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Malek J Hallinger, Anja Taubert, Carlos Hermosilla, Frank Mutschmann
BACKGROUND: Exotic reptiles such as tortoises, have become increasingly common domestic pets worldwide and are known to host different gastrointestinal parasites. Some of these parasites bear zoonotic potential. In the present survey, we parasitologically examined tortoise faecal samples (n = 1005) from 19 different species held as pets in private German households and German zoological gardens. METHODS: Saline faecal smears were used to generate prevalence data for potentially health-compromising gastrointestinal parasites...
June 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
C Keller, C Wenker, T Jermann, R Hirschi, B Schildger, R Meier, H Schmidt-Posthaus
Piscine mycobacteriosis is a lethal disease with zoonotic potential, found worldwide in both fresh and marine fish. More than 20 strains of Mycobacterium spp. are known to persist in fish so far, but the pathogenicity is currently unknown for most of them. However, M. marinum is reported as one of the most pathogenic agents for fish and is involved in zoonotic cases. We examined 47 different cases from two zoological gardens, where fish tuberculosis was identified or previously suspected during the last ten years...
June 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Ariel I Loredo, Jenny E Bauman, Raegan J Wells
  A case report of a domesticated ferret ( Mustela furo) envenomated by a presumptive rattlesnake ( Crotalus sp.) treated successfully and safely with the novel Fab (2') North American Snake Antivenom (Veteria Labs). The ferret presented with clinical signs of depressed mentation and facial edema following a rattlesnake ( Crotalus sp.) bite. It developed hypotension, thrombocytopenia, and ecchymosis following the envenomation. It was treated with Fab (2') antivenom and given supportive care including crystalloid fluids and analgesia to resolution of clinical signs...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Justine C R Shotton, William S M Justice, Francisco J Salguero, Alan Stevens, Barbara Bacci
  Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID), also known as equine Cushing's disease, is widely reported in middle-aged to older domestic equids but to date reported in only one nondomestic equid, the onager ( Equus hemionus onager). This case series reports clinical, hematological, and pathological findings consistent with PPID in two further equid species: one Chapman's zebra ( Equus quagga chapmani) and five Przewalski's horses ( Equus ferus przewalskii). The case series reports basal adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) testing as a method to diagnose and monitor PPID in zoological equids and the use of pergolide mesylate to reduce basal ACTH concentration and reduce clinical signs associated with PPID...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Arockiasamy Arun Prince Milton, Rajesh Kumar Agarwal, Govindarajan Bhuvana Priya, Cheruplackal Karunakaran Athira, Mani Saminathan, Avinash Reddy, Manivasagam Aravind, Ashok Kumar
Occurrence of Salmonella spp. in captive wild animal species in India is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence of different Salmonella serotypes, antimicrobial resistance patterns and genotypic relatedness of recovered isolates. A total of 370 samples including faecal (n = 314), feed and water (n = 26) and caretakers stool swabs (n = 30) were collected from 40 different wild animal species in captivity, their caretakers, feed and water in four zoological gardens and wildlife enclosures in India...
June 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Vijayalakshmi Chandrasekhar, Chandrasekhar Krishnamurti
Born in 1883 in Kyme, Greece, George Papanicolaou obtained his medical degree in 1904 from the University of Athens and doctorate in Zoology in 1910 from the University of Munich. He migrated to the USA in 1913 and worked as an assistant at the Department of Anatomy in the Cornell Medical College. There, Papanicolaou examined vaginal smears under his microscope, charted the cyclic ovarian and uterine changes every day and harvested the oocytes at the appropriate time. He published his research on the cytologic patterns in guinea pigs in the American Journal of Anatomy in 1917...
June 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Hiroaki Nakano, Hideyuki Miyazawa, Akiteru Maeno, Toshihiko Shiroishi, Keiichi Kakui, Ryo Koyanagi, Miyuki Kanda, Noriyuki Satoh, Akihito Omori, Hisanori Kohtsuka
After publication of Nakano et al. (2017) [1], the authors became aware of the fact that the new species-group name erected for the two specimens of a Japanese xenoturbellid species in the article is not available because Nakano et al. (2017) [1] does not meet the requirement of the amendment of Article 8.5.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (the Code) [2]. The authors therefore describe the two xenoturbellids as a new species again in this correction article. Methods for morphological observation, DNA extraction and sequencing were as described in Nakano et al...
