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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223123/differentiation-of-human-blood-from-animal-blood-using-raman-spectroscopy-a-survey-of-forensically-relevant-species
#1
Kyle C Doty, Igor K Lednev
The identification of blood samples is a crucial facet of forensic investigations, particularly for violent crimes. One step in forensic serology (i.e., the analysis of bodily fluids) that is often skipped or overlooked is the determination that a bloodstain is of human or nonhuman origin. Typically, subsequent to identifying a stain as blood using a presumptive blood test, which have the propensity of providing false positive results, the stain is submitted for extraction of a DNA profile to compare with those in a database...
November 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223087/oxidative-stress-in-birds-along-a-nox-and-urbanisation-gradient-an-interspecific-approach
#2
Pablo Salmón, Emilie Stroh, Amparo Herrera-Dueñas, Maria von Post, Caroline Isaksson
Urbanisation is regarded as one of the most threatening global issues for wildlife, however, measuring its impact is not always straight forward. Oxidative stress physiology has been suggested to be a useful biomarker of health and therefore, a potentially important indicator of the impact that urban environmental stressors, especially air pollution, can have on wildlife. For example, nitrogen oxides (NOx), released during incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, are highly potent pro-oxidants, thus predicted to affect either the protective antioxidants and/or cause oxidative damage to bio-molecules...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222494/the-consequences-of-replacing-wildlife-with-livestock-in-africa
#3
Gareth P Hempson, Sally Archibald, William J Bond
The extirpation of native wildlife species and widespread establishment of livestock farming has dramatically distorted large mammal herbivore communities across the globe. Ecological theory suggests that these shifts in the form and the intensity of herbivory have had substantial impacts on a range of ecosystem processes, but for most ecosystems it is impossible to quantify these changes accurately. We address these challenges using species-level biomass data from sub-Saharan Africa for both present day and reconstructed historical herbivore communities...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218742/prevalence-of-foot-disorders-in-captive-sardinian-partridges-alectoris-barbara-barbara-bonnaterre-1790-as-useful-indicators-of-fitness-to-natural-environment
#4
M G Cappai, A Abd El-Wahab, G Arru, M Muzzeddu, W Pinna
Foot health represents an issue in wild avifauna breeding practices. In particular, prevalence of digital ulceration (DU) and foot pad dermatitis (FPD) are valid indicators of welfare in wildlife conservation centres and may be interpreted as to fitness for bird's reintroduction into the wild. This study meant to test the effects of raising practices on foot pad health in captive Sardinian partridges (Alectoris barbara barbara Bonnaterre, 1790) reared for biodiversity conservation, to assess welfare and fitness to reintroduction into nature...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215770/molecular-ecology-of-listeria-spp-salmonella-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-in-pristine-natural-environments-in-northern-colorado
#5
Christina A Ahlstrom, Clyde S Manuel, Henk C Den Bakker, Martin Wiedmann, Kendra K Nightingale
AIMS: Molecular subtyping is commonly used in foodborne disease surveillance and microbial source tracking. There is a knowledge gap regarding the molecular ecology of foodborne pathogens in non-food associated environments. The objective of this study was to isolate and subtype foodborne pathogens from pristine natural environments with minimal anthropogenic inputs. MATERIALS AND RESULTS: Five locations (wilderness areas) in Northern Colorado were sampled during the spring, summer, and fall over a two-year period...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215130/use-of-anticoagulant-rodenticides-in-outdoor-urban-areas-considerations-and-proposals-for-the-protection-of-public-health-and-non-target-species
#6
M Dutto, D Di Domenico, M Rubbiani
Rodent control operations represent an important tool for the prevention and management of infestations, in outdoor environments, by synanthropic rodents (Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus), which are a source of economic and environmental damage with significant sanitary implications. Although the use of anticoagulants is safer to humans and pets compared to the use of acute poisoning substances, an intrinsic hazard of the active ingredients exists, i.e. the possible poisoning of non-target organisms (e.g., children, pets and wildlife) following exposure...
January 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211106/trypanosoma-cruzi-strain-tciv-infects-raccoons-from-illinois
#7
Cailey Vandermark, Elliott Zieman, Esmarie Boyles, Clayton K Nielsen, Cheryl Davis, Francisco Agustín Jiménez
BACKGROUND: The northern limits of Trypanosoma cruzi across the territory of the United States remain unknown. The known vectors Triatoma sanguisuga and T. lecticularia find their northernmost limits in Illinois; yet, earlier screenings of those insects did not reveal the presence of the pathogen, which has not been reported in vectors or reservoir hosts in this state. OBJECTIVES: Five species of medium-sized mammals were screened for the presence of T. cruzi. METHODS: Genomic DNA was isolated from heart, spleen and skeletal muscle of bobcats (Lynx rufus, n = 60), raccoons (Procyon lotor, n = 37), nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus, n = 5), Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana, n = 3), and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes)...
