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Sirtuins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103406/evaluation-of-the-ability-of-polyphenol-extracts-of-cocoa-and-red-grape-to-promote-the-antioxidant-response-in-yeast-using-a-rapid-multiwell-assay
#1
Ana Peláez-Soto, María Teresa Fernández-Espinar, Patricia Roig, José Vicente Gil
Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used as a model organism to study the capacity of cocoa and red grape extracts to trigger an antioxidant response. A methodology adapted to microtiter plates has been developed to monitor yeast growth after culture preincubation with food ingredients and exposure to oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide and menadione. This methodology proved effective in measuring the ability of cocoa and red grape extracts to promote an antioxidant response in yeast, and also the prospect of conducting dose-response studies...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101569/resveratrol-inhibits-adventitial-fibroblast-proliferation-and-induces-cell-apoptosis-through-the-sirt1-pathway
#2
Lin Ling, Shaohua Gu, Yan Cheng
Atherosclerosis is one of the most important causes of cardiovascular disease and studies have showed that adventitial fibroblasts, which are considered to be the most common cell type of the vascular adventitia, are involved in the development of early atherosclerotic plaques. Resveratrol is a plant polyphenolic compound confirmed to have anti‑atherosclerotic and cardioprotective effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on adventitial fibroblasts in vitro and to clarify the underlying mechanism...
February 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094444/the-current-state-of-nad-dependent-histone-deacetylases-sirtuins-as-novel-therapeutic-targets
#3
REVIEW
Matthias Schiedel, Dina Robaa, Tobias Rumpf, Wolfgang Sippl, Manfred Jung
Sirtuins are NAD(+) -dependent protein deacylases that cleave off acetyl, as well as other acyl groups, from the ε-amino group of lysines in histones and other substrate proteins. Seven sirtuin isotypes (Sirt1-7) have been identified in mammalian cells. As sirtuins are involved in the regulation of various physiological processes such as cell survival, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, DNA repair, cell metabolism, and caloric restriction, a dysregulation of their enzymatic activity has been associated with the pathogenesis of neoplastic, metabolic, infectious, and neurodegenerative diseases...
January 17, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074060/s100a8-a9-and-s100a9-reduce-acute-lung-injury
#4
Yuka Hiroshima, Kenneth Hsu, Nicodemus Tedla, Sze Wing Wong, Sharron Chow, Naomi Kawaguchi, Carolyn L Geczy
S100A8 and S100A9 are myeloid cell-derived proteins that are elevated in several types of inflammatory lung disorders. Pro- and anti-inflammatory properties are reported and these proteins are proposed to activate TLR4. S100A8 and S100A9 can function separately, likely through distinct receptors but a systematic comparison of their effects in vivo are limited. Here we assess inflammation in murine lung following S100A9 and S100A8/A9 inhalation. Unlike S100A8, S100A9 promoted mild neutrophil and lymphocyte influx, possibly mediated in part, by increased mast cell degranulation and selective upregulation of some chemokine genes, particularly CXCL-10...