June 7, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Mohammad Sadegh Norouzzadeh, Anh Nguyen, Margaret Kosmala, Alexandra Swanson, Meredith S Palmer, Craig Packer, Jeff Clune
Having accurate, detailed, and up-to-date information about the location and behavior of animals in the wild would improve our ability to study and conserve ecosystems. We investigate the ability to automatically, accurately, and inexpensively collect such data, which could help catalyze the transformation of many fields of ecology, wildlife biology, zoology, conservation biology, and animal behavior into "big data" sciences. Motion-sensor "camera traps" enable collecting wildlife pictures inexpensively, unobtrusively, and frequently...
June 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nora Escribano, Javier Oscoz, David Galicia, Tommaso Cancellario, Concha Durán, Patricia Navarro, Arturo H Ariño
This dataset gathers information about the macroinvertatebrate samples and environmental variables collected on rivers of the Ebro River Basin (NE Iberian Peninsula), the second largest catchment in the Iberian Peninsula. The collection is composed of 1,776 sampling events carried out between 2005 and 2015 at more than 400 sampling sites. This dataset is part of a monitoring network set up by the Ebro Hydrographic Confederation, the official body entrusted with the care of the basin, to fulfill the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Data
Jiang Ming, Li Zhuoneng, Zhu Guangxun
INTRODUCTION: Periodontal disease is characterized by a chronic infection, leading to the irreversible destruction of tissues supporting the teeth. Bacteria, pro-inflammatory mediators and host immune response play important role in the progress of periodontal disease. Baicalin is a bioactive flavone extracted from the dry raw root of Scutellaria baicalensis, with pharmaceutical actions of anti-inflammation, anti-oxidants, anti-tumor, antivirus, and so on. The present review summarizes the efficacy of baicalin in periodontal treatment...
June 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Dominique A Potvin, Emily Burdfield-Steel, Jacqueline M Potvin, Stephen M Heap
Research shows that gender inequality is still a major issue in academic science, yet academic societies may serve as underappreciated and effective avenues for promoting female leadership. That is, society membership is often self-selective, and board positions are elected (with a high turnover compared to institutions)-these characteristics, among others, may thus create an environment conducive to gender equality. We therefore investigate this potential using an information-theoretic approach to quantify gender equality (male:female ratios) in zoology society boards around the world...
2018: PloS One
Nirali Shah, Dhrubajyoti Borpojari, Kalyan Sarma, M Ayub Ali, Basanta Saikia, Hitesh Bayan, Fazal Ali Ahmed, Gunjan Das
An 8 years old male Burmese Red Serow ( Capricornis sumatraensis sub species rubidus ) from Aizawl Zoological Park was presented to the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex. An exploratory skin scraping revealed existence of nymphal as well as adult stages of mites of the Psoroptes spp. which were not associated with any overt lesions typical to mite infestation such as pruritus, erythema or scaling of the epidermis. The mites were identified as per their morphology, size and shape. Haemato-biochemical analysis revealed alteration of certain haematological and biochemical parameters...
June 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
C Bunert, S Langer, D M Votion, F Boemer, A Müller, K Ternes, A Liesegang
From 2004 until 2016, 21 Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus) have died for unknown reason at Zoo Duisburg. These deer, also known as milu, have succumbed from a myopathy that occurred seasonally in autumn and in spring. The clinical signs shown by the animals, closely resembles those of a disease called equine atypical myopathy (EAM), which is formerly known in horses. The cause for EAM in Europe was found in the ingestion of hypoglycin A, contained in samaras and seedlings of the sycamore maple tree (Acer pseudoplatanus)...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Laura Reisfeld, Carlos Sacristán, Paloma Canedo, Bruna Schwarz, Ana Carolina Ewbank, Fernando Esperón, José Luiz Catão-Dias
Superficial mycoses are commonly reported in captive pinnipeds, usually maintained in wet and warm environments, favorable to fungal growth. Most superficial mycoses in pinnipeds have been described as difficult to treat; however, the majority of the reports come from past decades. Cutaneous lesions associated with opportunistic Fusarium sp. infections have been previously recognized in this taxon. We described the clinical signs, associated lesions and diagnosis (thermography, imprint cytology, histopathology, culture, electron microscopy, PCR) of a fusariosis case by Fusarium sp...
