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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110426/influenza-a-virus-upregulates-prpf8-gene-expression-to-increase-virus-production
#1
Chee-Hing Yang, Hui-Chun Li, Yu-Ling Shiu, Tzu-Shan Ku, Chia-Wen Wang, Yi-Shuan Tu, Hung-Ling Chen, Cheng-Hao Wu, Shih-Yen Lo
A ddRT-PCR analysis was performed to detect cellular genes that are differentially expressed after influenza A virus (H1N1) infection of A549 cells. After ddRT-PCR, eight DNA fragments were identified. PRPF8, one of the cellular genes that were upregulated after virus infection, was further analyzed since it has previously been identified as a cellular factor required for influenza virus replication. The upregulation of PRPF8 gene expression after viral infection was confirmed using real-time RT-PCR for mRNA detection and Western blot analysis for protein detection...
January 21, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110418/occurrence-of-atypical-hus-associated-with-influenza-b
#2
Karen van Hoeve, Corinne Vandermeulen, Marc Van Ranst, Elena Levtchenko, Lambert van den Heuvel, Djalila Mekahli
: Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a disease characterized by thrombotic microangiopathy with a triad of non-immune hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal impairment. Approximately 10% of cases of HUS are classified as atypical (aHUS). While today many genetically forms of aHUS pathology are known, only about 50% of carriers precipitate the disease. The reason remains unclear, and triggering events like intercurrent infections have been postulated. In rare cases, influenza A is the known trigger of aHUS; however, no cases of influenza B have been reported...
January 21, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110247/a-novel-chimeric-newcastle-disease-virus-vectored-vaccine-against-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus
#3
Shin-Hee Kim, Anandan Paldurai, Siba K Samal
Avian influenza (AI) is an economically-important disease of poultry worldwide. The use of vaccines to control AI has increased because of frequent outbreaks of the disease in endemic countries. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vectored vaccine has shown to be effective in protecting chickens against a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection. However, preexisting antibodies to NDV vector might affect protective efficacy of the vaccine in the field. As an alternative strategy, we evaluated vaccine efficacy of a chimeric NDV vectored vaccine in which the ectodomains of F and HN proteins were replaced by those of avian paramyxovirus serotype-2...
January 19, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110050/prospective-evaluation-of-the-aetiology-of-acute-otitis-media-with-spontaneous-tympanic-membrane-perforation
#4
Paola Marchisio, Susanna Esposito, Marina Picca, Elena Baggi, Leonardo Terranova, Annalisa Orenti, Elia Biganzoli, Nicola Principi
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the aetiologic role of the main bacterial pathogens associated with acute otitis media (AOM) in children with AOM and spontaneous tympanic membrane perforation (STMP). METHODS: Between May 1, 2015 and April 30, 2016, 177 children, 6 months to 7 years old, with AOM complicated by STMP within 12 h were prospectively enrolled. Middle ear fluid (MEF) was tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction for Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcus aureus...
January 18, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109709/the-effect-of-gamma-irradiation-conditions-on-the-immunogenicity-of-whole-inactivated-influenza-a-virus-vaccine
#5
Shannon C David, Josyane Lau, Eve V Singleton, Rachelle Babb, Justin Davies, Timothy R Hirst, Shaun R McColl, James C Paton, Mohammed Alsharifi
Gamma-irradiation, particularly an irradiation dose of 50kGy, has been utilised widely to sterilise highly pathogenic agents such as Ebola, Marburg Virus, and Avian Influenza H5N1. We have reported previously that intranasal vaccination with a gamma-irradiated Influenza A virus vaccine (γ-Flu) results in cross-protective immunity. Considering the possible inclusion of highly pathogenic Influenza strains in future clinical development of γ-Flu, an irradiation dose of 50kGy may be used to enhance vaccine safety beyond the internationally accepted Sterility Assurance Level (SAL)...
