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Xiaohui Zhang, Miao Zhang, Yanan Su, Zhe Wang, Qiling Zhao, Huaisen Zhu, Zhuang Qian, Jiao Xu, Shu Tang, Di Wu, Ye Lin, Nicole Kemper, Joerg Hartung, Endong Bao
1. This experiment investigated the anti-apoptosis effects and the mechanism of aspirin action in the heat shock response of chicken myocardial cells in vivo, via changes in the heat stress protein Hsp90 and the rate of apoptosis. Broiler chickens were administered aspirin (1 mg/kg body weight) 2 h before exposure to heat stress, and then exposed to 40±1°C for 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 24 h. 2. The induction and consumption of the heat stress factor HSF-1, and reductions of HSF-2 and HSF-3 induced by heat stress led to a delay in Hsp90 expression...
March 20, 2018: British Poultry Science
Geoffrey Littlejohn, Emma Guymer
Fibromyalgia is a high impact chronic pain disorder with a well-defined and robust clinical phenotype. Key features include widespread pain and tenderness, high levels of sleep disturbance, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction and emotional distress. Abnormal processing of pain and other sensory input occurs in the brain, spinal cord and periphery and is related to the processes of central and peripheral sensitization. As such, fibromyalgia is deemed to be one of the central sensitivity syndromes. There is increasing evidence of neurogenically derived inflammatory mechanisms occurring in the peripheral tissues, spinal cord and brain in fibromyalgia...
March 19, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Ling Guan, Jean-Paul Collet, Garey Mazowita, Victoria E Claydon
Transient ischemic attack (TIA) and minor stroke have high risks of recurrence and deterioration into severe ischemic strokes. Risk stratification of TIA and minor stroke is essential for early effective treatment. Traditional tools have only moderate predictive value, likely due to their inclusion of the limited number of stroke risk factors. Our review follows Hans Selye's fundamental work on stress theory and the progressive shift of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) from adaptation to disease when stress becomes chronic...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Yituo Wang, Yuyang Zhu, Pinhong Chen, Feng Yan, Shanshan Chen, Gongjie Li, Xiangjun Hu, Lubin Wang, Zheng Yang
The amygdala, a subcortical structure responsible for fear and vigilance, is central to the stress circuitry. Aberrant amygdala connectivity with the cortical and subcortical regions is found in patients with stress-related disorders, and in healthy subjects following acute stress exposure. However, the extent to which the stress-induced alteration of amygdala functional connectivity correlates with risk-related personality measures remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated the effect of acute stress, induced by aversive movies accompanied by a mild electric shock, on the functional connectivity of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and centromedial amygdala (CMA) in 35 healthy men, and assessed the association between changes in amygdala functional connectivity and individual differences in neuroticism...
March 16, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Allen W Barton, Tianyi Yu, Gene H Brody, Katherine B Ehrlich
From a sample of African American families living in the rural South, this study tested the hypothesis that growing up in poverty is associated with heightened biological stress levels in youth that, in turn, forecast elevations in drug use in young adulthood. Supportive parenting during adolescence was hypothesized to protect youth's biological stress levels from rising in the context of poverty. African American youth and their primary caregivers from 385 families participated in a 14-year prospective study that began when youth were 11 years of age...
March 16, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Ali Akgul, Ayfer Akgul, Mark L Lawrence, Attila Karsi
Edwardsiella ictaluri is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobic rod and the causative agent of enteric septicemia of channel catfish (ESC), which is one of the most prevalent diseases of catfish, causing significant economic losses in the catfish industry. E. ictaluri is resistant to complement system and macrophage killing, which results in rapid systemic septicemia. However, mechanisms of E. ictaluri stress responses under conditions of host environment are not studied well. Therefore, in this work, we report E...
2018: PloS One
Eri Soejima, Tsuyoshi Ohki, Yayoi Kurita, Xiaohong Yuan, Kayo Tanaka, Satomi Kakino, Kento Hara, Hitomi Nakayama, Yuji Tajiri, Kentaro Yamada
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which severe hypoglycemia accelerates vascular complications. Furthermore, we assessed the possible protective effect of ketone bodies against the endothelial cell damage caused by glucose deficiency. METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured at a glucose level of either 0.56 or 5.6 mmol/L with or without 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) supplementation. Cell viability was assessed with a CCK-8 assay and a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay...
