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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793195/alcohol-and-drugs-use-among-drivers-injured-in-road-accidents-in-campania-italy-a-8-years-retrospective-analysis
#1
Anna Carfora, Carlo Pietro Campobasso, Paola Cassandro, Raffaella Petrella, Renata Borriello
A recent update of the Italian Road Traffic Law (RTL 41/2016), established severe penal sanctions when drivers, driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) or drugs (DUID), are involved in road accident that results in death or injuries. A study was carried out to assess the trends of consumption of alcohol, illicit drugs or pharmaceutical among injured drivers suspected for DUI or DUID from 2009 to 2016 in the region of Campania (Italy). Confirmation toxicological analyses were performed on 780 blood samples and 1017 urine samples collected from 1797 injured drivers...
May 9, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793176/non-ldl-dyslipidemia-is-prevalent-in-the-young-and-determined-by-lifestyle-factors-and-age-the-lifelines-cohort
#2
Jeroen K de Vries, Jan W Balder, Michelle J Pena, Petra Denig, Andries J Smit
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-LDL dyslipidemia (NLD) confers cardiovascular risk, and prevalence rates appear to be high in elderly populations. Small cohorts have identified several lifestyle, anthropometric, and medical factors associated with NLD. We aimed to assess sex- and age-specific prevalence of NLD in a contemporary population cohort (n = 167 729), and to identify independent determinants of NLD, focusing on lifestyle, anthropometric, and medical factors. METHODS: The prevalence of NLD was assessed per 10-year age intervals in adults without cardiovascular disease not using lipid-modifying drugs from the Dutch LifeLines cohort...
May 21, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793164/childhood-socioeconomic-status-and-longitudinal-patterns-of-alcohol-problems-variation-across-etiological-pathways-in-genetic-risk
#3
Peter B Barr, Judy Silberg, Danielle M Dick, Hermine H Maes
Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is an important aspect of early life environment associated with later life health/health behaviors, including alcohol misuse. However, alcohol misuse is modestly heritable and involves differing etiological pathways. Externalizing disorders show significant genetic overlap with substance use, suggesting an impulsivity pathway to alcohol misuse. Alcohol misuse also overlaps with internalizing disorders, suggesting alcohol is used to cope. These differing pathways could lead to different patterns over time and/or differential susceptibility to environmental conditions, such as childhood SES...
May 14, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793067/performance-and-methane-fermentation-characteristics-of-a-pilot-scale-anaerobic-membrane-bioreactor-anmbr-for-treating-pharmaceutical-wastewater-containing-m-cresol-mc-and-iso-propyl-alcohol-ipa
#4
Zhaobo Chen, Xue Li, Dongxue Hu, Yubo Cui, Fuguang Gu, Fuquan Jia, Tingting Xiao, Haiyan Su, Jiao Xu, Haixu Wang, Pan Wu, Ying Zhang, Na Jiang
In this study, a pilot scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was operated for 80 days to treat pharmaceutical wastewater containing m-cresol (MC) and iso-propyl alcohol (IPA). The aim of the study is to investigate the performance and methane fermentation characteristics of AnMBR at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) (48, 36, 24, 18 and 12 h). The average total removal efficiencies of MC and IPA were 95%, 96% during the 80 days, which demonstrated that the AnMBR system performed well in the MC and IPA removal...
May 11, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792970/investigation-of-the-efficacy-of-alcohol-based-solutions-on-adenovirus-serotypes-8-19-and-37-the-common-cause-of-epidemic-keratoconjunctivitis-after-an-adenovirus-outbreak-occurred-in-the-hospital
#5
Hüseyin Uzuner, Aynur Karadenizli, Doğanhan Kadir Er, Agim Osmani
BACKGROUND: Hand antiseptics are of great importance in the prevention of nosocomial infections. Due to the frequent occurrence of adenoviral epidemic keratoconjunctivitis outbreaks in our hospital, we needed to detect the efficiency of alcohol-based-solutions on adenovirus. AIM: To investigate the efficacy of alcohol-based-solutions, that commonly found in hand-antiseptics against adenovirus 8, 19 and 37. METHODS: We investigated the efficacy of ethanol, isopropanol, chlorhexidine-digluconate, n-butanol and different combinations of these antiseptics on adenovirus serotypes that typically cause to epidemic keratoconjunctivitis...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792961/composite-films-of-regenerate-cellulose-with-chitosan-and-polyvinyl-alcohol-evaluation-of-water-adsorption-mechanical-and-optical-properties
#6
Patricia Cazón, Manuel Vázquez, Gonzalo Velazquez
The aim of this study was to develop composite films from cellulose, chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol to obtain environmentally friendly materials. Toughness, burst strength, distance to burst and water adsorption properties were measured and analysed as a function of cellulose (3-5%), chitosan (0-1%) and polyvinyl alcohol (0-4%) contents. Polynomial models were obtained. Light-barrier properties, transparency, morphology, structural and thermal analyses were assessed. Results showed that chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol enhanced the mechanical properties of cellulose-based films...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792946/investigation-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-induced-drug-metabolism-by-comparative-global-toxicoproteomics
#7
Ann-Yae Na, Jung Jae Jo, Ok Kwang Kwon, Riya Shrestha, Piljoung Cho, Kyu Min Kim, Sung Hwan Ki, Tae Hee Lee, Tae Won Jeon, Tae Cheon Jeong, Sangkyu Lee
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes conditions such as steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and ultimately hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the pathology of NAFLD is well-established, NAFLD-induced drug metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) in the liver has remained largely unexplored. Therefore, we investigated NAFLD-induced drug metabolism mediated by CYP by quantitative toxicoproteomics analysis. After administration of a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet to induce development of NAFLD, tandem mass tags-based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis was conducted to investigate the dynamics of hepatic proteins...
