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pediatric liver cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734330/sustained-activation-of-detoxification-pathways-promotes-liver-carcinogenesis-in-response-to-chronic-bile-acid-mediated-damage
#1
Agnese Collino, Alberto Termanini, Paola Nicoli, Giuseppe Diaferia, Sara Polletti, Camilla Recordati, Vittoria Castiglioni, Donatella Caruso, Nico Mitro, Gioacchino Natoli, Serena Ghisletti
Chronic inflammation promotes oncogenic transformation and tumor progression. Many inflammatory agents also generate a toxic microenvironment, implying that adaptive mechanisms must be deployed for cells to survive and undergo transformation in such unfavorable contexts. A paradigmatic case is represented by cancers occurring in pediatric patients with genetic defects of hepatocyte phosphatidylcholine transporters and in the corresponding mouse model (Mdr2-/- mice), in which impaired bile salt emulsification leads to chronic hepatocyte damage and inflammation, eventually resulting in oncogenic transformation...
May 7, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662633/tracking-cellular-and-molecular-changes-in-a-species-specific-manner-during-experimental-tumor-progression-in-vivo
#2
Emilie Indersie, Katarzyna B Hooks, Caroline Capdevielle, Monique Fabre, Nathalie Dugot-Senant, Angélique Desplat, Sébastien Lepreux, Aksam Merched, Christophe F Grosset, Martin Hagedorn
Hepatoblastoma (HBL) is a pediatric liver cancer with defined molecular alterations driving its progression. Here, we describe an animal model for HBL on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), which recapitulates relevant features of HBL in patients. Expression of classic tumor-associated proteins such as β-catenin, EpCAM and CK19 was maintained in acini-like organized tumors on CAM, as was synthesis of AFP, a tumor marker used for monitoring patient response. RNA sequencing revealed an unexpected molecular evolution of HBL cells on the CAM, with significant deregulation of more than 6,000 genes including more than half of all HOX genes...
March 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610171/autoimmune-pancreatitis-and-ulcerative-rectocolitis-in-an-adolescent
#3
Elie Cousin, Ianis Cousin, Karim Aziz, Pascal Chailloux, Estelle Breton
Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is rare in teenagers and difficult to diagnose. There are no clear and established diagnostic criteria in the pediatric population to distinguish subtype 1 and subtype 2. Here, we report the case of a 16-year-old white French teenager admitted to the pediatric emergency service with more than 1 year's history of pain originating from the epigastric and the right hypochondriac regions, with bloody diarrhea. After exclusion of pancreatic cancer and other common causes of acute pancreatitis, the diagnosis of AIP was suspected...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596053/the-adipose-tissue-expandability-hypothesis-a-potential-mechanism-for-insulin-resistance-in-obese-youth
#4
REVIEW
Sonia Caprio, Bridget Pierpont, Romy Kursawe
Obesity has become a major global health challenge of the 21st century, as it is associated with the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular complications, even at a very early age in life. The root causes of pediatric obesity remain incompletely understood. The obesity epidemic together with the relationship of obesity to the growing population burden of chronic disease presents unprecedented research opportunities and challenges. Decades of obesity-related research funded by governments around the world have yielded many important discoveries about both etiological pathways and preventive or therapeutic interventions...
March 29, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571247/comprehensive-analysis-and-experimental-verification-of-linc01314-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-hepatoblastoma
#5
Benji Lv, Lianhai Zhang, Runchen Miao, Xiaohong Xiang, Shunbin Dong, Ting Lin, Ke Li, Qu Kai
Hepatoblastoma (HB), as a common pediatric liver malignancy, is composed of a variety of subgroups with different clinical outcomes. Long-noncoding RNA (lncRNA) has crucial roles in cancer biology. However, the association between lncRNA and HB has not been fully investigated. In this study, we screened lncRNA expression profiles that were annotated from the GSE75271 dataset. A total of 225 differentially expressed lncRNAs (DELs) were identified based on comparison between three prognostic subgroups, and seven of them (XR_241302, XR_923061, NR_038322, XR_951687, XR_934593, NR_120317 and XR_93406) that exhibited highly predictive accuracies were selected for functional analysis...
February 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534409/-the-expert-consensus-on-clinical-application-of-multi-trace-elements
#6
(no author information available yet)
Trace elements are dietary elements which are needed in very minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of the organism, which play a crucial part in energy metabolism and material transformation. It's generally agreed that trace elements are essential components of parenteral nutrition. These societies for parenteral and enteral nutrition in Europe, the United States and Australia proposed that various trace elements should be provided daily from commencement for all patients receiving parenteral nutrition and published some guidelines on adult trace elements recommendations for parenteral nutrition...
March 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430662/on-the-feasibility-of-automatically-selecting-similar-patients-in-highly-individualized-radiotherapy-dose-reconstruction-for-historic-data-of-pediatric-cancer-survivors
#7
Marco Virgolin, Irma W E M van Dijk, Jan Wiersma, Cécile M Ronckers, Cees Witteveen, Arjan Bel, Tanja Alderliesten, Peter A N Bosman
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to establish the first step toward a novel and highly individualized three-dimensional (3D) dose distribution reconstruction method, based on CT scans and organ delineations of recently treated patients. Specifically, the feasibility of automatically selecting the CT scan of a recently treated childhood cancer patient who is similar to a given historically treated child who suffered from Wilms' tumor is assessed. METHODS: A cohort of 37 recently treated children between 2- and 6-yr old are considered...
