaa Gantois, Pilar Delgado-Viscogliosi, Karine Guyot, Stéphanie Bosc, Magali Chabé, Thierry Petit, Eric Viscogliosi, Gabriela Certad
Cryptosporidium represents a major cause of gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals including domestic, wild, and in captivity animals, and more than 30 validated species of Cryptosporidium are recognized as infectious to different hosts such as mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. Therefore, numerous investigations have been conducted worldwide in order to shed light on the epidemiology of this parasite and to explore its potential reservoirs. Few surveys, targeting humans and animals have been carried out regarding the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp...
October 13, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971533/growth-rate-and-stable-carbon-and-nitrogen-isotope-trophic-discrimination-factors-of-lion-and-leopard-whiskers
#3
Ruwimbo Mutirwara, Frans G T Radloff, Daryl Codron
RATIONALE: Stable isotope analysis (SIA) of whiskers has been used to identify temporal feeding habits, intra-population diet variation, as well as individual dietary specialisation of marine and terrestrial carnivores. However, the potential of the method to disclose such dietary information for large wild felids is hampered by lack of information on species-specific whisker growth rates, whisker growth patterns and whisker-diet trophic discrimination factors (TDFs). METHODS: Whisker growth rates and growth patterns were measured for four lions Panthera leo and one leopard Panthera pardus held at the National Zoological Gardens, Pretoria, South Africa...
October 3, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957461/evolution-of-alu-subfamily-structure-in-the-saimiri-lineage-of-new-world-monkeys
#4
Jasmine N Baker, Jerilyn A Walker, John A Vanchiere, Kacie R Phillippe, Corey P St Romain, Paulina Gonzalez-Quiroga, Michael W Denham, Jackson R Mierl, Miriam K Konkel, Mark A Batzer
Squirrel monkeys, Saimiri, are commonly found in zoological parks and used in biomedical research. S. boliviensis is the most common species for research; however, there is little information about genome evolution within this primate lineage. Here, we reconstruct the Alu element sequence amplification and evolution in the genus Saimiri at the time of divergence within the family Cebidae lineage. Alu elements are the most successful SINE (Short Interspersed Element) in primates. Here, we report 46 Saimiri lineage specific Alu subfamilies...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933323/on-names-of-genera-of-prokaryotes-that-are-later-homonyms-of-generic-names-with-standing-in-the-zoological-or-the-botanical-nomenclature-proposal-of-neomegalonema-gen-nov-and-neomegalonema-perideroedes-comb-nov-as-replacements-for-the-prokaryotic-generic-name
#5
Aharon Oren
I here present a survey of generic names with standing in the prokaryotic nomenclature that have homonyms with standing under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and/or the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. I especially discuss such names added after Principle 2 of the Bacteriological Code/Prokaryotic Code was changed in 1999 to make the prokaryote nomenclature not independent of botanical and zoological nomenclature. Cases include the genera Micromonas, Quadrococcus, Yania, Sinococcus, and Meganema...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920811/salt-bath-as-a-treatment-for-idiopathic-dermatitis-in-captive-nile-hippopotamus-hippopotamus-amphibius
#6
Kelly E Helmick
Ulcerative skin lesions were observed in two captive adult female hippos (Hippopotamus amphibius) from a zoological collection. Lesions appeared as cracking, peeling, or vesicles of the skin affecting the lateral and ventral aspects of the neck, limbs, thorax, and abdomen, dorsum, toes, and perineal region. Some lesions drained blood, serum, or purulent material. Histologic evaluation of sloughed skin consisted of deep dermal collagen with bacterial cellulitis and vasculitis and superficial fungal colonization...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920776/establishing-normal-fecal-flora-in-wild-australian-passerine-birds-by-use-of-the-fecal-gram-stain
#7
Benjamin Latham, Alan Leishman, John Martin, David Phalen
The purpose of this study was to determine the normal fecal bacterial and fungal flora and parasite prevalence in wild passerine birds found at the Australian Botanic Garden (Mount Annan, New South Wales). Wild passerine birds (n = 186) from 28 species were captured with mist nets. Fecal Gram stains (n = 155) were made from 26 species and analyzed for bacterial density, Gram stain morphology, and the presence of yeast. Fecal wet preparations (n = 139) were made from 24 passerine species and were analyzed for parasites...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902889/on-specimen-killing-in-the-era-of-conservation-crisis-a-quantitative-case-for-modernizing-taxonomy-and-biodiversity-inventories
#8
Patrick O Waeber, Charlie J Gardner, Wilson R Lourenço, Lucienne Wilmé
BACKGROUND TO THE WORK: For centuries taxonomy has relied on dead animal specimens, a practice that persists today despite the emergence of innovative biodiversity assessment methods. Taxonomists and conservationists are engaged in vigorous discussions over the necessity of killing animals for specimen sampling, but quantitative data on taxonomic trends and specimen sampling over time, which could inform these debates, are lacking. METHODS: We interrogated a long-term research database documenting 2,723 land vertebrate and 419 invertebrate taxa from Madagascar, and their associated specimens conserved in the major natural history museums...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901580/feeding-live-invertebrate-prey-in-zoos-and-aquaria-are-there-welfare-concerns
#9
REVIEW
Martha Keller
Invertebrates constitute more than 90% of all species on earth, however, as a rule, humans do not regard invertebrates as creatures that can suffer and they are generally seen as creatures that should be eliminated. As a result, the importance of their welfare may be grossly unappreciated. For instance, the feeding of live food is often viewed as a good method of enrichment and invertebrates are commonly used as live prey in many zoological facilities. As a result, zoos may send mixed messages to their patrons in that welfare is considered only for the invertebrates that are part of their zoological collection and not necessarily for the invertebrates used as feed...
