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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931738/baited-vaccines-a-strategy-to-mitigate-rodent-borne-viral-zoonoses-in-humans
#1
Emelissa J Mendoza, Bryce Warner, Gary Kobinger, Nicholas H Ogden, David Safronetz
Rodents serve as the natural reservoir and vector for a variety of pathogens, some of which are responsible for severe and life-threatening disease in humans. Despite the significant impact in humans many of these viruses, including Old and New World hantaviruses as well as Arenaviruses, most have no specific vaccine or therapeutic to treat or prevent human infection. The recent success of wildlife vaccines to mitigate rabies in animal populations offers interesting insight into the use of similar strategies for other zoonotic agents of human disease...
June 21, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929336/unusually-high-deca-bde-concentrations-and-new-flame-retardants-in-a-canadian-arctic-top-predator-the-glaucous-gull
#2
Jonathan Verreault, Robert J Letcher, Marie-Line Gentes, Birgit M Braune
Despite a sustained effort in surveying flame retardants (FRs) in wildlife from industrialized regions, their occurrence in birds or any other wildlife species spanning the Arctic regions, particularly in North America, has received limited attention. This study investigated in the top predator glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) breeding in the Eastern Canadian Arctic (Cape Dorset, Nunavut) a comprehensive suite of FRs including unstudied halogenated and non-halogenated FRs of potential health concern, along with legacy organochlorines and mercury...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929224/effect-directed-analysis-eda-of-danube-river-water-sample-receiving-untreated-municipal-wastewater-from-novi-sad-serbia
#3
Muhammad Arslan Kamal Hashmi, Beate I Escher, Martin Krauss, Ivana Teodorovic, Werner Brack
The release of a multitude of pollutants from untreated municipal wastewater (UMWW) to surface waters may have adverse effects on aquatic wildlife including endocrine disruption. For effect-directed analysis (EDA), a Danube river water sample downstream of emission of UMWW in Novi Sad, Serbia was extracted on-site and after processing in the lab was subjected to reporter gene assays which revealed pronounced estrogenic (ERα), androgenic (AR) and oxidative stress response (OSR). The sample was fractionated with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) collecting thirty fractions at two-minute intervals...
May 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928742/spatiotemporal-epidemic-models-for-rabies-among-animals
#4
REVIEW
Shigui Ruan
Rabies is a serious concern to public health and wildlife management worldwide. Over the last three decades, various mathematical models have been proposed to study the transmission dynamics of rabies. In this paper we provide a mini-review on some reaction-diffusion models describing the spatial spread of rabies among animals. More specifically, we introduce the susceptible-exposed-infectious models for the spatial transmission of rabies among foxes (Murray et al., 1986), the spatiotemporal epidemic model for rabies among raccoons (Neilan and Lenhart, 2011), the diffusive rabies model for skunk and bat interactions (Bonchering et al...
August 2017: Infectious Disease Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928300/genotyping-by-sequencing-of-genome-wide-microsatellite-loci-reveals-fine-scale-harvest-composition-in-a-coastal-atlantic-salmon-fishery
#5
Ian R Bradbury, Brendan F Wringe, Beth Watson, Ian Paterson, John Horne, Robert Beiko, Sarah J Lehnert, Marie Clément, Eric C Anderson, Nicholas W Jeffery, Steven Duffy, Emma Sylvester, Martha Robertson, Paul Bentzen
Individual assignment and genetic mixture analysis are commonly utilized in contemporary wildlife and fisheries management. Although microsatellite loci provide unparalleled numbers of alleles per locus, their use in assignment applications is increasingly limited. However, next-generation sequencing, in conjunction with novel bioinformatic tools, allows large numbers of microsatellite loci to be simultaneously genotyped, presenting new opportunities for individual assignment and genetic mixture analysis. Here, we scanned the published Atlantic salmon genome to identify 706 microsatellite loci, from which we developed a final panel of 101 microsatellites distributed across the genome (average 3...
