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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036923/environmental-impact-and-relative-invasiveness-of-free-roaming-domestic-carnivores-a-north-american-survey-of-governmental-agencies
#1
Ana Lepe, Valerie Kaplan, Alirio Arreaza, Robert Szpanderfer, David Bristol, M Scott Sinclair
A survey of the United States and Canadian governmental agencies investigated the environmental impact and relative invasiveness of free-roaming domestic non-native carnivores-dogs, cats, and ferrets. Agencies represented wildlife, fish, game, natural or environmental resources, parks and recreation, veterinary and human health, animal control, and agriculture. Respondents were asked to document the number and frequency of sightings of unconfined animals, evidence for environmental harm, and the resulting "degree of concern" in their respective jurisdictions...
October 14, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036417/coprophagous-insects-and-the-ecology-of-infectious-diseases-of-wildlife
#2
Elizabeth Nichols, Viviana Alarcón, Shaun Forgie, Luis A Gomez-Puerta, Matthew S Jones
A diversity of macro- and microparasitic species exert strong influences on wildlife population density, community structure, and ecosystem functioning, all through their impacts on individual host fitness. Through consuming, manipulating, and relocating wildlife feces, over 7,000 species of coprophagous dung beetles interact with a staggering diversity of wildlife parasites with fecal-oral transmission in ways that both increase and decrease transmission. Here, we review the mechanisms by which dung beetles influence micro- and macroparasite transmission and outline a future research framework that integrates theory and empirical insights to advance our understanding of how these relationships may interact with ongoing environmental change drivers to further influence wildlife populations and community structure...
September 28, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035720/an-internationally-standardized-species-identification-test-for-use-on-suspected-seized-rhinoceros-horn-in-the-illegal-wildlife-trade
#3
Kyle M Ewart, Greta J Frankham, Ross McEwing, Lucy M I Webster, Sherryn A Ciavaglia, Adrian M T Linacre, Dang Tat The, Kanitia Ovouthan, Rebecca N Johnson
Rhinoceros (rhino) numbers have dwindled substantially over the past century. As a result, three of the five species are now considered to be critically endangered, one species is vulnerable and one species is near-threatened. Poaching has increased dramatically over the past decade due to a growing demand for rhino horn products, primarily in Asia. Improved wildlife forensic techniques, such as validated tests for species identification of seized horns, are critical to aid current enforcement and prosecution efforts and provide a deterrent to future rhino horn trafficking...
October 7, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035006/applying-systems-thinking-to-inform-studies-of-wildlife-trade-in-primates
#4
Mary E Blair, Minh D Le, Hoàng M Thạch, Anna Panariello, Ngọc B Vũ, Mark G Birchette, Gautam Sethi, Eleanor J Sterling
Wildlife trade presents a major threat to primate populations, which are in demand from local to international scales for a variety of uses from food and traditional medicine to the exotic pet trade. We argue that an interdisciplinary framework to facilitate integration of socioeconomic, anthropological, and biological data across multiple spatial and temporal scales is essential to guide the study of wildlife trade dynamics and its impacts on primate populations. Here, we present a new way to design research on wildlife trade in primates using a systems thinking framework...
October 16, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034161/going-green-ex-post-valuation-of-a-multipurpose-water-infrastructure-in-northern-italy
#5
Arnaud Reynaud, Denis Lanzanova, Camino Liquete, Bruna Grizzetti
A contingent valuation approach is used to estimate how households value different multipurpose infrastructures (conventional or green) for managing flood risk and water pollution. As a case study we consider the Gorla Maggiore water park located in the Lombardy Region, in Northern Italy. The park is a neo-ecosystem including an infrastructure to treat waste water and store excess rain water, built in 2011 on the shore of the Olona River in an area previously used for poplar plantation. This park is the first one of this type built in Italy...
October 2017: Ecosystem Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032907/pharmaceuticals-in-water-fish-and-osprey-nestlings-in-delaware-river-and-bay
#6
Thomas G Bean, Barnett A Rattner, Rebecca S Lazarus, Daniel D Day, S Rebekah Burket, Bryan W Brooks, Samuel P Haddad, William W Bowerman
Exposure of wildlife to Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) is likely to occur but studies of risk are limited. One exposure pathway that has received attention is trophic transfer of APIs in a water-fish-osprey food chain. Samples of water, fish plasma and osprey plasma were collected from Delaware River and Bay, and analyzed for 21 APIs. Only 2 of 21 analytes exceeded method detection limits in osprey plasma (acetaminophen and diclofenac) with plasma levels typically 2-3 orders of magnitude below human therapeutic concentrations (HTC)...
October 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031047/reducing-the-threat-of-wildlife-vehicle-collisions-during-peak-tourism-periods-using-a-roadside-animal-detection-system
#7
Molly K Grace, Daniel J Smith, Reed F Noss
Roadside Animal Detection Systems (RADS) aim to reduce the frequency of wildlife-vehicle collisions. Unlike fencing and wildlife passages, RADS do not attempt to keep animals off the road; rather, they attempt to modify driver behavior by detecting animals near the road and warning drivers with flashing signs. A RADS was installed in Big Cypress National Park (Florida, USA) in 2012 in response to an increased number of Florida panther mortalities. To assess driver response, we measured the speed of individual cars on the road when the RADS was active (flashing) and inactive (not flashing) during the tourist season (November-March) and the off-season (April-October), which vary dramatically in traffic volume...
