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pediatric experimental study

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079793/oral-health-related-quality-of-life-in-pediatric-patients-under-general-anesthesia-a-prospective-study
#1
Lanlan Li, Hongwei Wang, Xueping Han
Our goal was to evaluate how dental treatments under general anesthesia (GA) affect the quality of life by a prospective pair-matched design. Pediatric patients, who had received dental treatments under GA, were enrolled and were asked to complete the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) before the treatment and 1 month after the treatment. To shield the observed impacts, a pair-matched control group was performed. Patients in the control group were also required to complete the ECOHIS at these different points in time...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072667/does-the-use-of-a-vein-visualization-device-for-peripheral-venous-catheter-placement-increase-success-rate-in-pediatric-patients
#2
Duygu Demir, Sevil Inal
BACKGROUND: Peripheral intravenous catheterization is one of the most frequently encountered medical procedures for hospitalized children and is one that can often be painful. Pediatric nurses should therefore use techniques that increase the success rate or shorten the duration of peripheral intravenous catheterization. OBJECTIVES: This study was performed with the objective of determining the effect of using a vein visualization device on the success of the procedure...
January 9, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070685/porcine-spine-finite-element-model-a-complementary-tool-to-experimental-scoliosis-fusionless-instrumentation
#3
Bahe Hachem, Carl-Eric Aubin, Stefan Parent
PURPOSE: Developing fusionless devices to treat pediatric scoliosis necessitates lengthy and expensive animal trials. The objective was to develop and validate a porcine spine numerical model as an alternative platform to assess fusionless devices. METHODS: A parametric finite element model (FEM) of an osseoligamentous porcine spine and rib cage, including the epiphyseal growth plates, was developed. A follower-type load replicated physiological and gravitational loads...
January 9, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048636/tu-fg-brb-04-a-new-optimization-method-for-pre-treatment-patient-specific-stopping-power-by-combining-proton-radiography-and-x-ray-ct
#4
C Collins-Fekete, R Schulte, L Beaulieu, J Seco
PURPOSE: The relative stopping power (RSP) uncertainty is the largest contributor to the range uncertainty in proton therapy. The purpose of this work is to develop a robust and systematic method that yields accurate patient specific RSPs by combining pre-treatment X-ray CT and daily proton radiography. METHODS: The method is formulated as a penalized least squares optimization (PLSO) problem min(|Ax-B|). The matrix A represents the cumulative path-length crossed in each material computed by calculating proton trajectories through the X-ray CT...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048468/su-d-209-06-study-on-the-dose-conversion-coefficients-in-pediatric-radiography-with-the-development-of-children-voxel-phantoms
#5
Q Liu, W Zhuo, H Liu, Y Liu, T Chen
PURPOSE: Conversion coefficients of organ dose normalized to entrance skin dose (ESD) are widely used to evaluate the organ doses directly using ESD without time-consuming dose measurement, this work aims to investigate the dose conversion coefficients in pediatric chest and abdomen radiography with the development of 5 years and 10 years old children voxel phantoms. METHODS: After segmentation of organs and tissues from CT slice images of ATOM tissue-equivalent phantoms, a 5-year-old and a 10-year-old children computational voxel phantoms were developed for Monte Carlo simulation...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047857/su-c-207a-01-a-novel-maximum-likelihood-method-for-high-resolution-proton-radiography-proton-ct
#6
C Collins-Fekete, R Schulte, L Beaulieu, J Seco
PURPOSE: Multiple Coulomb scattering is the largest contributor to blurring in proton imaging. Here we tested a maximum likelihood least squares estimator (MLLSE) to improve the spatial resolution of proton radiography (pRad) and proton computed tomography (pCT). METHODS: The object is discretized into voxels and the average relative stopping power through voxel columns defined from the source to the detector pixels is optimized such that it maximizes the likelihood of the proton energy loss...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035989/neuroblastoma-a-paradigm-for-big-data-science-in-pediatric-oncology
#7
REVIEW
Brittany M Salazar, Emily A Balczewski, Choong Yong Ung, Shizhen Zhu
Pediatric cancers rarely exhibit recurrent mutational events when compared to most adult cancers. This poses a challenge in understanding how cancers initiate, progress, and metastasize in early childhood. Also, due to limited detected driver mutations, it is difficult to benchmark key genes for drug development. In this review, we use neuroblastoma, a pediatric solid tumor of neural crest origin, as a paradigm for exploring "big data" applications in pediatric oncology. Computational strategies derived from big data science-network- and machine learning-based modeling and drug repositioning-hold the promise of shedding new light on the molecular mechanisms driving neuroblastoma pathogenesis and identifying potential therapeutics to combat this devastating disease...