July 2018: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927593/hepatotoxic-effects-of-hexafluoropropylene-oxide-trimer-acid-hfpo-ta-a-novel-perfluorooctanoic-acid-pfoa-alternative-on-mice
#6
Nan Sheng, Yitao Pan, Yong Guo, Yan Sun, Jiayin Dai
As an alternative to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), hexafluoropropylene oxide trimer acid (HFPO-TA) has been increasingly used for fluoropolymer manufacture in recent years. Its growing detection in environmental matrices and wildlife raises considerable concern about its potential health risks. Here we investigated the effects of HFPO-TA on mouse liver following 28 days of exposure to 0.02, 0.1, or 0.5 mg/kg/d of HFPO-TA via oral gavage. Results showed that HFPO-TA concentrations increased to 1.14, 4.48, and 30...
June 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926192/developing-recommendations-for-monitoring-wildlife-underpass-usage-using-trail-cameras
#7
Dorian Pomezanski, Lorne Bennett
The growing rate of wildlife underpass use for the mitigation of road-induced wildlife mortality necessitates the development of low-cost monitoring tools for determination of mitigation success. Trail cameras are one such tool that can provide valuable insight into the usage patterns and effectiveness of wildlife underpasses. We deployed trail cameras in wildlife underpasses in Guelph, ON, to develop recommendations for camera monitoring protocols. The trail cameras used high interval time lapse and motion sensors from April to October of 2016 to capture crossing by a variety of species through two slotted, small animal underpasses...
June 20, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925422/physiological-and-immunological-responses-to-culicoides-sonorensis-blood-feeding-a-murine-model
#8
Christopher J Lehiy, Lindsey M Reister-Hendricks, Mark G Ruder, D Scott McVey, Barbara S Drolet
BACKGROUND: Hematophagous Culicoides spp. biting midges are of great agricultural importance as livestock, equine, and wildlife pests and as vectors of the orbiviruses bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease and African horse sickness. To obtain a blood meal, midges deposit saliva containing allergens, proteases, and anti-hemostatic factors, into the dermis to facilitate feeding. Infected midges deposit virus along with the myriad of salivary proteins during feeding. The extreme efficiency with which midges are able to transmit orbiviruses is not clearly understood, as much is still unknown about the physiological trauma of the bite and immune responses to saliva deposited during feeding...
June 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924324/suspected-exposure-to-filoviruses-among-people-contacting-wildlife-in-southwestern-uganda
#9
Tierra Smiley Evans, Leonard Tutaryebwa, Kirsten V Gilardi, Peter A Barry, Andrea Marzi, Meghan Eberhart, Benard Ssebide, Michael R Cranfield, Obed Mugisha, Emmanuel Mugisha, Scott Kellermann, Jonna A K Mazet, Christine K Johnson
Background: Human and filovirus host interactions remain poorly understood in areas where Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks are likely to occur. In the Bwindi region of Uganda, a hot spot of mammalian biodiversity in Africa, human livelihoods are intimately connected with wildlife, creating potential for exposure to filoviruses. Methods: We tested samples from 331 febrile patients presenting to healthcare facilities near Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, Uganda, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and Western blot, using recombinant glycoprotein antigens for Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), and Marburg virus...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923231/the-relative-role-of-captive-breeding-and-of-zoo-bred-animals-in-north-american-conservation-translocations
#10
REVIEW
Typhenn A Brichieri-Colombi, Natasha A Lloyd, Jana M Mcpherson, Axel Moehrenschlager
With the loss of biodiversity accelerating, conservation translocations such as reintroductions are becoming an increasingly common conservation tool. Conservation translocations must source individuals for release from either wild or captive-bred populations. We asked what proportion of North American conservation translocations rely on captive breeding, and to what extent zoos and aquaria (hereafter zoos) fulfill captive breeding needs. Our comprehensive literature review indicates that North American conservation translocations published before 2014 involved captive breeding for 162 (58%) of the 279 animal species translocated...
