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pediatric experimental study

Stacy M Stellflug, Nancy K Lowe
PURPOSE: Rural health care providers (HCPs) care for millions of Americans despite challenges. Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) provides rural HCPs training in assessment and interventions for critically ill/injured pediatric patients (American Heart Association, 2015). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of integration of high fidelity simulators into PALS courses in a rural setting. DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were randomized by course to control or experimental PALS conditions where the control group received PALS with low fidelity static manikins (LFM) and the experimental group received PALS with high-fidelity simulators (HFS)...
March 2018: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
J J Garcia-Penas
INTRODUCTION: Most individuals with epilepsy will respond to pharmacologic treatment; however, approximately 20-30% will develop medically refractory epilepsy. Cognitive side effects of antiepileptic drugs are common and can negatively affect tolerability, compliance, and long-term retention of the treatment. Ketogenic diet is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for these children with refractory epilepsy without any negative effect on cognition or behavior. AIM: To review the current state of experimental and clinical data concerning the neuroprotective and cognitive effects of the ketogenic diet in both humans and animals...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Nitya Bakshi, Ines Lukombo, Inna Belfer, Lakshmanan Krishnamurti
Introduction: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder characterized by abnormally shaped sickle cells. The hallmark of this disease is intermittent, painful vaso-occlusive episodes (VOE), but a subset of individuals with SCD experience chronic pain. The mechanism of transition to chronic pain is not well understood in SCD, but there is evidence of altered pain processing in individuals with SCD. The impact of VOE on pain sensitivity is not established. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility and tolerability of quantitative sensory testing (QST) in SCD following a VOE to better understand the contribution of VOE to the development of chronic pain...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Martin Stanulla, Elif Dagdan, Marketa Zaliova, Anja Möricke, Chiara Palmi, Giovanni Cazzaniga, Cornelia Eckert, Geertruy Te Kronnie, Jean-Pierre Bourquin, Beat Bornhauser, Rolf Koehler, Claus R Bartram, Wolf-Dieter Ludwig, Kirsten Bleckmann, Stefanie Groeneveld-Krentz, Denis Schewe, Stefanie V Junk, Laura Hinze, Norman Klein, Christian P Kratz, Andrea Biondi, Arndt Borkhardt, Andreas Kulozik, Martina U Muckenthaler, Giuseppe Basso, Maria Grazia Valsecchi, Shai Izraeli, Britt-Sabina Petersen, Andre Franke, Petra Dörge, Doris Steinemann, Oskar A Haas, Renate Panzer-Grümayer, Hélène Cavé, Richard S Houlston, Gunnar Cario, Martin Schrappe, Martin Zimmermann
Purpose Somatic deletions that affect the lymphoid transcription factor-coding gene IKZF1 have previously been reported as independently associated with a poor prognosis in pediatric B-cell precursor (BCP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We have now refined the prognostic strength of IKZF1 deletions by analyzing the effect of co-occurring deletions. Patients and Methods The analysis involved 991 patients with BCP ALL treated in the Associazione Italiana Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica-Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster (AIEOP-BFM) ALL 2000 trial with complete information for copy number alterations of IKZF1, PAX5, ETV6, RB1, BTG1, EBF1, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, Xp22...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Ali Gemici, Aysegul Alkilic, Pinar Guleryuz, Selcuk Tunali, Betul Orhan Kilic, Pınar Ozisik
AIM: To discuss a special type of skull lesion detected after delivery. We reviewed our experience on scalp swelling in term neonates to further investigate the relationship between cranial injuries and labour process. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 55 Newborns with scalp swellings were assessed with medical records retrospectively between January 2007- July 2017. A radiologist and a pediatric neurosurgeon reanalyzed all skull X-ray images via picture archiving and communication system of the hospital Results: A special type of skull fracture, called Kanat (wing) fracture was detected...
February 4, 2018: Turkish Neurosurgery
Talha Irfan Khan, Haris Sheh Zad, Ismail Lazoglu, Ozlem Yalcin
The aim of this work was to analyze a shrouded impeller pediatric ventricular assist device (SIP-VAD). This device has distinctive design characteristics and parameter optimizations for minimization of recirculation flow and reduction in high-stress regions that cause blood damage. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed to analyze the optimized design. The bench-top prototype of SIP-VAD was manufactured with biocompatible stainless steel. A study on the hydrodynamic and hemodynamic performance of the SIP-VAD was conducted with predictions from CFD and actual experimentation values, and these results were compared...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
Yuwen Wang, Yi Xu, Runmei Zou, Lijia Wu, Ping Liu, Hong Yang, Zhenwu Xie, Cheng Wang
BACKGROUND: The effect of levocarnitine supplementation has not been evaluated in children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of oral levocarnitine supplementation in pediatric patients with DCM. METHODS: Twenty-nine children with DCM (17 male, 12 female, aged 1 month to 13 years) were divided into two groups according to a simple randomization: control group (n = 10) and experimental group (n = 19)...