October 11, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030965/fear-affects-parental-care-which-predicts-juvenile-survival-and-exacerbates-the-total-cost-of-fear-on-demography
#8
Blair P Dudeck, Michael Clinchy, Marek C Allen, Liana Y Zanette
Fear itself (perceived predation risk) can affect wildlife demography, but the cumulative impact of fear on population dynamics is not well understood. Parental care is arguably what most distinguishes birds and mammals from other taxa, yet only one experiment on wildlife has tested fear effects on parental food provisioning and the repercussions this has for the survival of dependent offspring, and only during early-stage care. We tested the effect of fear on late-stage parental care of mobile dependent offspring, by locating radio-tagged song sparrow fledglings and broadcasting predator or non-predator playbacks in their vicinity, measuring their parent's behaviour and their own, and tracking the offspring's survival to independence...
October 14, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030867/do-host-associated-gut-microbiota-mediate-the-effect-of-an-herbicide-on-disease-risk-in-frogs
#9
Sarah A Knutie, Caitlin Gabor, Kevin D Kohl, Jason R Rohr
1.Environmental stressors, such as pollutants, can increase disease risk in wildlife. For example, the herbicide atrazine affects host defenses (e.g. resistance and tolerance) of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), but the mechanisms for these associations are not always clear. Given that pollutants can alter the gut microbiota of hosts, which in turn can affect their health and immune systems, one potential mechanism by which pollutants could increase infection risk is by influencing host-associated microbiota...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030788/viral-richness-is-positively-related-to-group-size-but-not-mating-system-in-bats
#10
Quinn M R Webber, Quinn E Fletcher, Craig K R Willis
Characterizing host traits that influence viral richness and diversification is important for understanding wildlife pathogens affecting conservation and/or human health. Behaviors that affect contact rates among hosts could be important for viral diversification because more frequent intra- and inter-specific contacts among hosts should increase the potential for viral diversification within host populations. We used published data on bats to test the contact-rate hypothesis. We predicted that species forming large conspecific groups, that share their range with more heterospecifics (i...
October 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030586/batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans-not-detected-in-u-s-survey-of-pet-salamanders
#11
Blake Klocke, Matthew Becker, James Lewis, Robert C Fleischer, Carly R Muletz-Wolz, Larry Rockwood, A Alonso Aguirre, Brian Gratwicke
We engaged pet salamander owners in the United States to screen their animals for two amphibian chytrid fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal). We provided pet owners with a sampling kit and instructional video to swab the skin of their animals. We received 639 salamander samples from 65 species by mail, and tested them for Bd and Bsal using qPCR. We detected Bd on 1.3% of salamanders (95% CI 0.0053-0.0267) and did not detect Bsal (95% CI 0.0000-0.0071). If Bsal is present in the U...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029724/new-leaves-in-the-growing-tree-of-pestiviruses
#12
Sandra Blome, Martin Beer, Kerstin Wernike
Pestiviruses are a group of viruses of veterinary importance infecting livestock animals like pigs, cattle, and sheep, and also wildlife animals like wild boar and different deer species. While for decades only four classical species (Classical swine fever virus, Bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, Border disease virus), and a few so-called atypical pestiviruses were known (e.g., Giraffe virus, Pronghorn virus, HoBi virus), a series of novel pestiviruses was identified in the last years (Bungowannah virus, Bat pestivirus, Norway rat pestivirus, Atypical porcine pestivirus, LINDA virus)...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029632/fatal-haemorrhage-and-neoplastic-thrombosis-in-a-captive-african-lion-panthera-leo-with-metastatic-testicular-sex-cord-stromal-tumour
#13
Omar Antonio Gonzales-Viera, Angélica María Sánchez-Sarmiento, Natália Coelho Couto de Azevedo Fernandes, Juliana Mariotti Guerra, Rodrigo Albergaria Ressio, José Luiz Catão-Dias
BACKGROUND: The study of neoplasia in wildlife species contributes to the understanding of cancer biology, management practices, and comparative pathology. Higher frequencies of neoplasms among captive non-domestic felids have been reported most commonly in aging individuals. However, testicular tumours have rarely been reported. This report describes a metastatic testicular sex cord-stromal tumour leading to fatal haemorrhage and thrombosis in a captive African lion (Panthera leo). CASE PRESENTATION: During necropsy of a 16-year-old male African lion, the left testicle and spermatic cord were found to be intra-abdominal (cryptorchid), semi-hard and grossly enlarged with multiple pale-yellow masses...