May 21, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792896/exploring-new-treatment-paradigms-for-alcoholic-hepatitis-by-extrapolating-from-nash-and-cholestasis
#8
EDITORIAL
Thoetchai Bee Peeraphatdit, Douglas A Simonetto, Vijay H Shah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792720/-experimental-processing-of-corrosion-casts-of-large-animal-organs
#9
R Pálek, V Liška, L Eberlová, H Mírka, M Svoboda, S Haviar, M Emingr, O Brzoň, P Mik, V Třeška
INTRODUCTION: Corrosion casts (CCs) are used for the visualization and assessment of hollow structures. CCs with filled capillaries enable (with the help of imaging methods) to obtain data for mathematical organ perfusion modelling. As the processing is more difficult in case of organs with greater volume of the vasculature, mainly organs from small animals have been cast up to now. The aim of this study was to optimize the protocol of corrosion casting of different organs of pig. Porcine organs are relatively easily accessible and frequently used in experimental medicine...
2018: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792584/neonatal-intake-of-oleanolic-acid-attenuates-the-subsequent-development-of-high-fructose-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-rats
#10
T T Nyakudya, E Mukwevho, P Nkomozepi, K H Erlwanger
Dietary manipulations during the early postnatal period are associated with the development of metabolic disorders including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or long-term protection against metabolic dysfunction. We investigated the potential hepatoprotective effects of neonatal administration of oleanolic acid (OA), a phytochemical, on the subsequent development in adulthood, of dietary fructose-induced NAFLD. Male and female suckling rats (n=112) were gavaged with; distilled water (DW), OA (60 mg/kg), high fructose solution (HF; 20% w/v) and OA+HF (OAHF) for 7 days...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792477/psychological-adjustment-in-spanish-young-adult-domestic-adoptees-mental-health-and-licit-substance-consumption
#11
Yolanda Sánchez-Sandoval, Sandra Melero
Although adoptive families have been shown to provide a protective context for human development, some adopted children and adolescents are at increased risk for psychological adjustment problems. On the other hand, little is known about psychological adjustment of young adult adoptees. The aim of this study is to analyze the mental health and legal substance consumption (tobacco and alcohol) of young adults (n = 134) who were domestically adopted by Spanish families. Young adults showed significantly worse scores on the Symptom Check-List-90-R (Derogatis, 1975) and also more substance use than did the Spanish general population, but fewer difficulties than did the clinical population...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792338/molecular-mechanism-for-the-influence-of-gender-dimorphism-on-alcoholic-liver-injury-in-mice
#12
S-Q Li, P Wang, D-M Wang, H-J Lu, R-F Li, L-X Duan, S Zhu, S-L Wang, Y-Y Zhang, Y-L Wang
It is known that women develop alcoholic liver injury more rapidly and have a lower alcohol toxic threshold than men. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The precise mechanism responsible for the sex difference needs to be determined. Female and male mice were given ethanol by intragastric infusion every day for 4 weeks. The pathological changes were detected by hematoxylin-eosin, Sirius red, oil red O, periodic acid-Schiff, and Hochest33258 staining in the liver of female and male mice...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792202/the-effects-of-a-lifestyle-focused-text-messaging-intervention-on-adherence-to-dietary-guideline-recommendations-in-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease-an-analysis-of-the-text-me-study
#13
Karla Santo, Karice Hyun, Laura de Keizer, Aravinda Thiagalingam, Graham S Hillis, John Chalmers, Julie Redfern, Clara K Chow
BACKGROUND: A healthy diet is an important component of secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). The TEXT ME study was a randomised clinical trial of people with CHD that were randomised into standard care or a text-message programme in addition to standard care. This analysis aimed to: 1) assess the effects of the intervention onadherence to the dietary guideline recommendations; 2) assess the consistency of effect across sub-groups; and 3) assess whether adherence to the dietary guideline recommendations mediated the improvements in objective clinical outcomes...
