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D A Bangasser, H Dong, J Carroll, Z Plona, H Ding, L Rodriguez, C McKennan, J G Csernansky, S H Seeholzer, R J Valentino
Several neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders share stress as a risk factor and are more prevalent in women than in men. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) orchestrates the stress response, and excessive CRF is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of these diseases. We previously found that the CRF1 receptor (CRF1) is sex biased whereby coupling to its GTP-binding protein, Gs, is greater in females, whereas β-arrestin-2 coupling is greater in males. This study used a phosphoproteomic approach in CRF-overexpressing (CRF-OE) mice to test the proof of principle that when CRF is in excess, sex-biased CRF1 coupling translates into divergent cell signaling that is expressed as different brain phosphoprotein profiles...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Rodrigo Fabrizzio Inácio, Renata Gacielle Zanon, Mateus Vidigal de Castro, Henrique Marques de Souza, Marcio Chaim Bajgelman, Liana Verinaud, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
Astrocytes are multifunctional glial cells that actively participate in synaptic plasticity in health and disease. Little is known about molecular interactions between neurons and glial cells that result in synaptic stability or elimination. In this sense, the main histocompatibility complex of class I (MHC I) has been shown to play a role in the synaptic plasticity process during development and after lesion of the CNS. MHC I levels in neurons appear to be influenced by astrocyte secreted molecules, which may generate endoplasmic reticulum stress...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Jie Li, Yanli Zhang, Xianhui Cai, Qingqing Xia, Jingmeng Chen, Yi Liao, Zuguo Liu, Yalin Wu
Effective clearance of all-trans-retinal (atRAL) from retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is important for avoiding its cytotoxicity. However, the metabolism of atRAL in RPE cells is poorly clarified. The present study was designed to analyze metabolic products of atRAL and to compare the cytotoxicity of atRAL versus its derivative all-trans-retinal dimer (atRAL-dimer) in human RPE cells. We found that all-trans-retinol (atROL) and a mixture of atRAL condensation metabolites including atRAL-dimer and A2E were generated after incubating RPE cells with atRAL for 6h, and the amount of atRAL-dimer was significantly higher than that of A2E...
October 14, 2016: Toxicology
Jonas Schaffrath, Mario Schmitz-Buhl, Ali Kemal Gün, Euphrosyne Gouzoulis-Mayfrank
Medical and psychological care of refugees is among the most important current challenges in German health politics. Work with patients from this heterogeneous group who have often faced severe stress before, during and after their migration is currently based on a thin data foundation. Based on introductory information on current knowledge concerning psychiatric morbidity of refugees this article presents the psychiatric care of refugees at LVR Clinics Cologne - a psychiatric specialty hospital situated in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany...
October 17, 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Julio A Massange-Sánchez, Paola A Palmeros-Suárez, Eduardo Espitia-Rangel, Isaac Rodríguez-Arévalo, Lino Sánchez-Segura, Norma A Martínez-Gallardo, Fulgencio Alatorre-Cobos, Axel Tiessen, John P Délano-Frier
Two grain amaranth transcription factor (TF) genes were overexpressed in Arabidopsis plants. The first, coding for a group VII ethylene response factor TF (i.e., AhERF-VII) conferred tolerance to water-deficit stress (WS) in transgenic Arabidopsis without affecting vegetative or reproductive growth. A significantly lower water-loss rate in detached leaves coupled to a reduced stomatal opening in leaves of plants subjected to WS was associated with this trait. WS tolerance was also associated with an increased antioxidant enzyme activity and the accumulation of putative stress-related secondary metabolites...
2016: PloS One
M S Patton, D J Lodge, D A Morilak, M Girotti
Deficits in cognitive flexibility are prominent in stress-related psychiatric disorders, including depression. Ketamine has rapid antidepressant efficacy, but it is unknown if ketamine improves cognitive symptoms. In rats, 2 weeks chronic intermittent cold (CIC) stress impairs reversal learning, a form of cognitive flexibility mediated by the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) that we have used previously to model cognitive dysfunction in depression. We have shown that activating JAK2/STAT3 signaling in the OFC rescued the CIC stress-induced reversal learning deficit...
