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Diego F Cisneros-Heredia
The eminent Austrian zoologist Franz Werner described several new species of amphibians and reptiles from America, including Anolis aequatorialis Werner, 1894 and Hylodes appendiculatus Werner, 1894. Both species were described based on single specimens, with no more specific type localities than "Ecuador" (Werner 1894a,b). After its description, A. aequatorialis remained unreported until Peters (1967) and Fitch et al. (1976) published information on its distribution and natural history. Anolis aequatorialis is currently known to inhabit low montane and cloud forest on the western slopes of the Andes from extreme southern Colombia to central Ecuador, between 1300 and 2300 m elevation (Ayala-Varela & Velasco 2010; Ayala-Varela et al...
January 4, 2017: Zootaxa
Uwe Hoßfeld, Elizabeth Watts, Georgy S Levit
In 1866, the German zoologist Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) published the first Darwinian trees of life in the history of biology in his book General Morphology of Organisms. We take a specific look at the first phylogenetic trees for the plant kingdom that Haeckel created as part of this two-volume work.
February 2017: Trends in Plant Science
Emanuele Coco
In 1975, the English evolutionist William Donald Hamilton (1936-2000) held in Brazil a series of lectures entitled "Population genetics and social behaviour". The unpublished notes of these conferences-written by Hamilton and recently discovered at the British Library-offer an opportunity to reflect on some of the author's ideas about evolution. The year of the conference is particularly significant, as it took place shortly after the applications of the Price equation with which Hamilton was able to build a model that included several levels of selection...
December 2016: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
John S Buckeridge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Integrative Zoology
Terrence C Demos, Anang S Achmadi, Thomas C Giarla, Heru Handika, Maharadatunkamsi, Kevin C Rowe, Jacob A Esselstyn
Island systems are important models for evolutionary biology because they provide convenient, discrete biogeographic units of study. Continental islands with a history of intermittent dry land connections confound the discrete definitions of islands and have led zoologists to predict (1) little differentiation of terrestrial organisms among continental shelf islands and (2) extinction, rather than speciation, to be the main cause of differences in community composition among islands. However, few continental island systems have been subjected to well-sampled phylogeographic studies, leaving these biogeographic assumptions of connectivity largely untested...
August 23, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Arkady A Schileyko, Pavel E Stoev
The centipede fauna of the second largest island in the world, New Guinea, and its adjacent islands, is poorly known, with most information deriving from the first half of the 20<sup>th</sup> century. Here we present new data on the order Scolopendromorpha based on material collected in the area in the last 40 years, mainly by Bulgarian and Latvian zoologists. The collections comprise eleven species of six genera and three families. The diagnosis of Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) is emended in the light of the recent findings...
August 4, 2016: Zootaxa
David M Underhill, Siamon Gordon, Beat A Imhof, Gabriel Núñez, Philippe Bousso
The year 2016 marks 100 years since the death of Élie Metchnikoff (1845-1916), the Russian zoologist who pioneered the study of cellular immunology and who is widely credited with the discovery of phagocytosis, for which he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1908. However, his long scientific career spanned many disciplines and has had far-reaching effects on modern immunology beyond the study of phagocytosis. In this Viewpoint article, five leading immunologists from the fields of phagocytosis, macrophage biology, leukocyte migration, the microbiota and intravital imaging tell Nature Reviews Immunology how Metchnikoff's work has influenced past, present and future research in their respective fields...
2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
Paul F Smith, Ross M Renner, Stephen J Haslett
BACKGROUND: Compositional data sum to a constant value, for example, 100%. In neuroscience, such data are common, for example, when estimating the percentage of time spent for a behavioural response in a limited choice situation or a neurochemical within brain tissue. Compositional data have a distinct structure which complicates analysis and makes inappropriate standard statistical analyses such as general linear model analyses and principal components or factor analysis (whether Q-mode or R-mode), as a result of the correlation of the components, the dependence of the pairwise covariance on which other components are included in the analysis, and the bounded nature of the data...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
T Jaehn, C Zunker, H Mägdefrau, B Reichert
The common European adder is an endangered animal species in Europe. Despite its endangerment, snake bite injuries do occur from time to time, even in Germany. This is a poisoning emergency. Detailed numbers concerning the incidence or lethality of adder bites in Germany do not exist. Only 13% of all cases have a severe course of disease, with children and elderly people prevailing in this patient group. We report the benign course of an adder bite injury of the index finger of a 60-year-old zoologist, which healed completely under symptomatic treatment and surveillance without any operative intervention...
August 2016: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
D V Trankvilevsky, V A Tsarenko, V I Zhukov
The facilities of the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare play a leading role in epizootological monitoring. The specialists (zoologists and entomologists) of Hygiene and Epidemiology Centers do basic work in the subjects of the Russian Federation. The data obtained in the participation of different ministries and departments are used to analyze the results of monitoring. The latter is one of the important steps in the management of the epidemic, process in natural focal infections...
April 2016: Meditsinskaia Parazitologiia i Parazitarnye Bolezni
Robert F Ker
Robert McNeill Alexander, known to friends and colleagues as 'Neill', was a zoologist with an engineer's eye for how animals work. He used mathematical models to show how evolution has produced optimal designs. His skill was to choose appropriate models: realistic enough to contain the essence of a problem and yet simple enough to be tractable. He wrote fluently and easily: 23 books, 280 papers and a CD-ROM entitled How Animals Move.