January 11, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073422/-research-advances-in-the-association-between-deacetylase-sirtuin3-and-liver-diseases
#5
J Yu, C Chen, W X Wang
The deacetylase Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a member of the Sirtuins mainly located in the mitochondrial matrix, and as a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent deacetylase, it can regulate cellular energy metabolism and oxidative stress-related pathways. The liver is the largest solid organ in the human body and plays a very important role in substance metabolism. Based on the features of SIRT3, it is closely associated with the development and progression of certain liver diseases. This article reviews the research advances in the role of SIRT3 in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, liver cancer, and hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069943/acetylation-promotes-tyrrs-nuclear-translocation-to-prevent-oxidative-damage
#6
Xuanye Cao, Chaoqun Li, Siyu Xiao, Yunlan Tang, Jing Huang, Shuan Zhao, Xueyu Li, Jixi Li, Ruilin Zhang, Wei Yu
Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) is well known for its essential aminoacylation function in protein synthesis. Recently, TyrRS has been shown to translocate to the nucleus and protect against DNA damage due to oxidative stress. However, the mechanism of TyrRS nuclear localization has not yet been determined. Herein, we report that TyrRS becomes highly acetylated in response to oxidative stress, which promotes nuclear translocation. Moreover, p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF), an acetyltransferase, and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, regulate the nuclear localization of TyrRS in an acetylation-dependent manner...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067587/the-seven-faces-of-sirt7
#7
Maximilian F Blank, Ingrid Grummt
SIRT7, a member of the sirtuin family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases, is a key mediator of many cellular activities. SIRT7 expression is linked to cell proliferation and oncogenic activity, connecting SIRT7-dependent regulation of ribosome biogenesis with checkpoints controlling cell cycle progression, metabolic homeostasis, stress resistance, ageing and tumorigenesis. Despite this important functional link, the enzymatic activity, the molecular targets and physiological functions of SIRT7 are poorly defined...
January 9, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065600/lysyl-oxidase-3-is-a-dual-specificity-enzyme-involved-in-stat3-deacetylation-and-deacetylimination-modulation
#8
Li Ma, Chao Huang, Xiong-Jun Wang, Dazhuan Eric Xin, Li-Shun Wang, Quanli C Zou, Ya-Nan S Zhang, Min-Dian Tan, Yu-Mei Wang, Ting C Zhao, Devasis Chatterjee, Rachel A Altura, Chuangui Wang, Yan S Xu, Jing-Hua Yang, Yong-Sheng Fan, Bao-Hui Han, Jianmin Si, Xiaoren Zhang, Jinke Cheng, Zhijie Chang, Y Eugene Chin
In mammalian cells, histone deacetylase (HDAC) and Sirtuin (SIRT) are two families responsible for removing acetyl groups from acetylated proteins. Here, we describe protein deacetylation coupled with deacetylimination as a function of lysyl oxidase (LOX) family members. LOX-like 3 (Loxl3) associates with Stat3 in the nucleus to deacetylate and deacetyliminate Stat3 on multiple acetyl-lysine sites. Surprisingly, Loxl3 N-terminal scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) repeats, rather than the C-terminal oxidase catalytic domain, represent the major deacetylase/deacetyliminase activity...
December 29, 2016: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064165/nutritional-control-of-chronological-aging-and-heterochromatin-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#9
David F McCleary, Jasper Rine
Calorie restriction extends lifespan in organisms as diverse as yeast and mammals through incompletely understood mechanism(s). The role of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases, known as Sirtuins, in this process, particularly in the yeast S. cerevisiae is controversial. We measured chronological lifespan of wild-type and sir2Δ strains over a higher glucose range than typically used for studying yeast calorie restriction. sir2Δ extended lifespan in high-glucose complete minimal medium, and had little effect in low glucose medium, revealing a partial role for Sir2 in the calorie restriction response under these conditions...
January 6, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058215/more-than-skin-deep-potential-nicotinamide-treatment-applications-in-chronic-kidney-transplant-recipients
#10
REVIEW
Andrew G Bostom, Basma Merhi, Joanna Walker, Leslie Robinson-Bostom
Non-melanoma cutaneous carcinomas, or skin cancers, predominantly squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), are the most common malignancies occurring in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Squamous cell carcinoma risk is dramatically elevated in KTRs, occurring at rates of up 45-250 times those reported in general populations. New non-melanoma skin cancers in KTRs with a prior non-melanoma skin cancer also develop at 3-times the rate reported in non-KTRs with the same clinical history. The unique aggressiveness of SCCs in KTRs increases patient morbidity, due to the high rate of new lesions requiring treatment, frequently surgical excision...