September 13, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888650/detection-of-rat-hepatitis-e-virus-in-wild-norway-rats-rattus-norvegicus-and-black-rats-rattus-rattus-from-11-european-countries
#10
René Ryll, Samuel Bernstein, Elisa Heuser, Mathias Schlegel, Paul Dremsek, Maxi Zumpe, Sandro Wolf, Michel Pépin, Daniel Bajomi, Gabi Müller, Ann-Charlotte Heiberg, Carina Spahr, Johannes Lang, Martin H Groschup, Hermann Ansorge, Jona Freise, Sebastian Guenther, Kristof Baert, Francisco Ruiz-Fons, Jiri Pikula, Nataša Knap, Ιoannis Tsakmakidis, Chrysostomos Dovas, Stefania Zanet, Christian Imholt, Gerald Heckel, Reimar Johne, Rainer G Ulrich
Rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) is genetically only distantly related to hepeviruses found in other mammalian reservoirs and in humans. It was initially detected in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Germany, and subsequently in rats from Vietnam, the USA, Indonesia, China, Denmark and France. Here, we report on a molecular survey of Norway rats and Black rats (Rattus rattus) from 12 European countries for ratHEV and human pathogenic hepeviruses. RatHEV-specific real-time and conventional RT-PCR investigations revealed the presence of ratHEV in 63 of 508 (12...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840810/proposal-to-modify-rule-10a-and-to-delete-recommendation-10a-3-from-the-international-code-of-nomenclature-of-prokaryotes
#11
Aharon Oren
Principle 2 of the Prokaryotic Code, as modified by the ICSP in 1999, reads: 'The nomenclature of prokaryotes is not independent of botanical and zoological nomenclature. When naming new taxa in the rank of genus or higher, due consideration is to be given to avoiding names which are regulated by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants'. But in the current version of the Prokaryotic Code no Rule implements this version of Principle 2...
September 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814607/early-career-researchers-an-interview-with-graham-scott
#12
(no author information available yet)
Graham Scott is an Assistant Professor at McMaster University, Canada, where he studies the integrative biology of how animals cope in challenging environments. He received his Bachelor's degree in biology before completing a Master's degree with Trish Schulte and then a PhD in 2009 with Bill Milsom at the University of British Columbia, Canada. He moved on to continue his postdoc training with Ian Johnston at the University of St Andrews, UK. Scott received the Animal Section Presidents' Medal from the Society for Experimental Biology in 2012, he was an author on the Journal of Zoology Paper of the Year in 2015 and he was awarded the Robert G...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810859/the-presence-of-ovarian-cysts-in-a-captive-antillean-manatee-trichechus-manatus-manatus-l-1758
#13
Karolina Goździewska-Harłajczuk, Joanna Klećkowska-Nawrot, Stanisław Dzimira
BACKGROUND: Several pathological changes associated with reproductive systems of marine mammals have been reported in primary literature. However, no such records exist regarding ovarian cysts in the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus L. 1758). CASE PRESENTATION: A nulliparous female Antillean manatee, held in captivity at the Wroclaw Zoological Garden, died in April 2015. The animal was 370 cm long from nose to tail and weighed 670 kg. The width of manatee's fluke was 80 cm...
August 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805043/fatal-peste-des-petits-ruminants-disease-in-chowsingha
#14
S Jaisree, R P Aravindhbabu, P Roy, M G Jayathangaraj
This communication reports fatal Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease in Chowsingha (Tetracerus quadricornis), a member of the subfamily Bovinae and family Bovidae captured in a Zoological Park. The animals showed clinical signs of acute respiratory disease with frothy nasal discharge (1-2 days) and mortality of twenty animals (80%) within 48 hr. Necropsy of dead Chowsingha showed haemorrhagic patches in trachea and severe congestion of lungs and ocular mucosa. There was no characteristic lesion in the intestine...