2018: PloS One
Dinesh Kumar Verma, Sonam Gupta, Joyshree Biswas, Neeraj Joshi, Abhishek Singh, Parul Gupta, Shubhangini Tiwari, K Sivarama Raju, Swati Chaturvedi, M Wahajuddin, Sarika Singh
Piracetam, a nootropic drug that has been clinically used for decades but remains enigmatic due to no distinct understanding of its mechanism of action. The present study aimed to investigate the role of caspase independent pathway in piracetam mediated neuroprotection. LPS administration caused significant alterations in oxidative stress related parameters like glutathione, glutathione reductase and increased lipid peroxidation. LPS administration also caused augmented expression of inflammatory cytokines and astrocytes activation...
March 15, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
P H M Burger, M Scholz
BACKGROUND: In Germany, currently two out of three medical students are female. Several studies corroborate that medical students show a significantly higher prevalence of stress-related mental disorders than the population in general. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate, if gender has an influence on the distribution of mental stress parameters and learning style among male and female medical students. METHODS: We investigated a total of 758 students of the medical faculty at the University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Germany, using standardized and validated psychological questionnaires on depressive symptoms (BDI-II), burnout (BOSS-II) and quality of life (SF-12)...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Andrew A Bartlett, Richard G Hunter
The brain is responsible for both recognition and adaptation to stressful stimuli. Many molecular mechanisms have been implicated in this response including those governing neuronal plasticity, neurogenesis and, changes gene expression. Far less is known regarding effects of stress on the deep genome. In the hippocampus, stress appears to regulate expression of non-coding elements of the genome as well as the chromatin permissive for their transcription. Specifically, hippocampal retrotransposon (RT) elements are regulated by acute stress via the accumulation of the repressive H3K9me3 mark at RT loci...
March 15, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Sebastian Overmans, Mikaela Nordborg, Rubén Díaz-Rúa, Diane L Brinkman, Andrew P Negri, Susana Agustí
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic carbons (PAHs) poses a growing risk to coral reefs due to increasing shipping and petroleum extraction in tropical waters. Damaging effects of specific PAHs can be further enhanced by the presence of ultraviolet radiation, known as phototoxicity. We tested phototoxic effects of the PAHs anthracene and phenanthrene on larvae of the scleractinian coral Acropora tenuis in the presence and absence of UVA (320-400 nm). Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme was reduced by anthracene while phenanthrene and UVA exposure did not have any effect...
March 9, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Sarah Kim, Daphne Foong, Mark S Cooper, Markus J Seibel, Hong Zhou
Accurate measurement of circulating glucocorticoid concentrations in rodents is often hampered by the stress-related activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during animal handling. The present study aims to identify methods of blood collection associated with minimal stress and thus artificial increases in plasma glucocorticoid levels. Using two strains of mice, we evaluated common laboratory methods of non-terminal (tail blood sampling with or without restraint; retro-orbital puncture) and terminal blood collection (cardiac puncture) and their immediate and prolonged effect on plasma corticosterone levels...
March 13, 2018: Steroids
Rachel A Hoopsick, D Lynn Homish, Paul T Bartone, Gregory G Homish
Background: Much research has focused on stress related to deployments; however, a substantial proportion of soldiers never deploy. In a study of 1.3 million veterans, suicide risk was higher among veterans who had never deployed. Thus, not being deployed may have an impact on soldiers' well-being; however, no measures exist to assess emotions regarding non-deployment. We aimed to develop and test an original measure of non-deployment emotions. Methods: We examined the Non-Deployment Emotions (NDE) questionnaire, a novel four-item measure of guilt, unit value, unit camaraderie, and unit connectedness in a sample of never-deployed male and female US Army Reserve/National Guard (USAR/NG) soldiers (N = 174)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Shengye Liu, Long Zhou, Liyu Yang, Shuai Mu, Tao Fang, Qin Fu