May 14, 2018: Mycopathologia
Eva C Heym, Helge Kampen, Doreen Walther
Due to their large diversity of potential blood hosts, breeding habitats, and resting sites, zoological gardens represent highly interesting places to study mosquito ecology. In order to better assess the risk of mosquito-borne disease-agent transmission in zoos, potential vector species must be known, as well as the communities in which they occur. For this reason, species composition and dynamics were examined in 2016 in two zoological gardens in Germany. Using different methods for mosquito sampling, a total of 2,257 specimens belonging to 20 taxa were collected...
June 2018: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
Alan N Clements, Ralph E Harbach
The history of the scientific name of the yellow fever mosquito, the vector of yellow fever virus, ranges from 1757 to the early twenty-first century. In his 1757 work Iter Palaestinum, Frederic Hasselquist gave the name Culex aegypti to a mosquito species responsible for fierce attacks on humans in Egypt. That name was never later ascribed to Hasselquist as author, but to Linnaeus, although the name never appeared in any of Linnaeus' publications. In Cuba, at the end of the nineteenth century, the vector of the unknown infectious agent of yellow fever was first identified as Culex mosquito and later more validly named Stegomyia fasciata...
June 2018: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
Sana T Saiyed, Rebecca C Liubicich, Mason Fidino, Stephen R Ross
Stillbirths, or births of infants that died in the womb, represent a failure of the materno-feto-placental unit to maintain a suitable fetal environment. Typical studies of nonhuman primate (NHP) stillbirth patterns are primarily descriptive and focus on macaques (genus Macaca). Thus, less is known about other NHP species and rarer still are studies that examine possible biological factors that influence stillbirth rates across taxa. To examine possible contributors to stillbirths in great apes, we analyzed 36 years (1980-2016) of historical data documenting births of zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, N = 391), western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla, N = 491), and orangutans (Pongo spp, N = 307) in accredited zoological parks in the United States...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Charlotte H Chang, Maarten J L F Cruyff, Xingli Giam
Understanding conservation non-compliance-violations of laws or social norms designed to protect natural resources from overexploitation-is a priority for conservation research and management. As direct questioning about stigmatized behaviors can be biased, researchers have adopted more complex indirect questioning techniques. The randomized response technique (RRT) is one of the most powerful indirect survey methods, yet analyses of these data require sophisticated statistical models. To date, there has been limited user-friendly software to analyze RRT data, particularly so for models that combine information from multiple RRT questions...
May 12, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Irene Melegari, Federica Di Profio, Fulvio Marsilio, Vittorio Sarchese, Andrea Palombieri, Klaus Gunther Friedrich, Federico Coccia, Barbara Di Martino
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the leading cause of human enterically-transmitted viral hepatitis occurring around the world both as outbreaks and as sporadic cases. Non-human primates (NHPs) have been experimentally infected with HEV, but few studies have been reported about natural infection in wild-living and zoo monkeys. In order to provide a more complete picture on the epidemiology of HEV in NHPs living in controlled environment, we investigated the presence of HEV by screening serologically and molecularly a historical collection of 86 sera from seven different species of primates housed at the Zoological Garden (Bioparco) of Rome, Italy...
May 2, 2018: Virus Research
Curtis N Johnson
No single author presented Darwin with a more difficult question about his priority in discovering natural selection than the British comparative anatomist and paleontologist Richard Owen. Owen was arguably the most influential biologist in Great Britain in Darwin's time. Darwin wanted his approbation for what he believed to be his own theory of natural selection. Unfortunately for Darwin, when Owen first commented in publication about Darwin's theory of descent he was openly hostile (Edinb. Rev. vol. 111, Article VIII, 1860, pp...
May 3, 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
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