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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535598/antarctic-seals-molecular-biomarkers-as-indicators-for-pollutant-exposure-health-effects-and-diet
#1
K Lehnert, L Weirup, K C Harding, T Härkönen, O Karlsson, J Teilmann
Weddell (Leptonychotes weddellii), Ross (Ommatophoca rossii) and crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophaga) are phocid seals with a circumpolar distribution around Antarctica. As long-lived and large top predators, they bioaccumulate contaminants and are considered as sentinels of ecosystem health. Antarctic seals are increasingly exposed to climate change, pollution, shipping and fisheries. To reveal and understand possible anthropogenic impacts on their immune and health status, this study investigates sensitive biomarkers of the xenobiotic metabolism and immune system in relation to mercury (Hg) burden...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533052/reverse-spillover-of-avian-viral-vaccine-strains-from-domesticated-poultry-to-wild-birds
#2
M A Rohaim, R F El Naggar, A M Helal, H A Hussein, Muhammad Munir
Transmission of viruses from the commercial poultry to wild birds is an emerging paradigm of livestock-wildlife interface. Here, we report the identification and isolation of vaccine strains of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV1) and avian coronaviruses (ACoV) from different wild bird species across eight Egyptian governorates between January 2014 and December 2015. Surveillance of avian respiratory viruses in free-ranging wild birds (n=297) identified three species that harboured or excreted APMV1 and ACoVs...
May 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533016/drodvir-a-resource-for-exploring-the-virome-diversity-in-rodents
#3
Lihong Chen, Bo Liu, Zhiqiang Wu, Qi Jin, Jian Yang
Emerging zoonotic diseases have received tremendous interests in recent years, as they pose a significant threat to human health, animal welfare, and economic stability. A high proportion of zoonoses originate from wildlife reservoirs. Rodents are the most numerous, widespread, and diverse group of mammals on the earth and are reservoirs for many zoonotic viruses responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. A better understanding of virome diversity in rodents would be of importance for researchers and professionals in the field...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532991/estimating-population-density-for-disease-risk-assessment-the-importance-of-understanding-the-area-of-influence-of-traps-using-wild-pigs-as-an-example
#4
Amy J Davis, Bruce Leland, Michael Bodenchuk, Kurt C VerCauteren, Kim M Pepin
Population density is a key driver of disease dynamics in wildlife populations. Accurate disease risk assessment and determination of management impacts on wildlife populations requires an ability to estimate population density alongside management actions. A common management technique for controlling wildlife populations to monitor and mitigate disease transmission risk is trapping (e.g., box traps, corral traps, drop nets). Although abundance can be estimated from trapping actions using a variety of analytical approaches, inference is limited by the spatial extent to which a trap attracts animals on the landscape...
June 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531948/an-alternative-approach-to-risk-rank-chemicals-on-the-threat-they-pose-to-the-aquatic-environment
#5
Andrew C Johnson, Rachel L Donnachie, John P Sumpter, Monika D Jürgens, Claudia Moeckel, M Gloria Pereira
This work presents a new and unbiased method of risk ranking chemicals based on the threat they pose to the aquatic environment. The study ranked 12 metals, 23 pesticides, 11 other persistent organic pollutants (POPs), 13 pharmaceuticals, 10 surfactants and similar compounds and 2 nanoparticles (total of 71) of concern against one another by comparing their median UK river water and median ecotoxicity effect concentrations. To complement this, by giving an assessment on potential wildlife impacts, risk ranking was also carried out by comparing the lowest 10th percentile of the effects data with the highest 90th percentile of the exposure data...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531662/microencapsulation-of-gulosibacter-molinativorax-on4-t-cells-by-a-spray-drying-process-using-different-biopolymers
#6
Berta N Estevinho, A Rita Lopes, Vera Sousa, Fernando Rocha, Olga C Nunes
Molinate is a thiocarbamate herbicide used in rice crop protection. As other pesticides, molinate is a recognized environmental pollutant and bio-accumulated by some wildlife forms. Gulosibacter molinativorax ON4(T) is able to hydrolyse molinate into metabolites which are further degraded by other un-related bacteria. Hence, it can be used in molinate bioremediation processes. The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of producing G. molinativorax ON4(T) microparticles, using different non-toxic biopolymers (arabic gum, modified chitosan, calcium alginate and sodium alginate) as encapsulating agents by a spray-drying process...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530845/temporal-variation-in-the-abundance-and-timing-of-daily-activity-of-chagas-disease-vector-triatoma-gerstaeckeri-st%C3%A3-l-1859-in-a-natural-habitat-in-the-lower-rio-grande-valley-south-texas
#7
Alfredo Flores, Christopher Vitek, Teresa Feria Arroyo, Brian Lund Fredensborg
Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is a burden to millions of people in South and Central America. A sylvatic life cycle of the parasite exists in the Southern United States, but recent studies indicate an active peri-domestic life cycle of T. cruzi in Texas. The USA-Mexico border region in Texas displays areas of high poverty and sub-standard housing conditions which are important risk factors for a potential spill-over transmission to a domestic life cycle including humans. The objectives of the study were to examine short- and longterm temporal variation in vector activity, and to evaluate the effect of different combinations of attractants on the capture of potential triatomine vectors...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529982/detection-of-hammondia-heydorni-dna-in-feces-collected-in-and-around-an-ohio-wildlife-conservation-center
#8
D Sinnott, K Moreno Torres, B Wolfe, R Garabed, A E Marsh
This study aimed to identify DNA attributed to Hammondia heydorni oocysts in the feces of wild canids in and around an Ohio wildlife conservation center. Two hundred and eighty-five wild canid fecal samples were analyzed using PCR with melting curve analysis to detect coccidian DNA. Coccidia-positive samples were further subjected to H. heydorni-specific and N. caninum-specific PCR assays. Samples positive by the H. heydorni-specific assay were additionally analyzed with a PCR assay to distinguish H. heydorni from Hammondia triffittae...