January 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210981/health-co-benefits-of-green-building-design-strategies-and-community-resilience-to-urban-flooding-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#8
REVIEW
Adele Houghton, Carlos Castillo-Salgado
Climate change is increasingly exacerbating existing population health hazards, as well as resulting in new negative health effects. Flooding is one particularly deadly example of its amplifying and expanding effect on public health. This systematic review considered evidence linking green building strategies in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design® (LEED) Rating System with the potential to reduce negative health outcomes following exposure to urban flooding events. Queries evaluated links between LEED credit requirements and risk of exposure to urban flooding, environmental determinants of health, co-benefits to public health outcomes, and co-benefits to built environment outcomes...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209843/monocultural-sowing-in-mesocosms-decreases-the-species-richness-of-weeds-and-invertebrates-and-critically-reduces-the-fitness-of-the-endangered-european-hamster
#9
Mathilde L Tissier, Florian Kletty, Yves Handrich, Caroline Habold
Intensive cereal monoculture is currently the main cause of biodiversity decline in Europe. However, it is difficult to disentangle the effects of intensive monoculture (e.g. pesticide use, mechanical ploughing and reduced protective cover), let alone evaluate how far the reduction of crop diversity affects biodiversity. It remains unclear to which extent the consequent decrease in food resources affects farmland biodiversity, and particularly vertebrate species. We therefore designed this study in mesocosms to investigate the effects of monoculture crops (organic wheat or corn seeds) and mixed crops (a combination of organic wheat, corn, sunflower and alfalfa seeds) on (1) the species richness of weeds and invertebrates and (2) the reproductive success of the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus), a critically endangered umbrella species of European farmlands...
December 5, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205877/molecular-epidemiology-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-strains-isolated-from-livestock-and-wild-animals-in-italy-suggests-the-need-for-a-different-eradication-strategy-for-bovine-tuberculosis
#10
B Amato, V Di Marco Lo Presti, E Gerace, M T Capucchio, M Vitale, P Zanghì, M L Pacciarini, C Marianelli, M B Boniotti
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an important zoonosis, which has been re-emerging in different ecological scenarios. In Sicily, Italy, from 2004 to 2014, an anatomopathological survey for tuberculosis-like lesions both in farmed and wild animals was performed. The isolates were genotyped using spoligotyping and Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) techniques. High prevalence of lesions was observed for cattle (4%), pigs (4.9%) and wild boars (6.8%), and a total of 625 Mycobacterium bovis isolates were identified...
December 3, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202283/brominated-flame-retardants-and-toxic-elements-in-the-meat-and-liver-of-red-deer-cervus-elaphus-wild-boar-sus-scrofa-and-moose-alces-alces-from-latvian-wildlife
#11
D Zacs, J Rjabova, L E Ikkere, K Bavrins, V Bartkevics
In order to evaluate the contamination status of terrestrial biota in Latvia, muscle and liver tissues of red deer (Cervus elaphus), wild boar (Sus scrofa), and moose (Alces alces) were analyzed for the content of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), as well as cadmium and lead. The highest mean concentrations of PBDEs (46.6pgg-1 wet weight (w.w.)), cadmium (0.95mgkg-1 w.w.), and lead (0.22mgkg-1 w.w.) were observed in the tissues of moose, while the wild boar samples contained the highest levels of HBCD, with the mean concentration equal to 264pgg-1 w...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202206/ehrlichia-and-anaplasma-infections-serological-evidence-and-tick-surveillance-in-peninsular-malaysia
#12
Fui Xian Koh, Kai Ling Kho, Masoumeh Ghane Kisomi, Li Ping Wong, Awang Bulgiba, Poai Ean Tan, Yvonne Ai Lian Lim, Quaza Nizamuddin Hassan Nizam, Chandrawathani Panchadcharam, Sun Tee Tay
Little information is available on human anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in Southeast Asia despite increasing reports of the detection of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in the ticks. We report herein the serological findings against the tick-borne pathogens in a group of animal farm workers (n = 87) and indigenous people (n = 102) in Peninsular Malaysia. IgG antibodies against Ehrlichia chaffeensis were detected from 29.9% and 34.3% of farm workers and indigenous people, respectively, using commercial indirect immunofluorescence assays...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201148/whole-genome-sequencing-based-detection-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-virulence-in-non-typhoidal-salmonella-enterica-isolated-from-wildlife
#13
Milton Thomas, Gavin John Fenske, Linto Antony, Sudeep Ghimire, Ronald Welsh, Akhilesh Ramachandran, Joy Scaria
The aim of this study was to generate a reference set of Salmonella enterica genomes isolated from wildlife from the United States and to determine the antimicrobial resistance and virulence gene profile of the isolates from the genome sequence data. We sequenced the whole genomes of 103 Salmonella isolates sampled between 1988 and 2003 from wildlife and exotic pet cases that were submitted to the Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Stillwater, Oklahoma. Among 103 isolates, 50.48% were from wild birds, 0...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199102/effect-of-repeated-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-administration-on-reproductive-function-and-hair-cortisol-concentration-during-the-estrous-cycle-in-goats
#14
Natsumi Endo, Hiroaki Yamane, Larasati Puji Rahayu, Tomomi Tanaka
Measurement of the cortisol concentration in hair has been used as an index of chronic stress in several species including humans, wildlife and domestic animals. However, how accurately the cortisol concentration in hair reflects the changes in circulating cortisol concentrations has not been well documented. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of repeated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration on the reproductive function during the estrous cycle and hair cortisol concentrations in goats...
