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Nicol Janecko, Dana Halova, Ivana Jamborova, Ivo Papousek, Martina Masarikova, Monika Dolejska, Ivan Literak
The spread of antimicrobial resistance from human activity derived sources to natural habitats implicates wildlife as potential vectors of antimicrobial resistance transfer. Wild birds, including corvid species can disseminate mobile genetic resistance determinants through feces. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates obtained from winter roosting sites of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and common ravens (Corvus corax) in Canada...
April 19, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Calvin L Duncan, Julie L King, Paul Stapp
In late 2009, the Catalina Island Conservancy began using fertility control to replace periodic removals to manage an introduced population of American bison ( Bison bison ) on the island. Through the application of the immunocontraceptive vaccine porcine zona pellucida (PZP), population growth was slowed within 1 year, and halted over time. In response to lingering questions about the use of PZP to manage large, free-ranging wildlife populations, we sought to determine the reversibility of PZP by ceasing the annual application to a subset of 15 bison cows and monitoring for subsequent calf arrival, and to document changes in the timing and length of the breeding season in response to PZP by monitoring breeding behavior and assessing fecal progesterone (FP) levels for all 60 resident cows over a 13-month period...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Mammalogy
Michelle Qiu Carter, Antares Pham
Escherichia coli O145:H11 strain RM14721 was originally isolated from wildlife feces near a leafy greens-growing region in Yuma, AZ. This strain was initially positive for stx 1 ; however, in subsequent cultures, stx 1 was not detected by PCR. Here, we report the complete genome sequence and annotation of RM14721.
April 19, 2018: Genome Announcements
K Mcleish, S Ferguson, C Gannicliffe, S Campbell, P I T Thomson, L M I Webster
Incidents of bird of prey persecution receive a lot of media coverage in the UK, with investigations rarely recovering sufficient evidence to proceed to prosecution. One of the main challenges is to identify a suspect, as these offences are carried out in remote locations without witnesses, and crime scenes may not be found for days. However, traps, poisoned baits and bird of prey carcasses can be recovered from these crime scenes. This study aimed to determine whether reportable human DNA profiles could be recovered from any of these substrates after periods of time outside...
April 4, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Kristine Bohmann, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, Martin Nielsen, Luisa Dos Santos Bay Nielsen, Gareth Jones, Daniel G Streicker, M Thomas P Gilbert
Metabarcoding diet analysis has become a valuable tool in animal ecology; however, co-amplified predator sequences are not generally used for anything other than to validate predator identity. Exemplified by the common vampire bat, we demonstrate the use of metabarcoding to infer predator population structure alongside diet assessments. Growing populations of common vampire bats impact human, livestock and wildlife health in Latin America through transmission of pathogens, such as lethal rabies viruses. Techniques to determine large scale variation in vampire bat diet and bat population structure would empower locality- and species-specific projections of disease transmission risks...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
Babu Ram Lamichhane, Gerard A Persoon, Herwig Leirs, Shashank Poudel, Naresh Subedi, Chiranjibi Prasad Pokheral, Santosh Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad Thapaliya, Hans H de Iongh
Wildlife attacks on humans and economic losses often result in reduced support of local communities for wildlife conservation. Information on spatial and temporal patterns of such losses in the highly affected areas contribute in designing and implementing effective mitigation measures. We analyzed the loss of humans, livestock and property caused by wildlife during 1998 to 2016, using victim family's reports to Chitwan National Park authorities and Buffer Zone User Committees. A total of 4,014 incidents were recorded including attacks on humans, livestock depredation, property damage and crop raiding caused by 12 wildlife species...
2018: PloS One
Amit Vikram, John W Schmidt
Carbapenems are classified as critically important antibiotics since they are employed when resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections fail to respond to other antibiotic therapies. Carbapenem-resistant bacteria (CRB) were traditionally understood to be rare in the U.S. food-producing animals. Recently, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), our group detected blaKPC-2 in all 72 metagenomic DNA (mgDNA) samples prepared from the feces of 36 lots of beef cattle "raised without antibiotics" (RWA) and 36 lots raised "conventionally" (CONV)...