May 23, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792112/analytical-and-computational-study-of-an-individual-based-network-model-for-the-spread-of-heavy-drinking
#14
Donald A French, Marisa Eisenberg, Tony Nance, Zeynep Teymuroglu
Two simple models for the spread of heavy drinking among a network of individuals are re-introduced and analysed. We provide theorems on the spread of alcohol abuse for these models in cases involving simple connection schemes. Indicators for this spread that resemble the [Formula: see text] used in disease assessment are suggested and studied. We further provide computations with our models on general application networks and begin to study the reliability of the spread indicators.
December 2018: Journal of Biological Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792024/metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-in-alcohol-use-disorder-physiology-plasticity-and-promising-pharmacotherapies
#15
Max E Joffe, Samuel W Centanni, Anel A Jaramillo, Danny G Winder, P Jeffrey Conn
Developing efficacious treatments for alcohol use disorder (AUD) has proven difficult. The insidious nature of the disease necessitates a deep understanding of its underlying biology as well as innovative approaches to ameliorate ethanol-related pathophysiology. Excessive ethanol-seeking and relapse are generated by long-term changes to membrane properties, synaptic physiology, and plasticity throughout the limbic system and associated brain structures. Each of these factors can be modulated by metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, a diverse set of G protein-coupled receptors highly expressed throughout the central nervous system...
May 23, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792019/alcohol-use-disorders-cardiomyopathy-and-heart-transplantation-a-new-management
#16
Gianni Testino, Luigi C Bottaro, Patrizia Balbinot, Silvia Leone, Rinaldo Pellicano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791874/fabrication-of-electrospun-poly-vinyl-alcohol-dextran-nanofibers-via-emulsion-process-as-drug-delivery-system-kinetics-and-in-vitro-release-study
#17
A Meera Moydeen, M Syed Ali Padusha, Eman F Aboelfetoh, Salem S Al-Deyab, Mohamed H El-Newehy
A green method was used for the fabrication of coaxial nanofibers for use in biomedical applications. Coaxial nanofiber mats were fabricated by emulsion electrospinning from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and Dextran sulfate (Dex) blends loaded with ciprofloxacin (Cipro) as a model drug dissolved in edible oil. The ratio of the PVA/Dex mixture was optimized and nanofibers were stabilized against disintegration in water by thermal treatment at 120 °C. The morphology of the prepared nanofibers was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the structure of the core-shell nanofibers was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy...
May 20, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791805/identifying-the-nonradical-mechanism-in-the-peroxymonosulfate-activation-process-singlet-oxygenation-versus-mediated-electron-transfer
#18
Eun-Tae Yun, Jeong Hoon Lee, Jaesung Kim, Hee-Deung Park, Jaesang Lee
Select persulfate activation processes were demonstrated to initiate oxidation not reliant on sulfate radicals, though the underlying mechanism has yet to be identified. This study explored singlet oxygenation and mediated electron transfer as plausible nonradical mechanisms for organic degradation by carbon nanotube (CNT)-activated peroxymonosulfate (PMS). The degradation of furfuryl alcohol (FFA) as a singlet oxygen (1O2) indicator and the kinetic retardation of FFA oxidation in the presence of L-histidine and azide as 1O2 quenchers apparently supported a role of 1O2 in the CNT/PMS system...
May 23, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791710/postoperative-pain-and-analgesia-is-there-a-genetic-basis-to-the-opioid-crisis
#19
Randa K Elmallah, Prem N Ramkumar, Anton Khlopas, Rathika R Ramkumar, Morad Chughtai, Nipun Sodhi, Assem A Sultan, Michael A Mont
BACKGROUND: Multiple factors have been implicated in determining why certain patients have increased postoperative pain, with the potential to develop chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to: 1) identify and describe genes that affect postoperative pain perception and control; 2) address modifiable risk factors that result in epigenetic altered responses to pain; and 3) characterize differences in pain sensitivity and thresholds between opioid-naïve and opioid-dependent patients...
June 1, 2018: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791679/school-health-promotion-and-use-of-drugs-among-students-in-southern-brazil
#20
Fernanda Marques Paz, Vanessa Andina Teixeira, Raquel Oliveira Pinto, Cristine Scattolin Andersen, Larissa Prado Fontoura, Luís César de Castro, Marcos Pascoal Pattussi, Rogério Lessa Horta
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between the health promotion conditions in schools and the consumption of alcohol and other drugs by students. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample of 3,464 students aged 12 to 17 from all schools of the cities of Lajeado and Sapiranga, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and 53 managers from the same schools; the data was collected in 2012. Reports of the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs in 2012 were used as outcomes, and the health promotion score in the school environment was used as the exposure of interest...
2018: Revista de Saúde Pública
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