July 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Tom Quick
Early nineteenth-century zoology in Britain has been characterized as determined by the ideological concerns of its proponents. Taking the zoologist Robert E. Grant as an exemplary figure in this regard, this article offers a differently nuanced account of the conditions under which natural-philosophical knowledge concerning animal life was established in post-Napoleonic Britain. Whilst acknowledging the ideological import of concepts such as force and law, it points to an additional set of concerns amongst natural philosophers - that of appropriate tool use in investigation...
June 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
Zhenhua Luo, Songhua Tang, Zhigang Jiang, Jing Chen, Hongxia Fang, Chunwang Li
The karst area of southwest China (KASC) is the largest piece of karst landscape on the earth and a global biodiversity hot-spot with high concentrations of endemic species. Although a number of nature reserves (NRs) have been established across the region, the representativeness of biodiversity of the NR system is still unknown. Based on comprehensive literature and field surveys, and intensive consultations with zoologists and wildlife managers, we compiled distributions of 1,204 terrestrial vertebrate species and 271 NRs in KASC...
2016: Scientific Reports
Mu-Ming Poo, Michele Pignatelli, Tomás J Ryan, Susumu Tonegawa, Tobias Bonhoeffer, Kelsey C Martin, Andrii Rudenko, Li-Huei Tsai, Richard W Tsien, Gord Fishell, Caitlin Mullins, J Tiago Gonçalves, Matthew Shtrahman, Stephen T Johnston, Fred H Gage, Yang Dan, John Long, György Buzsáki, Charles Stevens
The mechanism of memory remains one of the great unsolved problems of biology. Grappling with the question more than a hundred years ago, the German zoologist Richard Semon formulated the concept of the engram, lasting connections in the brain that result from simultaneous "excitations", whose precise physical nature and consequences were out of reach of the biology of his day. Neuroscientists now have the knowledge and tools to tackle this question, however, and this Forum brings together leading contemporary views on the mechanisms of memory and what the engram means today...
May 19, 2016: BMC Biology
P B Persson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Acta Physiologica
Federica Turriziani Colonna
During the early 1870s a young zoologist who worked as a Privatdozent delivering lectures at different Prussian universities invested much of his family wealth and solicited his fellows' contributions to establish a research facility by the sea. The young zoologist happened to be called Anton Dohrn. From the time it opened its doors, the Anton Dohrn Zoological Station - or Naples Zoological Station, as it was originally called - played a crucial role in shaping life sciences as it facilitated research aimed at explaining the mechanics of inheritance...
March 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
Qian Cong, Jinhui Shen, Andrew D Warren, Dominika Borek, Zbyszek Otwinowski, Nick V Grishin
For 200 years, zoologists have relied on phenotypes to learn about the evolution of animals. A glance at the genotype, even through several gene markers, revolutionized our understanding of animal phylogeny. Recent advances in sequencing techniques allow researchers to study speciation mechanisms and the link between genotype and phenotype using complete genomes. We sequenced and assembled a complete genome of the Cloudless Sulphur (Phoebis sennae) from a single wild-caught specimen. This genome was used as reference to compare genomes of six specimens, three from the eastern populations (Oklahoma and north Texas), referred to as a subspeciesPhoebis sennae eubule, and three from the southwestern populations (south Texas) known as a subspeciesPhoebis sennae marcellina While the two subspecies differ only subtly in phenotype and mitochondrial DNA, comparison of their complete genomes revealed consistent and significant differences, which are more prominent than those between tiger swallowtailsPterourus canadensisandPterourus glaucus The two sulphur taxa differed in histone methylation regulators, chromatin-associated proteins, circadian clock, and early development proteins...
March 30, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Gordon McOuat
By the late 19(th) Century, storms plaguing early Victorian systematics and nomenclature seemed to have abated. Vociferous disputes over radical renaming, the world-shaking clash of all-encompassing procrustean systems, struggles over centres of authority, and the issues of language and meaning had now been settled by the institution of a stable imperial museum and its catalogues, a set of rules for the naming of zoological objects, and a new professional class of zoologists. Yet, for all that tranquillity, the disputes simmered below the surface, re-emerging as bitter struggles over synonyms, trinomials, the subspecies category, the looming issues of the philosophy of scientific language, and the aggressive new American style of field biology - all pressed in upon the received practice of naming and classifying organisms and the threat of anarchy...
2016: ZooKeys
Siamon Gordon
The year 2016 marks the centenary of the death of Elie Metchnikoff, the father of innate immunity and discoverer of the significance of phagocytosis in development, homeostasis and disease. Through a series of intravital experiments on invertebrates and vertebrates, he described the role of specialised phagocytic cells, macrophages and microphages, subsequently renamed neutrophils and polymorphonuclear leucocytes, in the host response to injury, inflammation, infection and tissue repair. As a vigorous proponent of cellular immunity, he championed its importance versus humoral immunity in the so-called antibody wars...
2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Steindór J Erlingsson
Until recently the British zoologist Lancelot Hogben (1895-1975) has usually appeared as a campaigning socialist, an anti-eugenicist or a popularizer of science in the literature. The focus has mainly been on Hogben after he became a professor of social biology at the London School of Economics in 1930. This paper focuses on Hogben's life in the 1920s. Early in the decade, while based in London, he focused on cytology, but in 1922, after moving to Edinburgh, he turned his focus on experimental zoology, first concentrating on vertebrate endocrinology and later moving over to the comparative physiology of invertebrate muscle...
August 2016: Journal of the History of Biology
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