October 17, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Amy E Lansing, Wendy Y Plante, Audrey N Beck
Despite growing recognition that cumulative adversity (total stressor exposure, including complex trauma), increases the risk for psychopathology and impacts development, assessment strategies lag behind: Adversity-related mental health needs (symptoms, functional impairment, maladaptive coping) are typically assessed in response to only one qualifying Criterion-A traumatic event. This is especially problematic for youth at-risk for health and academic disparities who experience cumulative adversity, including non-qualifying events (separation from caregivers) which may produce more impairing symptomatology...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Namrata Singh, Shubhi Srivastava, Sushma Rathaur, Nandita Singh
The arsenic tolerant bacterial strains Staphylococcus arlettae (NBRIEAG-6), Staphylococcus sp. (NBRIEAG-8) and Brevibacillus sp. (NBRIEAG-9) were tested for their roles in enhancing plant growth and induction of stress-related enzymes in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. NDR-359) plants at two different concentrations, 30 and 15mg/kg of As(V) and As(III), respectively. An experiment was conducted to test the effect of these strains on plant growth promotion and arsenic uptake. We found 30%-40% reduction in total As uptake in bacteria-inoculated plants, with increased plant growth parameters compared to non-inoculated plants...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Anke Hüls, Ursula Krämer, Christian Herder, Karin Fehsel, Christian Luckhaus, Sabine Stolz, Andrea Vierkötter, Tamara Schikowski
BACKGROUND: Long-term air pollution exposure has been associated with chronic inflammation providing a link to the development of chronic health effects. Furthermore, there is evidence that pathways activated by endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress induce airway inflammation and thereby play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of genetic variation of the ER stress pathway on air pollution-induced inflammation...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Research
Robert-Paul Juster, Jennifer J Russell, Daniel Almeida, Martin Picard
Stress-related pathophysiology drives comorbid trajectories that elude precise prediction. Allostatic load algorithms that quantify biological "wear and tear" represent a comprehensive approach to detect multisystemic disease processes of the mind and body. However, the multiple morbidities directly or indirectly related to stress physiology remain enigmatic. Our aim in this article is to propose that biological comorbidities represent discrete pathophysiological processes captured by measuring allostatic load...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Andreas Schneider, Michael Blatzer, Wilfried Posch, Ralf Schubert, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Stanislaw Schmidt, Thomas Lehrnbecher
Natural Killer (NK) cells are active against Aspergillus fumigatus, which in turn is able to impair the host defense. Unfortunately, little is known on the mutual interaction of NK cells and A. fumigatus. We coincubated human NK cells with A. fumigatus hyphae and assessed the gene expression and protein concentration of selected molecules. We found that A. fumigatus up-regulates the gene expression of pro-inflammatory molecules in NK cells, but inhibited the release of these molecules resulting in intracellular accumulation and limited extracellular availability...
October 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Anna Slawinska, John C Hsieh, Carl J Schmidt, Susan J Lamont
Acute heat stress requires immediate adjustment of the stressed individual to sudden changes of ambient temperatures. Chickens are particularly sensitive to heat stress due to development of insufficient physiological mechanisms to mitigate its effects. One of the symptoms of heat stress is endotoxemia that results from release of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the guts. Heat-related cytotoxicity is mitigated by the innate immune system, which is comprised mostly of phagocytic cells such as monocytes and macrophages...
2016: PloS One
Lorenzo Giusti, Erica Mica, Edoardo Bertolini, Anna Maria De Leonardis, Primetta Faccioli, Luigi Cattivelli, Cristina Crosatti
Plant stress response is a complex molecular process based on transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of many stress-related genes. microRNAs are the best-studied class of small RNAs known to play key regulatory roles in plant response to stress, besides being involved in plant development and organogenesis. We analyzed the leaf miRNAome of two durum wheat cultivars (Cappelli and Ofanto) characterized by a contrasting water use efficiency, exposed to heat stress, and mild and severe drought stress...
October 12, 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Weiwei Li, Ming Chen, Erhui Wang, Liqin Hu, Malcolm J Hawkesford, Li Zhong, Zhu Chen, Zhaoshi Xu, Liancheng Li, Yongbin Zhou, Changhong Guo, Youzhi Ma
BACKGROUND: Autophagy is a cellular degradation process that is highly evolutionarily-conserved in yeast, plants, and animals. In plants, autophagy plays important roles in regulating intracellular degradation and recycling of amino acids in response to nutrient starvation, senescence, and other environmental stresses. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) has strong resistance to stresses and has been proposed as an ideal material for use in the study of the physiological mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in plants...