August 14, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791147/two-types-of-bone-necrosis-in-the-middle-triassic-pistosaurus-longaevus-bones-the-results-of-integrated-studies
#15
Dawid Surmik, Bruce M Rothschild, Mateusz Dulski, Katarzyna Janiszewska
Avascular necrosis, diagnosed on the basis of either a specific pathological modification of the articular surfaces of bone or its radiologic appearance in vertebral centra, has been recognized in many Mesozoic marine reptiles as well as in present-day marine mammals. Its presence in the zoological and paleontologic record is usually associated with decompression syndrome, a disease that affects secondarily aquatic vertebrates that could dive. Bone necrosis can also be caused by infectious processes, but it differs in appearance from decompression syndrome-associated aseptic necrosis...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791002/antibody-detection-isolation-genotyping-and-virulence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-captive-felids-from-china
#16
Yu-Rong Yang, Yong-Jie Feng, Yao-Yao Lu, Hui Dong, Tong-Yi Li, Yi-Bao Jiang, Xing-Quan Zhu, Long-Xian Zhang
The felids are the only definitive hosts of Toxoplasma gondii, which could excrete oocysts into the environment and provide an infection source for toxoplasmosis in various warm-blooded animal species, particularly the captive felids that live close to human communities. The infection rate of the captive felids is a perfect standard in detecting the presence of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the environment. In this study, sera or tissue samples from zoo (1 young tiger, 2 adult tigers, 6 young lions), farm (10 masked palm civets), and pet hospital (28 cats) from Henan Province (China) were collected...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783376/which-wild-aardvarks-are-most-suitable-for-outdoor-enclosures-in-zoological-gardens-in-the-european-union
#17
Jiří Patoka, Markéta Vejtrubová, Vladimír Vrabec, Renata Masopustová
The aardvark is popular in many zoological gardens in the European Union. These creatures are nocturnal, and aardvarks in the wild are known to walk distances of 4 km to 7 km per night. Despite what is known about their biology, most aardvarks are kept in zoological gardens in indoor enclosures with little space for movement. This lack of space leads to a tendency toward obesity and compromised welfare. With their wide distribution in Sub-Saharan Africa, aardvarks are perceived as thermophilic nonhuman animals...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759835/characterizing-the-reproductive-biology-of-the-female-pygmy-hippopotamus-choeropsis-liberiensis-through-non-invasive-endocrine-monitoring
#18
Gabriella L Flacke, Franz Schwarzenberger, Linda M Penfold, Susan L Walker, Graeme B Martin, Robert Peter Millar, Monique C J Paris
The pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) is endangered in the wild and very little is known about its reproductive biology. In zoological facilities, this species experiences a number of reproductive issues that complicate breeding management, including a high rate of stillbirths and failure of many pairs to reproduce. We conducted a comprehensive study to evaluate reproductive cycles and pregnancy in this species using enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for fecal hormone metabolite analysis. Fresh fecal samples were collected twice weekly for a one to three year period from 36 female pygmy hippos housed at 24 zoological institutions...
July 19, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758503/defending-metropolitan-identity-through-colonial-politics-the-role-of-portuguese-naturalists-1870-91
#19
Daniel Gamito-Marques
This paper explores how João de Andrade Corvo and José Vicente Barbosa du Bocage, two nineteenth-century Portuguese naturalists, were able to reach prominent political positions in their country by means of their work in, respectively, botany and agriculture, and zoology. The authority they derived from their scientific activities and the knowledge they acquired in the process, favored by their proximity to particular political quarters, elevated them to important governmental offices, in the context of which they implemented policies that reinforced Portugal's identity as an imperial nation...
July 1, 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752773/estimating-the-barcoding-gap-in-a-global-dataset-of-cox1-sequences-for-odonata-close-but-no-cigar
#20
Ricardo Koroiva, Sebastian Kvist
We evaluated the extent of intraspecific and interspecific genetic distances for two highly diverse infraorders of Odonata: Anisoptera and Zygoptera. All cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences (cox1), the region chosen for zoological DNA barcoding, present in GenBank for each infraorder were downloaded and curated. For Anisoptera, the final dataset consisted of 2,961 individual cox1 sequences for 536 species and the equivalent numbers for Zygoptera were 2,477 sequences for 497 species. More than 7 million individual genetic comparisons were made and the results indicated that there is a tendency towards a barcoding gap, but that the size of the gap may not be sufficient to robustly infer identities for some taxa...
July 28, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
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