February 21, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Idio Alves de Sousa Filho, Tatiane Martins Lobo, Cesar Koppe Grisolia, Ingrid Távora Weber, Marly Eiko Osugi
Etoposide is an antineoplastic agent used for treating lung cancer, testicular cancer, breast cancer, pediatric cancers, and lymphomas. It is a pollutant due to its mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. Disposal of waste from this drug is still insufficiently safe, and there is no appropriate waste treatment. Therefore, it is important to use advanced oxidative processes (AOPs) for the treatment and disposal of medicines like this. The use of strontium stannate (SrSnO3 ) as a catalyst in heterogeneous photocatalysis reactions has emerged as an alternative for the removal of organic pollutants...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Neha A Patel, Randall A Bly, Seth Adams, Kristen Carlin, Sanjay R Parikh, John P Dahl, Scott Manning
OBJECTIVES: Postoperative calcium management is challenging following pediatric thyroidectomy given potential limitations in self-reporting symptoms and compliance with phlebotomy. A protocol was created at our tertiary children's institution utilizing intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels to guide electrolyte management during hospitalization. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a new thyroidectomy postoperative management protocol on two primary outcomes: (1) the number of postoperative calcium blood draws and (2) the length of hospital stay...
February 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Marina Boido, Elena De Amicis, Valeria Valsecchi, Marco Trevisan, Ugo Ala, Markus A Ruegg, Stefan Hettwer, Alessandro Vercelli
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a pediatric genetic disease, characterized by motor neuron (MN) death, leading to progressive muscle weakness, respiratory failure, and, in the most severe cases, to death. Abnormalities at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) have been reported in SMA, including neurofilament (NF) accumulation at presynaptic terminals, immature and smaller than normal endplates, reduced transmitter release, and, finally, muscle denervation. Here we have studied the role of agrin in SMAΔ7 mice, the experimental model of SMAII...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Change Zhu, Saiji Zhang, Zhiqing Gu, Yiru Tong, Rong Wei
BACKGROUND: Dexamethasone has become a popular additive for regional anesthesia. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of this additive on the duration of postoperative analgesia, postoperative vomiting, and possible adverse events in pediatrics. METHODS: We searched databases, conference records, and registered trials for randomized controlled trials. The databases included the Cochrane Library, JBI Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science-Direct, and Embase...
March 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Michelle E Schober, Daniela F Requena, Christopher K Rodesch
In adult rats, erythropoietin improved outcomes early and late after traumatic brain injury, associated with increased levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor. Using our model of pediatric traumatic brain injury, controlled cortical impact in 17-day old rats, we previously showed that erythropoietin increased hippocampal neuronal fraction in the first two days after injury. Erythropoietin also decreased activation of caspase3, an apoptotic enzyme modulated by Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor, and improved Novel Object Recognition testing 14 days after injury...
February 8, 2018: Brain & Development
Tibor Casian, Cătălina Bogdan, Diana Tarta, Mirela Moldovan, Ioan Tomuta, Sonia Iurian
Orodispersible tablets (ODTs) emerged as dosage forms recommended for special groups of patients like pediatrics or geriatrics, due to their multiple advantages. Among their critical quality attributes, palatability determines patient acceptance, with high impact on treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to develop an instrumental method to assess in vivo disintegration time and palatability of ODTs. The formulation factors that can influence palatability were refined through an experimental design. The most important ones were taken forward and a calibration set was prepared for multivariate calibration model development...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Debora Zanolla, Beatrice Perissutti, Nadia Passerini, Michele R Chierotti, Dritan Hasa, Dario Voinovich, Lara Gigli, Nicola Demitri, Silvano Geremia, Jennifer Keiser, Paolo Cerreia Vioglio, Beatrice Albertini
Praziquantel is the only available drug to treat Schistosomiasis. However, its utilization is limited by many drawbacks, including the high therapeutic dose needed, resulting in large tablets and capsules difficult to be swallowed, especially from pediatric patients. In this study, an alternative option to overcome these disadvantages is proposed: to switch to a novel crystalline polymorph of racemic compound praziquantel. The preparation of the crystalline polymorph was realized via a neat grinding process in a vibrational mill...