October 12, 2016: BMC Genomics
Rachel S Leisso, Nigel E Gapper, James P Mattheis, Nathanael L Sullivan, Christopher B Watkins, James J Giovannoni, Robert J Schaffer, Jason W Johnston, Ines Hanrahan, Maarten L A T M Hertog, Bart M Nicolaï, David R Rudell
BACKGROUND: 'Honeycrisp' is an apple cultivar that is susceptible to soft scald, a chilling injury expressed as necrotic patches on the peel. Improved understanding of metabolism associated with the disorder would improve our understanding of soft scald and contribute to developing more effective management strategies for apple storage. It was expected that specific gene expression and specific metabolite levels in the peel would be linked with soft scald risk at harvest and/or specific time points during cold storage...
October 12, 2016: BMC Genomics
Hongxiang Sun, Xiuquan He, Cejia Liu, Lingyu Li, Ruoyu Zhou, Tianyun Jin, Su Yue, Da Feng, Jie Gong, Jiawei Sun, Jianbo Ji, Lan Xiang
Oleracein E (OE), a tetrahydroisoquinoline possessing potent anti-oxidant activity, was first isolated from a traditional Chinese medicine, Portulaca oleraea L., and is hypothesized to be a neuroprotectant. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of racemic OE on rotenone-induced toxicity in Parkinson's disease (PD) cell and animal models. Pre-treatment with OE (10 μM, 2 h) decreased LDH release and the apoptosis rate in rotenone (5 μM, 24 h)-treated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Further mechanistic study indicated that OE reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, inhibited ERK1/2 phosphorylation, reduced rotenone-induced up-regulation of the proapoptotic protein Bax, and prevented cytochrome C release and caspase-3 activation...
October 12, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Jennifer Dorts, Elodie Falisse, Emilie Schoofs, Enora Flamion, Patrick Kestemont, Frédéric Silvestre
DNA methylation, a well-studied epigenetic mark, is important for gene regulation in adulthood and for development. Using genetic and epigenetic approaches, the present study aimed at evaluating the effects of heat stress and copper exposure during zebrafish early embryogenesis when patterns of DNA methylation are being established, a process called reprogramming. Embryos were exposed to 325 μg Cu/L from fertilization (<1 h post fertilization - hpf) to 4 hpf at either 26.5 °C or 34 °C, followed by incubation in clean water at 26...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Boyu Yang, Yue Xu, Yaguang Hu, Yiwen Luo, Xi Lu, Ching Kit Tsui, Lin Lu, Xiaoling Liang
Madecassic acid (MA) is an abundant triterpenoid in Centella asiatica (L.) Urban. (Apiaceae) that has been used as a wound-healing, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer agent. Up to now, the effects of MA against oxidative stress remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of MA and its mechanisms on hypoxia-induced human Retinal Microvascular Endothelial Cells (hRMECs). hRMECs were pre-treated with different concentrations of MA (0-50μM) for 30min before being incubated under hypoxia condition (37°C, 5% CO2 and 95% N2)...
October 8, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
R Abend, I Jalon, G Gurevitch, R Sar-El, T Shechner, D S Pine, T Hendler, Y Bar-Haim
Research associates processes of fear conditioning and extinction with treatment of anxiety and stress-related disorders. Manipulation of these processes may therefore be beneficial for such treatment. The current study examines the effects of electrical brain stimulation on fear extinction processes in healthy humans in order to assess its potential relevance for treatment enhancement. Forty-five participants underwent a 3-day fear conditioning and extinction paradigm. Electrical stimulation targeting the medial prefrontal cortex was applied during the extinction-learning phase (Day 2)...
October 11, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Ilaria Forieri, Carsten Sticht, Michael Reichelt, Norbert Gretz, Malcolm J Hawkesford, Mario Malagoli, Markus Wirtz, Ruediger Hell
Deprivation of mineral nutrients causes significant retardation of plant growth. This retardation is associated with nutrient specific and general stress-induced transcriptional responses. In this study we adjusted the external supply of iron, potassium and sulfur to cause the same retardation of shoot growth. Nevertheless, limitation by individual nutrients resulted in specific morphological adaptations and distinct shifts within the root metabolite fingerprint. The metabolic shifts affected key metabolites of primary metabolism and the stress-related phytohormones, jasmonic-, salicylic- and abscisic acid...
October 10, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
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