June 19, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923213/microchips-for-macropods-first-use-of-a-microchip-automated-door-by-a-bridled-nailtail-wallaby-onychogalea-fraenata
#11
Sabrina J Muns, Julia M Hoy, Peter J Murray
Commercially available microchip-automated devices for companion animals also have potential application with captive wildlife. To explore this potential, a captive bridled nailtail wallaby was trained to use a SureFlap Microchip Pet Door. Throughout the 62 day study the wallaby's interactions with the door increased in frequency and intensity, culminating in the repeated use of the microchip-automated door. This was the first record of any captive macropod being trained to use a microchip-automated device and demonstrates proof-of-concept that captive macropods can successfully utilize commercially available microchip-automated devices...
June 19, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921290/causes-of-mortality-and-morbidity-in-free-ranging-mustelids-in-switzerland-necropsy-data-from-over-50-years-of-general-health-surveillance
#12
E Akdesir, F C Origgi, J Wimmershoff, J Frey, C F Frey, M-P Ryser-Degiorgis
BACKGROUND: Although mustelids occur worldwide and include a wide range of species, little is known about the diseases affecting them. Mustelids have regularly been submitted for post mortem investigation in the framework of the program for general wildlife health surveillance in Switzerland, which has been in place for nearly 60 years. We performed a retrospective analysis of the necropsy reports on mustelids submitted to the diagnostic service of the University of Bern. The aims of this study were to present an overview of the causes of mortality and morbidity observed in these carnivores, to assess differences among species, to assess changes in disease detection over the study period, and to describe the pathology of selected diseases...
June 19, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920775/making-habitat-connectivity-a-reality
#13
Annika T H Keeley, Galli Basson, D Richard Cameron, Nicole E Heller, Patrick R Huber, Carrie A Schloss, James H Thorne, Adina M Merenlender
For over 40 years, habitat corridors have been a solution for sustaining wildlife in fragmented landscapes, and now are often suggested as a climate adaptation strategy. However, while a plethora of connectivity plans exist, protecting and restoring habitat connectivity through on-the-ground action has been slow. We identified implementation challenges and opportunities through a literature review of project implementation, a science-practice workshop, and interviews with conservation professionals. Our research indicates that connectivity challenges and solutions tend to be context-specific, dependent on land ownership patterns, socioeconomic factors, and the policy framework...
June 19, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920527/an-ecological-framework-for-informing-permitting-decisions-on-scientific-activities-in-protected-areas
#14
Emily T Saarman, Brian Owens, Steven N Murray, Stephen B Weisberg, Richard F Ambrose, John C Field, Karina J Nielsen, Mark H Carr
There are numerous reasons to conduct scientific research within protected areas, but research activities may also negatively impact organisms and habitats, and thus conflict with a protected area's conservation goals. We developed a quantitative ecological decision-support framework that estimates these potential impacts so managers can weigh costs and benefits of proposed research projects and make informed permitting decisions. The framework generates quantitative estimates of the ecological impacts of the project and the cumulative impacts of the proposed project and all other projects in the protected area, and then compares the estimated cumulative impacts of all projects with policy-based acceptable impact thresholds...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916388/optimizing-validating-and-field-testing-a-multiplex-qpcr-for-the-detection-of-amphibian-pathogens
#15
Isaac Standish, Eric Leis, Noel Schmitz, Jeena Credico, Sara Erickson, Jennifer Bailey, Jacob Kerby, Kenneth Phillips, Teresa Lewis
Amphibian populations worldwide are facing numerous threats, including the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. In the past 2 decades, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a parasitic fungus, and a group of viruses comprising the genus Ranavirus have become widespread and resulted in mass mortality events and extirpations worldwide. In 2013, another novel fungus, B. salamandrivorans (Bsal), was attributed to dramatic declines in populations of fire salamander Salamandra salamandra in the Netherlands...