December 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053616/sirtuin-2-inhibition-affects-hippocampal-functions-and-sodium-butyrate-ameliorates-the-reduction-in-novel-object-memory-cell-proliferation-and-neuroblast-differentiation
#11
Hyo Young Jung, Dae Young Yoo, Jong Whi Kim, Dae Won Kim, Jung Hoon Choi, Jin Young Chung, Moo-Ho Won, Yeo Sung Yoon, In Koo Hwang
We investigated the effects of the sirtuin-2 (SIRT2) inhibitor AK-7 on novel object memory, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus. In addition, we also observed the relationships with sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on the hippocampal functions. To investigate the effects of AK-7 on hippocampal functions, 10-week-old C57BL/6 mice were daily injected intraperitoneally with 20 mg/kg AK-7 alone or in combination with subcutaneous administration of 300 mg/kg sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, for 21 days...
December 2016: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051244/moringa-oleifera-lam-improves-lipid-metabolism-during-adipogenic-differentiation-of-human-stem-cells
#12
I Barbagallo, L Vanella, A Distefano, D Nicolosi, A Maravigna, G Lazzarino, M Di Rosa, D Tibullo, R Acquaviva, G Li Volti
OBJECTIVE: Moringa oleifera Lam., a multipurpose tree, is used traditionally for its nutritional and medicinal properties. It has been used for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including inflammation, cancer and metabolic disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. on adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and its impact on lipid metabolism and cellular antioxidant systems. RESULTS: We showed that Moringa oleifera Lam...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050792/alpha-synuclein-alters-differently-gene-expression-of-sirts-parps-and-other-stress-response-proteins-implications-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#13
J Motyl, P L Wencel, M Cieślik, R P Strosznajder, J B Strosznajder
Alpha-synuclein (ASN) is a presynaptic protein that can easily change its conformation under different types of stress. It's assumed that ASN plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. However, the molecular mechanism of ASN toxicity has not been elucidated. This study focused on the role of extracellular ASN (eASN) in regulation of transcription of sirtuins (Sirts) and DNA-bound poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) - proteins crucial for cells' survival/death. Our results indicate that eASN enhanced the free radicals level, decreased mitochondria membrane potential, cells viability and activated cells' death...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043667/a-sirtuin-1-mmp2-prognostic-index-for-myocardial-infarction-in-patients-with-advanced-coronary-artery-disease
#14
Ilias P Doulamis, Aspasia I Tzani, Panagiotis S Konstantopoulos, George Samanidis, Georgios Georgiopoulos, Konstantinos P Toutouzas, Despina N Perrea, Konstantinos G Perreas
BACKGROUND: Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) appears to play a protective role against endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Instead, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) is involved in acute coronary events, by promoting tissue remodeling. This study sought to determine the clinical value of a prognostic index arising from the combination of these two biomarkers for myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with advanced coronary artery disease. METHODS: Eighty-one patients with advanced coronary artery disease planned for open heart surgery were prospectively enrolled...
December 23, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039864/sirtuin-6-attenuates-periapical-lesion-propagation-by-modulating-hypoxia-induced-ccl2-production-in-osteoblasts
#15
Y-L Lee, S-K Lin, K-L Hou, S-H Kok, E H-H Lai, H-W Wang, J Z-C Chang, H Yang, C-Y Hong
AIM: To investigate the attenuating effect of sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) on hypoxia-induced production of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) by osteoblasts and the relevance of this action on the pathogenesis of periapical lesions. METHODOLOGY: SIRT6 was overexpressed in MC3T3-E1 murine osteoblasts by lentivirus-mediated gene transfer. The relationship between the anti-glycolytic/anti-oxidative activities of SIRT6 and its effect on hypoxia-induced CCL2 production were examined...