April 19, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
H Vandenhove, C Bradshaw, N A Beresford, J Vives I Batlle, A Real, J Garnier-Laplace
Risks posed by the presence of radionuclides in the environment require an efficient, balanced, and adaptable assessment for protecting exposed humans and wildlife, and managing the associated radiological risk. Exposure of humans and wildlife originate from the same sources releasing radionuclides to the environment. Environmental concentrations of radionuclides serve as inputs to estimate the dose to man, fauna, and flora, with transfer processes being, in essence, similar, which calls for a common use of transport models...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
A Macali, A Semenov, V Venuti, V Crupi, F D'Amico, B Rossi, I Corsi, E Bergami
Invertebrates represent the most plentiful component of marine biodiversity. To date, only few species have been documented for marine litter intake. Here, we report for the first time the presence of macroplastic debris in a jellyfish species. Such novel target to plastic pollution highlights an under studied vector of marine litter along marine trophic web, raising further concern over the impact on marine wildlife.
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gregory J G Simpson, Vanessa Quan, John Frean, Darryn L Knobel, Jennifer Rossouw, Jacqueline Weyer, Tanguy Marcotty, Jacques Godfroid, Lucille H Blumberg
A lack of surveillance and diagnostics for zoonotic diseases in rural human clinics limits clinical awareness of these diseases. We assessed the prevalence of nine zoonotic pathogens in a pastoral, low-income, HIV-endemic community bordering wildlife reserves in South Africa. Two groups of participants were included: malaria-negative acute febrile illness (AFI) patients, called febrilers, at three clinics (n = 74) and second, farmers, herders, and veterinary staff found at five government cattle dip-tanks, called dip-tanksters (n = 64)...
April 17, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Xianzhi Peng, Ke Zheng, Jun Liu, Yujuan Fan, Caiming Tang, Songsong Xiong
Parabens, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (TCS), and triclocarban (TCC) are recognized endocrine disrupting contaminants (EDCs) and their occurrence in the environment has attracted increasing concerns. Body-size dependent bioaccumulation, tissue distribution, trophic magnification, and maternal transfer of methy-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butylparabens, 2-phenylphenol (PHP), BPA, TCS, and TCC were investigated in freshwater fish of the Pearl River catchment, China. Most of the EDCs were detected in more than half of the biota samples, ranging from not detected to 6750 ng g-1 lipid weight (lw), with median concentrations of 5-72 ng g-1 lw...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Javier Del-Angel-Caraza, Israel Alejandro Quijano-Hernández, Edgardo Soriano-Vargas, Marco Antonio Barbosa-Mireles, José Simón Martínez-Castañeda
Urinary bladder worm infection is relatively uncommon in pet dogs and cats in the Americas. This report describes the diagnosis of lower urinary tract infection by Pearsonema plica in two asymptomatic dogs and P. feliscati in a cat with lower urinary tract clinical signs diagnosed between 2002 and 2015, and the first report of this type of parasitism in domestic small animals in Mexico at an altitude above 2600 m above sea level. The studied cases demonstrate the need to consider a urinary bladder worm infection in domestic small animals, both stray animals and those with controlled access to the streets...
April 16, 2018: Parasitology Research
Antonella De Roma, Gianluca Miletti, Nicola D'Alessio, Laura Marigliano, Teresa Bruno, Pasquale Gallo, Giovanni Binato, Mauro Esposito
Cases of intentional animal poisonings are still widespread in Italy, even if the improper or malicious use of poisoned baits is banned. This represents a serious threat to pets as well as wildlife species, but also an environmental and human health concern. A retrospective study was performed based on baits sent for toxicological analysis to the laboratories of Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno (IZSM) in Southern Italy over a five year period. Analyses were carried out by using different analytical techniques in relation to the toxicants...
March 31, 2018: Forensic Science International
Tiffany A Yap, Michelle S Koo, Richard F Ambrose, Vance T Vredenburg
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a causal agent of the amphibian fungal skin disease chytridiomycosis, has been implicated in the decline and extinction of over 200 species worldwide since the 1970s. Despite almost two decades of research, the history of Bd and its global spread is not well understood. However, the spread of the Global Panzootic Lineage of Bd (Bd-GPL), the lineage associated with amphibian die-offs, has been linked with the American bullfrog (Rana [Aqurana] catesbeiana) and global trade...