January 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109707/potential-risk-of-repeated-nasal-vaccination-that-induces-allergic-reaction-with-mucosal-ige-and-airway-eosinophilic-infiltration-in-cynomolgus-macaques-infected-with-h5n1-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus
#6
Misako Nakayama, Yasushi Itoh, Shintaro Shichinohe, Rumi Nakabayashi, Hirohito Ishigaki, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Quynh Mai Le, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Hiroshi Kida, Kazumasa Ogasawara
The efficacy and detrimental effect of mucosal vaccination with an inactivated influenza vaccine were examined in a macaque model by intranasal administration with small amounts of inactivated whole virus particles and challenge by a human-derived H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection. Repeated nasal inoculation with the whole particle vaccine of an inactivated virus, A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-3/2007 (H5N1) (Vac-3), induced antigen-specific IgA and IgG antibody production in nasal swabs and plasma...
January 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108632/contribution-of-innate-immune-cells-to-pathogenesis-of-severe-influenza-virus-infection
#7
REVIEW
Suzanne L Cole, Ling-Pei Ho
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause respiratory illness of varying severity based on the virus strains, host predisposition and pre-existing immunity. Ultimately, outcome and recovery from infection rely on an effective immune response comprising both innate and adaptive components. The innate immune response provides the first line of defence and is crucial to the outcome of infection. Airway epithelial cells are the first cell type to encounter the virus in the lungs, providing antiviral and chemotactic molecules that shape the ensuing immune response by rapidly recruiting innate effector cells such as NK cells, monocytes and neutrophils...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108557/low-level-mhc-class-ii-expression-leads-to-suboptimal-th-cell-response-increased-autoaggression-and-heightened-cytokine-inducibility
#8
Yi-Ting Chen, Yu-Chia Su, Mei-Ling Chang, Pi-Fang Tsai, John T Kung
The development and activation of MHC class II (MHC-II)-restricted CD4(+) T cells are distinct immunological processes that are strictly MHC-II-dependent. To address their relative dependence on MHC-II, we established a novel ENU-induced mutant mouse on the C57BL/6 background, named I-A(12%), with ∼8-fold reduced I-A expression on the surface of B cells, dendritic cells, cortical thymic epithelial cells, and medullary thymic epithelial cells. I-A(100%) and I-A(12%) mice are highly similar with respect to the numbers of double-positive thymocytes, CD4(+)CD8(-) T cells, regulatory T cells, CD4(+) T cell marker expression, lifespan, and Th/regulatory T cell function...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108192/epidemiology-and-pathophysiology-of-childhood-narcolepsy
#9
REVIEW
Thomas J Dye, Neepa Gurbani, Narong Simakajornboon
It is now recognized that there are two types of narcolepsy. Narcolepsy type I or Narcolepsy with cataplexy is caused by the loss of hypocretin or orexin neurons. Narcolepsy type II or narcolepsy without cataplexy has normal hypocretin and the etiology is unknown. Hypocretin is a neuropeptide produced by neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Both genetic and environmental factors play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of narcolepsy. Most patients with narcolepsy type I and half of patients with narcolepsy type II carry HLA-DQB1*0602...