December 27, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002138/the-effectiveness-of-health-education-on-maternal-anxiety-circumcision-knowledge-and-nursing-hours-a-quasi-experimental-study
#8
Shu-Fang Chang, Chich-Hsiu Hung, Yu-Yun Hsu, Yi Liu, Tsu-Nai Wang
BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown that providing health education before surgery may significantly increase health knowledge and decrease anxiety in both patients and their family members. However, few studies have compared the effects on pediatric outpatient surgery outcomes of different health education instruction modes. PURPOSE: This study compares the effects of two health education delivery modes on maternal knowledge and anxiety, the number of unexpected early hospital follow-up visits, and the time spent by nurses on health education...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998702/provider-influences-on-sperm-banking-outcomes-among-adolescent-males-newly-diagnosed-with-cancer
#9
James L Klosky, L Elizabeth Anderson, Kathryn M Russell, Lu Huang, Hui Zhang, Leslie R Schover, Jessica L Simmons, William H Kutteh
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine provider communication and sociodemographic factors which associate with sperm banking outcomes in at-risk adolescents newly diagnosed with cancer. METHODS: A prospective single-group quasi-experimental study design was used to test the contributions of provider factors on sperm banking outcomes. Medical providers (N = 52, 86.5% oncologists) and 99 of their at-risk adolescent patients from eight leading pediatric oncology centers in North America completed questionnaires querying provider factors and patient sperm banking outcomes...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996372/laparoscopic-pediatric-inguinal-hernia-repair-a-pilot-study-in-a-novel-guinea-pig-animal-model
#10
Maria Carmen Mora, Katharine R Bittner, Kaitlyn E Wong, Kevin P Moriarty, David B Tashjian, Michael V Tirabassi
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare different techniques for pediatric laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. We hypothesize that the amount of dissection performed at the internal ring, with or without division of the peritoneum, will impact healing and thus long-term success of the repair. METHODS: Following the Institution's Animal Care and Use Committee approval (708024-4), 20 Hartley guinea pigs underwent laparoscopic repair of their natural open internal rings...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995041/radiation-dose-reduction-based-on-cnr-index-with-low-tube-voltage-scan-for-pediatric-ct-scan-experimental-study-using-anthropomorphic-phantoms
#11
Takanori Masuda, Yoshinori Funama, Masao Kiguchi, Naoyuki Imada, Takayuki Oku, Tomoyasu Sato, Kazuo Awai
BACKGROUND: To figure out the relationship between image noise and contrast noise ratio (CNR) at different tube voltages, using anthropomorphic new-born and 1-year-old phantoms, and to discuss the feasibility of radiation dose reduction, based on the obtained CNR index from image noise. We performed helical scans of the anthropomorphic new-born and 1-year-old phantoms. The CT numbers of the simulated aorta and image noise of the simulated mediastinum were measured; then CNR was calculated on 80, 100, and 120-kVp images reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and iterative reconstruction (IR)...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993924/limited-effectiveness-of-a-skills-and-drills-intervention-to-improve-emergency-obstetric-and-newborn-care-in-karnataka-india-a-proof-of-concept-study
#12
Beena Varghese, Jayanna Krishnamurthy, Blaze Correia, Ruchika Panigrahi, Maryann Washington, Vinotha Ponnuswamy, Prem Mony
OBJECTIVE: The majority of the maternal and perinatal deaths are preventable through improved emergency obstetric and newborn care at facilities. However, the quality of such care in India has significant gaps in terms of provider skills and in their preparedness to handle emergencies. We tested the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a "skills and drills" intervention, implemented between July 2013 and September 2014, to improve emergency obstetric and newborn care in the state of Karnataka, India...
December 23, 2016: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992027/music-listening-for-anxiety-relief-in-children-in-the-preoperative-period-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#13
Mariana André Honorato Franzoi, Cristina Bretas Goulart, Elizabete Oliveira Lara, Gisele Martins
Objective: to investigate the effects of music listening, for 15 minutes, on the preoperative anxiety levels in children undergoing elective surgery in comparison with conventional pediatric surgical care. Method: randomized controlled clinical trial pilot study with 52 children in the preoperative period, aged 3 to 12 years, undergoing elective surgery and randomly allocated in the experimental group (n = 26) and control group (n = 26). Anxiety was assessed in both groups by the application of the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale and measurement of the physiological variables, upon arrival and 15 minutes after the first measurement...