2018: PloS One
Kerry E O'Connor, Anne M Kjemtrup, Patricia Ann Conrad, Andrea Swei
Human babesiosis is a tick-borne protozoal disease of increasing clinical significance in North America. Most cases in the eastern and mid-western regions of the United States are reportedly due to Babesia microti infections. By contrast, most human infections reported in California and Washington have been attributed to a new species that was first identified in 1991 and subsequently named Babesia duncani. While the tick vector and mammalian reservoir hosts for B. microti are well characterized, the vector and reservoir hosts for B...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Yanna Liu, Manli Qian, Xinxin Ma, Lingyan Zhu, Jonathan W Martin
Non-target high resolution mass spectrometry (Nt-HRMS) has proven useful for identification of unknown poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in commercial products and water, but applications to biological samples are limited. China is the major PFAS manufacturing nation, thus here we adapted our Nt-HRMS methods to fish collected from Yangtze River and Tangxun Lake to discover potentially bioaccumulative PFASs in aquatic organisms destined for human consumption. In addition to traditional PFASs, over 330 other fluorinated analytes belonging to 10 classes of PFASs were detected among the pooled fish livers, including 6 sulfonate classes, 2 amine classes, 1 carboxylate class, and 1 N-heterocycle class...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Ellison Bentley, Megan Koester, Tali Bdolah-Abram, Nadav Yair, Ron Ofri
PURPOSE: To examine variables that affect publication of ACVO meeting abstracts in peer-reviewed journals and compare results to ECVO publication rate (PR). METHODS: Published papers were identified via online searches for abstracts from 2008 to 2012 ACVO/ECVO meetings. Variables analyzed (via Pearson's chi-Squared test) included the following: oral presentation/poster, type of abstract (clinical/basic science/case report), species, ocular tissue, nationality, funding, first/last/any author a diplomate, resident as first author, and author affiliation (private practice/university)...
April 14, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Thomas H Miller, Nicolas R Bury, Stewart F Owen, James I MacRae, Leon P Barron
Pharmaceuticals have been considered 'contaminants of emerging concern' for more than 20 years. In that time, many laboratory studies have sought to identify hazard and assess risk in the aquatic environment, whilst field studies have searched for targeted candidates and occurrence trends using advanced analytical techniques. However, a lack of a systematic approach to the detection and quantification of pharmaceuticals has provided a fragmented literature of serendipitous approaches. Evaluation of the extent of the risk for the plethora of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals available requires the reliable measurement of trace levels of contaminants across different environmental compartments (water, sediment, biota - of which biota has been largely neglected)...
April 10, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Alexandra E Moskaluk, Matthew J Stuckey, David A Jaffe, Rickie W Kasten, Alvaro Aguilar-Setién, José Ignacio Olave-Leyva, Guillermo Galvez-Romero, Cirani Obregón-Morales, Mónica Salas-Rojas, María Martha García-Flores, Nidia Aréchiga-Ceballos, Anahí García-Baltazar, Bruno B Chomel
Bartonellae are emerging blood-borne bacteria that have been recovered from a wide range of mammalian species and arthropod vectors around the world. Bats are now recognized as a potential wildlife reservoir for a diverse number of Bartonella species, including the zoonotic Candidatus B. mayotimonensis. These bat-borne Bartonella species have also been detected in the obligate ectoparasites of bats, such as blood-feeding flies, which could transmit these bacteria within bat populations. To better understand this potential for transmission, we investigated the relatedness between Bartonella detected or isolated from bat hosts sampled in Mexico and their ectoparasites...
March 13, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Dominique Fauteux, Gilles Gauthier, Dominique Berteaux, Rupert Palme, Rudy Boonstra
Non-consumptive effects of predation have rarely been assessed in wildlife populations even though their impact could be as important as lethal effects. Reproduction of individuals is one of the most important demographic parameters that could be affected by predator-induced stress, which in turn can have important consequences on population dynamics. We studied non-consumptive effects of predation on the reproductive activity (i.e., mating and fertilization) of a cyclic population of brown lemmings exposed to intense summer predation in the Canadian High Arctic...
April 12, 2018: Oecologia
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