October 13, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029220/effect-of-host-traits-and-land-use-changes-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-the-namibian-black-backed-jackal-canis-mesomelas
#14
Sebastian Menke, Matthias Meier, John K E Mfune, Joerg Melzheimer, Bettina Wachter, Simone Sommer
Host traits and environmental factors drive the natural variation in gut microbiota and disruption in homeostasis can cause infections and chronic diseases. African wildlife is increasingly facing human-induced agricultural habitats, which also amplifies the contact probability with livestock with unknown consequences for wildlife gut microbiotas and the risk of transmission of potentially pathogenic bacteria. We applied high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and microsatellite genotyping to investigate the impact of host traits and habitat use on the gut microbiotas of black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas)...
September 25, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029157/stings-of-the-ant-wasmannia-auropunctata-hymenoptera-formicidae-as-cause-of-punctate-corneal-lesions-in-humans-and-other-animals
#15
Diego Rosselli, James K Wetterer
Numerous researchers have observed a form of punctate corneal lesions causing leukomas (corneal opacities) in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals in different parts of the world. This condition has been reported under different names, including West Indian (or Caribbean) punctate keratopathy, West Indian dots, tropical punctate keratopathy, Rice's keratopathy, Florida keratopathy, and Florida spots. Many of these cases, appear to have a common cause, the stings of a small red ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), originally from the Neotropics, but spread to other parts of the world through human commerce...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027256/integrated-in-silico-and-in-vivo-approaches-to-investigate-effects-of-bde-99-mediated-by-the-nuclear-receptors-on-developing-zebrafish
#16
Li Zhang, Yaru Jin, Zhihua Han, Hongling Liu, Laihao Shi, Xiaoxue Hua, Jon A Doering, Song Tang, John P Giesy, Hongxia Yu
BDE-99 is one of the most abundant PBDEs, which due to its potential persistence and bioaccumulation occurs in aquatic wildlife. Previous studies in mammals have shown that BDE-99 affected development and disrupted certain endocrine functions through signaling pathways mediated by nuclear receptors (NRs). However, fewer studies have investigated the potential of BDE-99 to interact with NRs in aquatic vertebrates, such as fish. In the present study, interactions between BDE-99 and NRs were investigated by use of in silico and in vivo approaches...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026261/prevention-of-noise-induced-hearing-loss-from-recreational-firearms
#17
REVIEW
Deanna K Meinke, Donald S Finan, Gregory A Flamme, William J Murphy, Michael Stewart, James E Lankford, Stephen Tasko
In the United States and other parts of the world, recreational firearm shooting is a popular sport that puts the hearing of the shooter at risk. Peak sound pressure levels (SPLs) from firearms range from ∼140 to 175 dB. The majority of recreational firearms (excluding small-caliber 0.17 and 0.22 rifles and air rifles) generate between 150 and 165 dB peak SPLs. High-intensity impulse sounds will permanently damage delicate cochlear structures, and thus individuals who shoot firearms are at a higher risk of bilateral, high-frequency, noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) than peer groups who do not shoot...
November 2017: Seminars in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026153/climate-change-induced-increases-in-precipitation-are-reducing-the-potential-for-solar-ultraviolet-radiation-to-inactivate-pathogens-in-surface-waters
#18
Craig E Williamson, Sasha Madronich, Aparna Lal, Richard G Zepp, Robyn M Lucas, Erin P Overholt, Kevin C Rose, S Geoffrey Schladow, Julia Lee-Taylor
Climate change is accelerating the release of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to inland and coastal waters through increases in precipitation, thawing of permafrost, and changes in vegetation. Our modeling approach suggests that the selective absorption of ultraviolet radiation (UV) by DOM decreases the valuable ecosystem service wherein sunlight inactivates waterborne pathogens. Here we highlight the sensitivity of waterborne pathogens of humans and wildlife to solar UV, and use the DNA action spectrum to model how differences in water transparency and incident sunlight alter the ability of UV to inactivate waterborne pathogens...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024142/did-late-pleistocene-climate-change-result-in-parallel-genetic-structure-and-demographic-bottlenecks-in-sympatric-central-african-crocodiles-%C3%A2-mecistops%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-osteolaemus
#19
M H Shirley, J D Austin
The mid-Holocene has had profound demographic impacts on wildlife on the African continent, though there is little known about the impacts on species from Central Africa. Understanding the impacts of climate change on co-distributed species can enhance our understanding of ecosystem dynamics and for formulating restoration objectives. We took a multi-genome comparative approach to examine the phylogeographic structure of two poorly known Central African crocodile species - Mecistops sp. aff. cataphractus and Osteolaemus tetraspis...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023874/multidisciplinary-studies-of-wildlife-trade-in-primates-challenges-and-priorities
#20
Mary E Blair, Minh D Le, Eleanor J Sterling
Wildlife trade is increasingly recognized as an unsustainable threat to primate populations and informing its management is a growing focus and application of primatological research. However, management policies based on ecological research alone cannot address complex socioeconomic or cultural contexts as drivers of wildlife trade. Multidisciplinary research is required to understand trade complexity and identify sustainable management strategies. Here, we define multidisciplinary research as research that combines more than one academic discipline, and highlight how the articles in this issue combine methods and approaches to fill key gaps and offer a more comprehensive understanding of underlying drivers of wildlife trade including consumer demand, enforcement patterns, source population status, and accessibility of targeted species...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
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