June 19, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915508/cryptosporidiosis-a-zoonotic-disease-concern
#16
REVIEW
Natapol Pumipuntu, Supawadee Piratae
Cryptosporidiosis is considered to be a crucial zoonotic disease caused by worldwide distributing parasitic protozoa called Cryptosporidium spp. Cryptosporidiosis becomes a major public health and veterinary concern by affecting in human and various host range species of animals. Essentially, its importance of infection is increasing because of the high incidence in young children, immunocompromised persons, or immunodeficiency syndrome patients, especially in HIV/AIDS, and it is also one of the most causes of mortality in those patients who infected with Cryptosporidium spp...
May 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914682/inflammasomes-in-livestock-and-wildlife-insights-into-the-intersection-of-pathogens-and-natural-host-species
#17
Catherine E Vrentas, Robert G Schaut, Paola M Boggiatto, Steven C Olsen, Fayyaz S Sutterwala, Mahtab Moayeri
The inflammasome serves as a mechanism by which the body senses damage or danger. These multiprotein complexes form in the cytosol of myeloid, epithelial and potentially other cell types to drive caspase-1 cleavage and the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Different types of inflammasomes, centered on (and named after) their cytosolic NLRs, respond to signals from bacteria, fungi, and viruses, as well as "sterile inflammatory" triggers. Despite the large body of research accumulated on rodent and human inflammasomes over the past 15 years, only recently have studies expanded to consider the role of inflammasomes in veterinary and wildlife species...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914681/ip-10-a-potential-biomarker-for-detection-of-mycobacterium-bovis-infection-in-warthogs-phacochoerus-africanus
#18
Eduard O Roos, Francisco Olea-Popelka, Peter Buss, Lin-Mari de Klerk-Lorist, David Cooper, Robin M Warren, Paul D van Helden, Sven D C Parsons, Michele A Miller
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is endemic in several areas of South Africa and has been reported in multiple species, including common warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus). Limited diagnostic tests and disease control programs exist for African wildlife. Thus, there is a need to develop techniques for bTB detection in species such as warthogs to assess their role in disease maintenance and spread in multi-host ecosystems. In this study, we obtained blood samples from warthogs in bTB endemic areas to investigate biomarkers for detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914675/antigen-specific-interferon-gamma-release-is-decreased-following-the-single-intradermal-comparative-cervical-skin-test-in-african-buffaloes-syncerus-caffer
#19
C Clarke, D Cooper, W J Goosen, R McFadyen, R M Warren, P D van Helden, S D C Parsons, M A Miller
Effective disease management of wildlife relies on the strategic application of ante-mortem diagnostic tests for early identification and removal of M. bovis-infected animals. To improve diagnostic performance, interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) are often used in conjunction with the tuberculin skin test (TST). Since buffaloes are major maintenance hosts of M. bovis, optimal application of bovine TB diagnostic tests are especially important. We aimed to determine whether the timing of blood collection relative to the TST has an influence on IFN-γ production and diagnostic outcome in African buffaloes...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913080/post-glacial-recolonization-of-insular-newfoundland-across-the-strait-of-belle-isle-gave-rise-to-an-endemic-subspecies-of-woodland-caribou-rangifer-tarandus-terranovae-bangs-1896-evidence-from-mtdna-haplotypes
#20
Corinne D Wilkerson, Shane P Mahoney, Steven M Carr
Post-glacial origins of Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus ssp) on the island of Newfoundland and their relationship to mainland populations have been uncertain. Sequence analysis of 2,223 bp of the mitochondrial DNA Control Region and Cytochrome b gene from 233 Newfoundland caribou identified 32 haplotypes in four major clades. Comparison with other Nearctic caribou confirms a closer affinity of the basal Clade A with animals from the mainland, and as an outgroup to Clades B, C, & D that are endemic to the island...
June 18, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
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