Background: Prolonged and over-dosed administration of glucocorticoids results in more bone remodeling, leading to glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, which is primarily due to dysfunction and apoptosis of osteoblasts. The present study investigated the therapeutic effect and molecular mechanism of gastrodin, a natural bioactive compound isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal agent Gastrodia elata, on osteoblastic cells in vivo and in vitro . Materials and Methods: The anti-dexamethasone (DEX) effects of gastrodin on primary osteoblasts were measured by cell viability, flow cytometry, and western blot analysis in vitro , and also extensively examined in a rat model in vivo ...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Jaime Ibarrola, Rafael Sádaba, Amaia Garcia-Peña, Vanessa Arrieta, Ernesto Martinez-Martinez, Virginia Alvarez, Amaya Fernández-Celis, Alicia Gainza, Enrique Santamaría, Joaquin Fernández-Irigoyen, Victoria Cachofeiro, Renaud Fay, Patrick Rossignol, Natalia López-Andrés
AIMS: Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside-binding lectin involved in cardiac inflammation and fibrosis, could regulate oxidative stress, although the mechanisms have not been elucidated. We herein investigated the changes in oxidative stress-related mediators induced by Gal-3 in human cardiac fibroblasts and in pathological animal and human models of cardiac diseases. RESULTS: Using quantitative proteomics and immunodetection approaches, we have identified that Gal-3 down-regulated fumarate hydratase (FH) in human cardiac fibroblasts...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Qifei Wang, Guangzhen Wu, Xiangyu Che, Quanlin Li, Zhiwei Zhang, Qizhen Tang
Previous studies have shown sorafenib to function as a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor in different tumors. However, whether sorafenib improves renal cell carcinoma (RCC) through activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) has never been explored. In the current study, we showed that sorafenib could suppress RCC cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, sorafenib is demonstrated to enhance the mRNA and protein levels of ATF4. Meanwhile, overexpression of ATF4 was demonstrated to induce ACHN cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis...
March 5, 2018: Die Pharmazie
Jin Ah Cha, Hyo-Sook Song, Beomku Kang, Moon Nyeo Park, Kyoung Sun Park, Sung-Hoon Kim, Bum-Sang Shim, Bonglee Kim
Though Cnidium officinale Makino (COM) was known to have anti-angiogenic, anti-oxidant, neuroprotective, and anti-cancer effects, the underlying anticancer mechanism of COM using endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and miRNA remained unclear until now. Thus, in the current study, the inhibitory mechanism of COM in lymphoma and multiple myeloma (MM) cells was elucidated. COM exerted cytotoxicity in U937 and U266 but not Raw264.7 cells. COM treatment increased the expression of ER stress-related proteins such as p-protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (p-PERK), p-eukaryotic initiation factor (p-eIF2α), and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Youssef Rouphael, Giampaolo Raimondi, Luigi Lucini, Petronia Carillo, Marios C Kyriacou, Giuseppe Colla, Valerio Cirillo, Antonio Pannico, Christophe El-Nakhel, Stefania De Pascale
Interest in the role of small bioactive molecules (< 500 Da) in plants is on the rise, compelled by plant scientists' attempt to unravel their mode of action implicated in stimulating growth and enhancing tolerance to environmental stressors. The current study aimed at elucidating the morphological, physiological and metabolomic changes occurring in greenhouse tomato (cv. Seny) treated with omeprazole (OMP), a benzimidazole inhibitor of animal proton pumps. The OMP was applied at three rates (0, 10, or 100 μM) as substrate drench for tomato plants grown under nonsaline (control) or saline conditions sustained by nutrient solutions of 1 or 75 mM NaCl, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Daniëlle Krijgsman, Marianne Hokland, Peter J K Kuppen
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of CD1d-restricted T cells at the interface between the innate and adaptive immune system. NKT cells can be subdivided into functional subsets that respond rapidly to a wide variety of glycolipids and stress-related proteins using T- or natural killer (NK) cell-like effector mechanisms. Because of their major modulating effects on immune responses via secretion of cytokines, NKT cells are also considered important players in tumor immunosurveillance. During early tumor development, T helper (TH )1-like NKT cell subsets have the potential to rapidly stimulate tumor-specific T cells and effector NK cells that can eliminate tumor cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Tadashige Nozaki, Yuka Sasaki, Itsuko Fukuda, Mayu Isumi, Keitaro Nakamoto, Takae Onodera, Mitsuko Masutani
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 1 (Parp1) has pleiotropic and disparate functions in multiple cellular signaling pathways through post-translational protein modification. It contributes to the regulation of various cellular processes, including DNA damage repair, cell death, and cell differentiation, genetically or epigenetically. Meanwhile, the functions of Parp1 in intercellular signaling remain to be established. To examine the functions of Parp1 in intercellular signaling, we examined microRNA (miRNA) regulation in exosomes derived from Parp1-deficient (Parp1-/- ) embryonic stem (ES) cells...
March 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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