December 2016: Veterinary Parasitology (Amsterdam)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529879/beyond-the-raccoon-roundworm-the-natural-history-of-non-raccoon-baylisascaris-species-in-the-new-world
#9
REVIEW
Sarah G H Sapp, Pooja Gupta, Melissa K Martin, Maureen H Murray, Kevin D Niedringhaus, Madeleine A Pfaff, Michael J Yabsley
A total of 10 species of Baylisascaris, a genus of ascaridoid nematodes, occur worldwide and 6 of them occur in the New World. Most of the Baylisascaris species have a similar life cycle with carnivorous mammals or marsupials serving as definitive hosts and a smaller prey host serving as paratenic (or intermediate) hosts. However, one species in rodents is unique in that it only has one host. Considerable research has been conducted on B. procyonis, the raccoon roundworm, as it is a well-known cause of severe to fatal neurologic disease in humans and many wildlife species...
August 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529028/ecology-of-problem-individuals-and-the-efficacy-of-selective-wildlife-management
#10
REVIEW
George J F Swan, Steve M Redpath, Stuart Bearhop, Robbie A McDonald
As a result of ecological and social drivers, the management of problems caused by wildlife is becoming more selective, often targeting specific animals. Narrowing the sights of management relies upon the ecology of certain 'problem individuals' and their disproportionate contribution to impacts upon human interests. We assess the ecological evidence for problem individuals and confirm that some individuals or classes can be both disproportionately responsible and more likely to reoffend. The benefits of management can sometimes be short-lived, and selective management can affect tolerance of wildlife for better or worse, but, when effectively targeted, selective management can bring benefits by mitigating impact and conflict, often in a more socially acceptable way...
May 18, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528654/natural-radionuclides-and-stable-elements-in-weaver-ants-oecophylla-smaragdina-from-tropical-northern-australia
#11
Peter Medley, Che Doering, Fiona Evans, Andreas Bollhöfer
Natural radionuclides and stable elements were measured in weaver ants, leaves and soils collected from three sites in tropical northern Australia. Radionuclide concentration ratios for ants relative to soil were derived from the measurements and used to refine the current environmental radiological assessment for remediation of Ranger uranium mine. Use of site-specific concentration ratios for weaver ants gave a more conservative estimate of environmental exposure to the arthropod wildlife group than use of default concentration ratios in the ERICA Tool...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528317/levels-of-blood-lead-in-griffon-vultures-from-a-wildlife-rehabilitation-center-in-spain
#12
Fernando González, Irene López, Laura Suarez, Virginia Moraleda, Casilda Rodríguez
Lead is considered a highly toxic contaminant with important impacts to bird wildlife. Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) are a sensitive indicator of the level of environmental contamination due to their position at the top of the food chain and their dependence on human activities. The aim of this study was to assess susceptibility to lead intoxication in Griffon vultures admitted to Wildlife Rehabilitation Centers (WRC), measuring blood lead levels and determining if blood lead concentrations are related to clinical signs, hematological, biochemical or radiographic findings...