January 30, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Sarah Nicole Fernández Lafever, Maria Jose Santiago, Jorge López, Rafael González, María José Solana, Javier Urbano, Jesus Lopez-Herce
To assess the hemodynamic effects of connection to continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in a pediatric experimental animal model. Prospective experimental study was performed using piglets between 2 and 3 months of age and 9-11 kg. CRRT with a PrismaflexR monitor and HF20 filter (surface of 0.2 m2 ) was started after monitoring and anesthetic induction with an initial blood flow at 20 mL/min with 10 mL/min increases every minute until the goal flow of 5 mL/kg/min was achieved. Heart rate, blood pressure, central venous pressure, cardiac index, and renal blood flow were registered at baseline, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 360 min...
February 6, 2018: Artificial Organs
Emilie Indersie, Sarah Lesjean, Katarzyna B Hooks, Francis Sagliocco, Tony Ernault, Stefano Cairo, Maria Merched-Sauvage, Anne Rullier, Brigitte Le Bail, Sophie Taque, Michael Grotzer, Sophie Branchereau, Catherine Guettier, Monique Fabre, Laurence Brugières, Martin Hagedorn, Marie-Annick Buendia, Christophe F Grosset
Hepatoblastoma (HBL) is the most common pediatric liver cancer. In this malignant neoplasm, beta-catenin protein accumulates and increases Wnt signaling due to recurrent activating mutations in the catenin-beta 1 (CTNNB1) gene. Therefore, beta-catenin is a key therapeutic target in HBL. However, controlling beta-catenin production with therapeutic molecules has been challenging. New biological studies could provide alternative therapeutic solutions for the treatment of HBL, especially for advanced tumors and metastatic disease...
April 2017: Hepatology Communications
Fernando M Baeder, Daniel F Silva, Ana Cl de Albuquerque, Maria Tbr Santos
Introduction: Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) often present with oral alterations that impact oral health and require dental treatment. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the use of conscious sedation with nitrous oxide (N2O) to control stress during dental treatment in individuals with CP using as parameters: Venham score (VS), heart rate (HR), and respiratory rate (RR). Materials and methods: A total of 77 CP patients >3 years of age with a mean age of 11...
October 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
Ayşegül E Coşkuntürk, Duygu Gözen
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to determine the effect of Interactive Therapeutic Play Education Program applied in preparing pediatric cardiac patients for surgery on the postoperative anxiety levels of such children and their mothers. DESIGN: This was a randomized controlled experimental trial. METHODS: The study was conducted on children aged 6 to 12 years, who underwent surgery for congenital heart disease, and their mothers (N = 43)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
Bárbara Kunzler Souza, Patrícia Luciana da Costa Lopez, Pâmela Rossi Menegotto, Igor Araujo Vieira, Nathalia Kersting, Ana Lúcia Abujamra, André T Brunetto, Algemir L Brunetto, Lauro Gregianin, Caroline Brunetto de Farias, Carol J Thiele, Rafael Roesler
There is an urgent need for advances in the treatment of Ewing sarcoma (EWS), an aggressive childhood tumor with possible neuroectodermal origin. Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDAC) can revert aberrant epigenetic states and reduce growth in different experimental cancer types. Here, we investigated whether the potent HDAC inhibitor, sodium butyrate (NaB), has the ability to reprogram EWS cells towards a more differentiated state and affect their growth and survival. Exposure of two EWS cell lines to NaB resulted in rapid and potent inhibition of HDAC activity (1 h, IC50 1...
February 3, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Hai-Jian Yuan, Wei Li, Jian-Ming Jin, Jing-Jing Chen, Jun Jiang, Hui Wang, Xiao-Bin Jia, Liang Feng
Guizhi Decoction was one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese Medicine which possesses the effects of "jie-ji-fa-biao, regulating Ying and Wei". It was mainly used to treat mind-cold due to exogenous evils such as fever, headache, sweating, hate the wind, et al. Modern studies indicated that the chemical constituents of Guizhi decoction mainly include phenylpropanoid, monoterpenes, organic acids, flavonoids, triterpenoid saponins and so on. Pharmacological experimental studies had shown that Guizhi decoction could play a big role in dual-directional regulation on sweat gland, body temperature, immune function, gastrointestinal peristalsis, and blood pressure, and could also play the role of anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-allergic, analgesic, hypoglycemic, and cardiovascular protection...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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