April 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427028/2017-pretext-radiologic-staging-system-for-primary-hepatic-malignancies-of-childhood-revised-for-the-paediatric-hepatic-international-tumour-trial-phitt
#8
REVIEW
Alexander J Towbin, Rebecka L Meyers, Helen Woodley, Osamu Miyazaki, Christopher B Weldon, Bruce Morland, Eiso Hiyama, Piotr Czauderna, Derek J Roebuck, Greg M Tiao
Imaging is crucial in the assessment of children with a primary hepatic malignancy. Since its inception in 1992, the PRETEXT (PRE-Treatment EXTent of tumor) system has become the primary method of risk stratification for hepatoblastoma and pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma in numerous cooperative group trials across the world. The PRETEXT system is made of two components: the PRETEXT group and the annotation factors. The PRETEXT group describes the extent of tumor within the liver while the annotation factors help to describe associated features such as vascular involvement (either portal vein or hepatic vein/inferior vena cava), extrahepatic disease, multifocality, tumor rupture and metastatic disease (to both the lungs and lymph nodes)...
April 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414822/expression-profiling-identifies-circular-rna-signature-in-hepatoblastoma
#9
Bai-Hui Liu, Bin-Bin Zhang, Xiang-Qi Liu, Shan Zheng, Kui-Ran Dong, Rui Dong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatoblastoma is the most common malignant pediatric liver cancer. circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in fine-tuning gene expression and are often deregulated in cancers. However, the expression profile and clinical significance of circRNAs in hepatoblastoma is still unknown. METHODS: Circular RNA microarray was conducted to identify hepatoblastoma-related circRNAs. GO analysis, pathway analysis, and miRNA response elements analysis was conducted to predict the potential roles of differentially expressed circRNAs in hepatoblastoma...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404451/microrna-therapy-inhibits-hepatoblastoma-growth-in-vivo-by-targeting-%C3%AE-catenin-and-wnt-signaling
#10
Emilie Indersie, Sarah Lesjean, Katarzyna B Hooks, Francis Sagliocco, Tony Ernault, Stefano Cairo, Maria Merched-Sauvage, Anne Rullier, Brigitte Le Bail, Sophie Taque, Michael Grotzer, Sophie Branchereau, Catherine Guettier, Monique Fabre, Laurence Brugières, Martin Hagedorn, Marie-Annick Buendia, Christophe F Grosset
Hepatoblastoma (HBL) is the most common pediatric liver cancer. In this malignant neoplasm, beta-catenin protein accumulates and increases Wnt signaling due to recurrent activating mutations in the catenin-beta 1 ( CTNNB1 ) gene. Therefore, beta-catenin is a key therapeutic target in HBL. However, controlling beta-catenin production with therapeutic molecules has been challenging. New biological studies could provide alternative therapeutic solutions for the treatment of HBL, especially for advanced tumors and metastatic disease...
April 2017: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391313/post-transplant-malignancies-in-pediatric-liver-transplant-recipients-experience-of-two-centers-in-turkey
#11
Miray Karakoyun, Şebnem Önen, Maşallah Baran, Murat Çakır, Çiğdem Ömür Ecevit, Murat Kılıç, Mehmet Kantar, Serap Aksoylar, Funda Özgenç, Sema Aydoğdu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: A liver transplant is the preferred treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease, as it usually results in longterm survival. However, due to the use of chronic immunosuppressive therapy, which is necessary to prevent rejection, de novo cancer is a major risk after transplantation. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of post-transplant malignancies in children after liver transplantations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 206 liver transplant recipients, with no history of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma, in two liver transplantation centers in Turkey between 1997 and 2015...
January 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375716/sphingomyelin-synthase-2-overexpression-promotes-cisplatin-induced-apoptosis-of-hepg2-cells
#12
Si Luo, Zhen Pan, Shuang Liu, Shujing Yuan, Nianlong Yan
Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most type of common pediatric liver cancer. The primary chemotherapy drug for HB is cisplatin (DDP). However, patients readily develop intrinsic and acquired resistance, and severe side effects to treatment. Sphingomyelin synthase 2 (SMS2) is a key enzyme involved in the generation of sphingomyelin (SM), which is able to regulate cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. The death receptors (DRs) have important functions in DDP-induced apoptosis. However, whether SMS2 is able to modulate cell apoptosis through the DR signaling pathway remains unknown...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362840/role-of-interventional-radiology-in-managing-pediatric-liver-tumors-part-1-endovascular-interventions
#13
REVIEW
Matthew P Lungren, Alexander J Towbin, Derek J Roebuck, Eric J Monroe, Anne E Gill, Avnesh Thakor, Richard B Towbin, Anne Marie Cahill, C Matthew Hawkins
Primary liver malignancies are rare in children. Hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) together represent the overwhelming majority of cases. Overall survival of hepatoblastoma approaches 80% with multimodal treatment approaches that include chemotherapy, surgery and transplantation. However, there remains a subset of children with hepatoblastoma in whom resection or transplantation is not possible. The 5-year survival for children diagnosed with HCC is less than 30% and remains a significant therapeutic challenge...