May 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528261/perfluoroalkylated-acids-in-the-eggs-of-great-tits-parus-major-near-a-fluorochemical-plant-in-flanders-belgium
#13
Thimo Groffen, Ana Lopez-Antia, Wendy D'Hollander, Els Prinsen, Marcel Eens, Lieven Bervoets
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are highly persistent substances which have been detected in wildlife around the world, including birds. Although bird eggs have often been used to determine and monitor PFAAs levels in the marine environment, this has rarely been done in the terrestrial environment. In the present study we examined the concentrations and composition profile of 12 PFAAs (4 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and 8 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in the eggs of great tits (Parus major) collected at a fluorochemical plant and in three other areas, representing a gradient in distance from the pollution source (from 1 to 70 km), in Antwerp, Belgium...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525340/detection-of-bordetella-avium-by-taqman-real-time-pcr-in-tracheal-swabs-from-wildlife-birds
#14
T Stenzel, D Pestka, B Tykałowski, M Śmiałek, A Koncicki, A Bancerz-Kisiel
Bordetella avium, the causing agent of bordetellosis, a highly contagious infection of the respiratory tract in young poultry, causes significant losses in poultry farming throughout the world. Wildlife birds can be a reservoir of various pathogens that infect farm animals. For this reason the studies were conducted to estimate the prevalence of Bordetella avium in wildlife birds in Poland. Tracheal swab samples were collected from 650 birds representing 27 species. The bacterial DNA was isolated directly from the swabs and screened for Bordetella avium by TaqMan real-time PCR...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524851/extended-fisheries-recovery-timelines-in-a-changing-environment
#15
Gregory L Britten, Michael Dowd, Lisa Kanary, Boris Worm
Rebuilding depleted fish stocks is an international policy goal and a 2020 Aichi target under the Convention on Biological Diversity. However, stock productivity may shift with future climate change, with unknown consequences for sustainable harvesting, biomass targets and recovery timelines. Here we develop a stochastic modelling framework to characterize variability in the intrinsic productivity parameter (r) and carrying capacity (K) for 276 global fish stocks worldwide. We use models of dynamic stock productivity fitted via Bayesian inference to forecast rebuilding timelines for depleted stocks...
May 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515776/hormonally-active-phytochemicals-and-vertebrate-evolution
#16
Max R Lambert, Thea M Edwards
Living plants produce a diversity of chemicals that share structural and functional properties with vertebrate hormones. Wildlife species interact with these chemicals either through consumption of plant materials or aquatic exposure. Accumulating evidence shows that exposure to these hormonally active phytochemicals (HAPs) often has consequences for behavior, physiology, and fecundity. These fitness effects suggest there is potential for an evolutionary response by vertebrates to HAPs. Here, we explore the toxicological HAP-vertebrate relationship in an evolutionary framework and discuss the potential for vertebrates to adapt to or even co-opt the effects of plant-derived chemicals that influence fitness...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514840/plastics-in-the-north-atlantic-garbage-patch-a-boat-microbe-for-hitchhikers-and-plastic-degraders
#17
Debroas Didier, Mone Anne, Ter Halle Alexandra
Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight that impact wildlife. Their fragmentation leads to a continuum of debris sizes (meso to microplastics) entrapped in gyres and colonized by microorganisms. In the present work, the structure of eukaryotes, bacteria and Archaea was studied by a metabarcoding approach, and statistical analysis associated with network building was used to define a core microbiome at the plastic surface. Most of the bacteria significantly associated with the plastic waste originated from non-marine ecosystems, and numerous species can be considered as hitchhikers, whereas others act as keystone species (e...
May 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514837/decomposing-an-urban-soundscape-to-reveal-patterns-and-drivers-of-variation-in-anthropogenic-noise
#18
Sharon A Gill, Erin E Grabarczyk, Kathleen M Baker, Koorosh Naghshineh, Maarten J Vonhof
Continuous and intermittent noise may have different effects on humans and wildlife, therefore distinguishing temporal patterns of noise and their drivers is important for policy regarding both public health and wildlife management. We visualized patterns and explored land-use drivers of continuous and high-amplitude intermittent sound pressure levels (SPLs) on an urban campus in Michigan, U.S.A. To visualize patterns of SPLs, we introduce decibel duration curves (DDCs), which show the cumulative frequency distribution of SPLs and aid in the interpretation of statistical SPLs (Ln values) that reflect continuous versus intermittent sounds...
May 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513328/trypanosoma-cruzi-in-free-ranging-mammalian-populations-in-south-texas
#19
Mathew M Kramm, Maria R Gutierrez, Troy D Luepke, Cynthia Soria, Roel R Lopez, Susan M Cooper, Donald S Davis, Israel D Parker
Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. It is a significant health concern in South and Central America, where millions of people are infected or at risk of infection, and is an emerging health concern in the United States. The occurrence of Chagas disease in natural environments is supported by mammal host species, but those primary species may vary based on geographic location. In South Texas, the primary host species for the disease is poorly understood, and required a field study to determine the spatial distribution of T...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508335/toxic-potential-of-organic-constituents-of-submicron-particulate-matter-pm1-in-an-urban-road-site-barcelona
#20
Sofia R Mesquita, Barend L van Drooge, Manuel Dall'Osto, Joan O Grimalt, Carlos Barata, Natividade Vieira, Laura Guimarães, Benjamin Piña
Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a recognized risk factor contributing to a number of diseases in human populations and wildlife globally. Organic matter is a major component of PM, but its contribution to overall toxicity of PM has not been thoroughly evaluated yet. In the present work, the biological activity of organic extracts from PM1 (particles with less than 1 μm of aerodynamic diameter) collected from an urban road site in the centre of Barcelona (NE Spain) was evaluated using a yeast-based assay (AhR-RYA) and different gene expression markers in zebrafish embryos...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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