December 31, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039031/worsening-of-memory-deficit-induced-by-energy-dense-diet-in-a-rat-model-of-early-alzheimer-s-disease-is-associated-to-neurotoxic-a%C3%AE-species-and-independent-of-neuroinflammation
#16
Pamela V Martino Adami, Pablo Galeano, Marina L Wallinger, Celia Quijano, Alejandro Rabossi, Eleonora S Pagano, Natividad Olivar, Carlos Reyes Toso, Daniel Cardinali, Luis I Brusco, Sonia Do Carmo, Rafael Radi, Goar Gevorkian, Eduardo M Castaño, A Claudio Cuello, Laura Morelli
Diet is a modifiable risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the mechanisms linking alterations in peripheral metabolism and cognition remain unclear. Since it is especially difficult to study long-term effects of high-energy diet in individuals at risk for AD, we addressed this question by using the McGill-R-Thy1-APP transgenic rat model (Tg(+/-)) that mimics presymptomatic AD. Wild-type and Tg(+/-) rats were exposed during 6months to a standard diet or a Western diet (WD), high in saturated fat and sugar...
December 27, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035358/effect-of-glucosamine-on-expression-of-type-ii-collagen-matrix-metalloproteinase-and-sirtuin-genes-in-a-human-chondrocyte-cell-line
#17
Mamoru Igarashi, Koji Sakamoto, Isao Nagaoka
Glucosamine (GlcN) has been widely used to treat osteoarthritis (OA) in humans. However, the effects of GlcN on genes related to cartilage metabolism are still unknown. In the present study, to elucidate the chondroprotective action of GlcN on OA, we examined the effects of GlcN (0.1-10 mM) on the expression of the sirtuin (SIRT) genes as well as type II collagen and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) using a human chondrocyte cell line SW 1353. SW 1353 cells were incubated in the absence or presence of GlcN...
February 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032248/ages-decreased-sirt3-expression-and-sirt3-activation-protected-ages-induced-epcs-dysfunction-and-strengthened-anti-oxidant-capacity
#18
Mingze Chang, Bei Zhang, Ye Tian, Ming Hu, Gejuan Zhang, Zhengli Di, Xinlai Wang, Zhiqin Liu, Naibin Gu, Yong Liu
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been confirmed to induce dysfunction in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and play key roles in pathogenesis of diabetes-related vascular complications. The major function of sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is to orchestrate oxidative metabolism and control reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, which are more closely related to EPCs' dysfunction. Our study therefore was designed to explore the role of SIRT3 on AGEs-induced EPCs dysfunction of. EPCs isolated from healthy adults were stimulated with AGEs and the expression of SIRT3 was assessed...
December 29, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030827/reducing-smad3-atf4-was-essential-for-sirt1-inhibiting-er-stress-induced-apoptosis-in-mice-brown-adipose-tissue
#19
Zhenjiang Liu, Huihui Gu, Lu Gan, Yatao Xu, Fei Feng, Muhammad Saeed, Chao Sun
Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) promotes adaptive thermogenesis by controlling the acetylation status of enzymes and transcriptional factors in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT). However, the effects of Sirt1 on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis of iBAT remain elusive. In this study, the mRNA levels of Sirt1 and thermogenesis genes were reduced but the genes related with ER stress were elevated in iBAT of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Moreover, ER stress further inhibited mRNA level of Sirt1 and triggered brown adipocyte apoptosis in vitro and in vivo...
December 20, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029409/serum-concentrations-and-gene-expression-of-sirtuin-1-in-healthy-and-slightly-overweight-subjects-after-caloric-restriction-or-resveratrol-supplementation-a-randomized-trial
#20
Antonio P Mansur, Alessandra Roggerio, Marisa F S Goes, Solange D Avakian, Dalila P Leal, Raul C Maranhão, Célia M C Strunz
BACKGROUND: Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) plays an important role in vascular biology, and influences aspects of age-dependent atherosclerosis. In animals, the sirtuin system is strongly influenced by resveratrol and caloric restriction, but its expression in humans is controversial. This study investigated the effects of resveratrol and caloric restriction on Sirt1 serum concentrations and vascular biomarkers in a healthy human population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-eight healthy participants (24 women) aged 55-65years were randomized to either 30days of resveratrol administration (500mg/day) or caloric restriction (1000cal/day)...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
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