November 30, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198028/adverse-bioeffect-of-perfluorooctanoic-acid-on-liver-metabolic-function-in-mice
#15
Xinmou Wu, Guojie Xie, Xiaoxiao Xu, Wei Wu, Bin Yang
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a kind of manufactured material, is widely accumulated around environmental system and into wildlife, including human beings. Toxicologically, PFOA induces hepatomegaly (liver enlargement) in the dose- and time-dependent manners. However, biological mechanism of hepatotoxicity warrants to be further investigated. In the present study, mature male mice were exposed to dosed PFOA for 21 days before conducting biochemical tests and immunoassays. As results, decreased fast blood glucose and elevated insulin contents were observed in PFOA-dosed mice...
December 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197499/leptospira-reservoirs-among-wildlife-in-brazil-beyond-rodents
#16
Felipe Fornazari, Helio Langoni, Pâmela Merlo Marson, Diego Borin Nóbrega, Carlos Roberto Teixeira
Leptospirosis is a disease of great importance in tropical regions. Infection occurs mainly through contact with water contaminated with the urine of infected animals, especially that of rodents. Despite the diversity and abundance of wild fauna in Brazil, little is known about the role of other wild species in the epidemiology of leptospirosis. This study aimed to investigate new reservoirs of Leptospira among wildlife in Brazil, using serological and molecular diagnoses in a large-sized sample. Biological samples were collected from 309 free-ranging mammals, belonging to 16 species...
November 29, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194954/comt-val158-met-moderates-the-link-between-rank-and-aggression-in-a-non-human-primate
#17
Daria Raffaella Gutleb, Christian Roos, Angela Noll, Julia Ostner, Oliver Schülke
The COMT Val158 Met polymorphism is one of the most widely studied genetic polymorphisms in humans implicated in aggression and the moderation of stressful life event effects. We screened a wild primate population for polymorphisms at the COMT Val158 Met site and phenotyped them for aggression to test whether the human polymorphism exists and is associated with variation in aggressive behavior. Subjects were all adults from four study groups (37 males, 40 females) of Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis) in their natural habitat (Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand)...
December 1, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192203/habitat-dependent-changes-in-vigilance-behaviour-of-red-crowned-crane-influenced-by-wildlife-tourism
#18
Donglai Li, Yu Liu, Xinghai Sun, Huw Lloyd, Shuyu Zhu, Shuyan Zhang, Dongmei Wan, Zhengwang Zhang
The Endangered Red-crowned Crane (Grus japonensis) is one of the most culturally iconic and sought-after species by wildlife tourists. Here we investigate how the presence of tourists influence the vigilance behaviour of cranes foraging in Suaeda salsa salt marshes and S. salsa/Phragmites australis mosaic habitat in the Yellow River Delta, China. We found that both the frequency and duration of crane vigilance significantly increased in the presence of wildlife tourists. Increased frequency in crane vigilance only occurred in the much taller S...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191316/tissue-distribution-of-perfluoroalkyl-acids-and-health-status-in-wild-mozambique-tilapia-oreochromis-mossambicus-from-loskop-dam-mpumalanga-south-africa
#19
Jacqueline T Bangma, Jessica L Reiner, Hannes Botha, Theresa M Cantu, Marco A Gouws, Matthew P Guillette, Jeremy P Koelmel, Wilmien J Luus-Powell, Jan Myburgh, Olivia Rynders, Joseph R Sara, Willem J Smit, John A Bowden
This study examined concentrations of 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in tissues from male Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected at Loskop Dam, Mpumalanga, South Africa in 2014 and 2016. Nine of the 15 PFAAs were detected frequently and were included in statistical analysis and included two of the most commonly known PFAAs, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) (median, 41.6ng/g) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (median, 0.0825ng/g). Of the tissues measured, plasma (2016 and 2014 median, 22...
November 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191311/analysis-of-pfaas-in-american-alligators-part-1-concentrations-in-alligators-harvested-for-consumption-during-south-carolina-public-hunts
#20
Jessica J Tipton, Louis J Guillette, Susan Lovelace, Benjamin B Parrott, Thomas R Rainwater, Jessica L Reiner
Environmental contamination resulting from the production or release of harmful chemicals can lead to negative consequences for wildlife and human health. Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) were historically produced as protective coatings for many household items and currently persist in the environment, wildlife, and humans. PFAAs have been linked to immune suppression, endocrine disruption, and developmental toxicity in wildlife and laboratory studies. This study examines the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, as an important indicator of ecosystem contamination and a potential pathway for PFAA exposure in humans...
November 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
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