December 19, 2016: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986195/interchangeability-between-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Agustín Ciapponi, Alison Lee, Ariel Bardach, Demián Glujovsky, Lucila Rey-Ares, María Luisa Cafferata, Pilar Valanzasca, Sebastián García Martí
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, cost-effectiveness, immunogenicity, and safety related to the interchangeability between pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) and vaccination schedules in pediatric population. METHODS: Systematic searches were conducted in December 2010 and April 2015 for economic evaluations in MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Web sites and databases from medical societies, experts, and associations related to the topic, proceedings or congressional annals, and doctoral theses were also searched...
December 2016: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981468/the-association-between-hospital-capacity-strain-and-inpatient-outcomes-in-highly-developed-countries-a-systematic-review
#15
Carl O Eriksson, Ryan C Stoner, Karen B Eden, Craig D Newgard, Jeanne-Marie Guise
BACKGROUND: Increases in patient needs can strain hospital resources, which may worsen care quality and outcomes. This systematic literature review sought to understand whether hospital capacity strain is associated with worse health outcomes for hospitalized patients and to evaluate benefits and harms of health system interventions to improve care quality during times of hospital capacity strain. METHODS: Parallel searches were conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, and reference lists from 1999-2015...
December 15, 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976409/oral-drug-absorption-in-pediatrics-the-intestinal-wall-its-developmental-changes-and-current-tools-for-predictions
#16
REVIEW
Jean-Marie Nicolas, François Bouzom, Hugues Chanteux, Anna-Lena Ungell
The dissolution, intestinal absorption and presystemic metabolism of a drug depend on its physicochemical characteristics but also on numerous physiological (e.g. gastrointestinal pH, volume, transit time, morphology) and biochemical factors (e.g. luminal enzymes and flora, intestinal wall enzymes and transporters). Over the last decade, evidence has accumulated indicating that these factors may differ in children and adults resulting in age-related changes in drug exposure and drug response. Thus, drug dosage may require adjustment for the pediatric population to ensure the desired therapeutic outcome and to avoid side-effects...
December 15, 2016: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974224/social-emotional-development-of-toddlers-randomized-controlled-trial-of-an-office-based-intervention
#17
Donna Hallas, Mary Koslap-Petraco, Jason Fletcher
PURPOSE: During the toddler years, temper tantrums and impulsive behaviors are the norm. These behaviors can frustrate even the most experienced mothers. DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective, double blind, randomized controlled trial using pre-test/post-test experimental design was used to examine the effectiveness of an office-based educational program to improve maternal confidence and the social-emotional development of toddlers. The Toddler Care Questionnaire (TCQ) was administered to all mothers as a pre and post intervention test...
December 11, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966275/unstructured-play-for-anxiety-in-pediatric-inpatient-care
#18
Nabeel Al-Yateem, Rachel C Rossiter
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of unstructured play activities on the anxiety levels of hospitalized children. METHODS: A nonequivalent control group pretest posttest design was employed for this study. The sample included children (N = 165) ages 4-7 years admitted to a large pediatric referral center in the United Arab Emirates. The control group (n = 84) received usual care, while the experimental group (n = 81) engaged in age-appropriate unstructured play activities using disposable games and toys...
December 14, 2016: Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing: JSPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955736/fertility-considerations-and-the-pediatric-oncology-patient
#19
Raffoul Lara, Capito Carmen, Sarnacki Sabine
Recent years have witnessed marked improvement in cytotoxic treatments with a parallel increase in patient survival. Despite efforts done to minimize long-term side effects of these treatment regimens, it is estimated that 40% of survivors of pediatric cancer will suffer from those. Some will be mild whereas others such as impaired fertility will be a heavy load on parents׳ expectations and patient׳s quality of life. Gonadal damage and severe loss of function is not a rare condition among children cured for cancer...
October 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939878/components-of-interventions-that-improve-transitions-to-adult-care-for-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Alan T Schultz, Arlene Smaldone
Adolescents with type 1 diabetes struggle with glycemic control with decline further exacerbated by transfer from pediatric to adult care. The purpose of this systematic review/meta-analysis was to examine which components of transition programs are effective in improving outcomes following transfer. We searched six databases for studies that assessed the efficacy of a transition program on diabetes outcomes. Studies reporting hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or its change for the intervention versus control group pretransition and posttransition were pooled using a random effects meta-analysis model...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
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