April 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359020/-de-novo-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-pediatric-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#14
Samuel Torres-Landa, Armando Salim Muñoz-Abraham, Brett E Fortune, Ananta Gurung, Jeffrey Pollak, Sukru H Emre, Manuel I Rodriguez-Davalos, Michael L Schilsky
De-novo malignancies carry an incidence ranging between 3%-26% after transplant and account for the second highest cause of post-transplant mortality behind cardiovascular disease. While the majority of de-novo malignancies after transplant usually consist of skin cancers, there has been an increasing rate of solid tumor cancers over the last 15 years. Although, recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is well understood among patients transplanted for HCC, there are increasing reports of de-novo HCC in those transplanted for a non-HCC indication...
December 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357780/crizotinib-induced-erosive-esophagitis-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-neuroblastoma
#15
Nicole Lubcke, Kevin Van Camp
Crizotinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor, approved by the FDA in 2011, for use in anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive, metastatic, non-small cell lung cancer. Crizotinib inhibits oncogenic protein expression and impairs cellular proliferation in tumors with an overexpressed anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene. Currently used most frequently in the adult patient population, pediatric use is becoming more prominent, specifically in disease states exhibiting anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive, metastatic disease, such as neuroblastoma...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356335/pediatric-patient-with-end-stage-kidney-disease-secondary-to-eagle-barrett-syndrome-and-metastatic-unresectable-hepatoblastoma-treated-successfully-with-chemotherapy-and-liver-kidney-transplant
#16
Daniel Ortiz, Avis Harden, Fernando F Corrales-Medina, Gaurav Saigal, Akin Tekin, Jennifer Garcia
HBL is the most common malignant liver neoplasm in children. The etiology of HBL is largely unknown but there are certain syndromes, such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, that have been clearly associated with an increased incidence of this malignancy. EBS, also known as prune belly syndrome, is a congenital anomaly characterized by lax abdominal musculature, bilateral cryptorchidism requiring, in some cases, hemodialysis due to significant kidney and urinary tract dysfunctions. Despite an improvement on the survival rates of patients with advanced-stage HBL, the presence of concomitant end-stage renal disease that occurs in patients with EBS constitutes a therapeutic challenge for the clinician not only due to the use of nephrotoxic chemotherapy but also due to the potential need for multi-organ transplant...
March 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328497/identification-of-theranostic-biomarkers-to-improve-the-stratification-of-patients-with-pediatric-liver-cancer-opportunities-and-challenges
#17
EDITORIAL
Carolina Armengol, Stefano Cairo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300241/incidentally-detected-transfusion-associated-iron-overload-in-3-children-after-cancer-chemotherapy
#18
Dennis John Kuo, Pooja Bhagia
Iron overload is a potential long-term complication among cancer survivors who received transfusions during treatment. Although there are screening guidelines for iron overload in pediatric survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplant, these do not call for screening of other pediatric oncology patients. In our practice we incidentally discovered 3 patients in a population of 168 cancer survivors over the span of 17 years who were treated for cancer without hematopoietic stem cell transplant who had iron overload...
April 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280920/liver-transplantation-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-within-the-milan-criteria-versus-the-university-of-california-san-francisco-criteria-a-comparative-study
#19
Mohamed R Abdelfattah, Hussein El-Siesy, Hadeel Al-Manea, Dieter C Broering
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Currently, liver transplantation (LT) for HCC is the only hope for cure from the tumor and from end-stage liver disease (ESLD). The organ pool shortage in deceased donor LT and the donor-related ethical concerns in living-donor LT necessitate the use of rigorous criteria for LT for HCC. In this respect, two main criteria for LT for HCC were implemented with good outcome, namely, the Milan and the University of California San Francisco criteria...
April 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228658/dna-methylation-landscape-of-hepatoblastomas-reveals-arrest-at-early-stages-of-liver-differentiation-and-cancer-related-alterations
#20
Mariana Maschietto, Tatiane Cristina Rodrigues, André Yoshiaki Kashiwabara, Érica Sara Souza de Araujo, Talita Ferreira Marques Aguiar, Cecilia Maria Lima da Costa, Isabela Werneck da Cunha, Luciana Dos Reis Vasques, Monica Cypriano, Helena Brentani, Silvia Regina Caminada de Toledo, Peter Lees Pearson, Dirce Maria Carraro, Carla Rosenberg, Ana C V Krepischi
Hepatoblastomas are uncommon embryonal liver tumors accounting for approximately 80% of childhood hepatic cancer. We hypothesized that epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, could be relevant to hepatoblastoma onset. The methylomes of eight matched hepatoblastomas and non-tumoral liver tissues were characterized, and data were validated in an independent group (11 hepatoblastomas). In comparison to differentiated livers, hepatoblastomas exhibited a widespread and non-stochastic pattern of global low-level hypomethylation...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
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