December 21, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108183/evaluation-of-multiplex-assay-platforms-for-detection-of-influenza-hemagglutinin-subtype-specific-antibody-responses-influenza-ha-subtype-specific-antibody-detection-platform
#10
Zhu-Nan Li, Kimberly M Weber, Rebecca A Limmer, Bobbi J Horne, James Stevens, Joy Schwerzmann, Jens Wrammert, Megan McCausland, Andrew J Phipps, Kathy Hancock, Daniel B Jernigan, Min Levine, Jacqueline M Katz, Joseph D Miller
Influenza hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus microneutralization assays (MN) are widely used for seroprevalence studies. However, these assays have limited field portability and are difficult to fully automate for high throughput laboratory testing. To address these issues, three multiplex influenza subtype-specific antibody detection assays were developed using recombinant hemagglutinin antigens in combination with Chembio, Luminex(®), and ForteBio(®) platforms. Assay sensitivity, specificity, and subtype cross-reactivity were evaluated using a panel of well characterized human sera...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107633/binding-and-proton-blockage-by-amantadine-variants-of-the-influenza-m2wt-and-m2s31n-explained
#11
Christina Tzitzoglaki, Anna K Wright, Kathrin-Maria Freudenberger, Anja Hoffmann, Ian Tietjen, Ioannis Stylianakis, Felix Kolarov, David Fedida, Michaela Schmidtke, Guenter Gauglitz, Timothy A Cross, Antonios Kolocouris
While aminoadamantanes are well-established inhibitors of the influenza A M2 proton channel, the mechanisms by which they are rendered ineffective against M2S31N are unclear. Solid state NMR, isothermal titration calorimetry, electrophysiology, anti-viral assays and molecular dynamics simulations suggest stronger binding interactions for aminoadamantanes to M2WT compared to negligible or weak binding to M2S31N. This is due to reshaping of the M2pore when N31 is present, which in contrast to WT, leads: A) to the loss of the V27 pocket for the adamantyl cage and to a predominant orientation of the ligand's ammonium group toward the N-terminus and, B) to the lack of a helical kink upon ligand binding...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107507/a-multiplex-rt-pcr-assay-for-detection-and-differentiation-of-avian-origin-canine-h3n2-equine-origin-h3n8-human-origin-h3n2-and-h1n1-2009-canine-influenza-viruses
#12
Chenxi Wang, Qian Wang, Junyi Hu, Honglei Sun, Juan Pu, Jinhua Liu, Yipeng Sun
Virological and serological surveys have documented that H1N1/2009, avian-origin canine H3N2 (cH3N2), seasonal human-origin H3N2 (hH3N2), and equine-origin H3N8 influenza viruses are consistently circulating in dogs. In the present study, a multiplex reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of these influenza viruses. Four primer sets were designed to target the hemagglutinin genes of H1N1/2009, cH3N2, hH3N2, and H3N8 canine influenza viruses (CIVs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107403/adaptive-heterosubtypic-immunity-to-low-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-in-experimentally-infected-mallards
#13
Karen M Segovia, David E Stallknecht, Darrell R Kapczynski, Lisa Stabler, Roy D Berghaus, Alinde Fotjik, Neus Latorre-Margalef, Monique S França
Mallards are widely recognized as reservoirs for Influenza A viruses (IAV); however, host factors that might prompt seasonality and trends in subtype diversity of IAV such as adaptive heterosubtypic immunity (HSI) are not well understood. To investigate this, we inoculated mallards with a prevailing H3N8 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) subtype in waterfowl to determine if prior infection with this virus would be protective against heterosubtypic infections with the H4N6, H10N7 and H14N5 LPAIV subtypes after one, two and three months, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107375/narcolepsy-type-1-is-associated-with-a-systemic-increase-and-activation-of-regulatory-t-cells-and-with-a-systemic-activation-of-global-t-cells
#14
Michel Lecendreux, Guillaume Churlaud, Fabien Pitoiset, Armelle Regnault, Tu Anh Tran, Roland Liblau, David Klatzmann, Michelle Rosenzwajg
Narcolepsy is a rare neurologic disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy and disturbed nocturnal sleep patterns. Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) has been shown to result from a selective loss of hypothalamic hypocretin-secreting neurons with patients typically showing low CSF-hypocretin levels (<110 pg/ml). This specific loss of hypocretin and the strong association with the HLA-DQB1*06:02 allele led to the hypothesis that NT1 could be an immune-mediated pathology. Moreover, susceptibility to NT1 has recently been associated with several pathogens, particularly with influenza A H1N1 virus either through infection or vaccination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106111/broad-range-antiviral-activity-of-hydrogen-sulfide-against-highly-pathogenic-rna-viruses
#15
Nikolay Bazhanov, Olivier Escaffre, Alexander N Freiberg, Roberto P Garofalo, Antonella Casola
Hydrogen sulfide is an important endogenous mediator that has been the focus of intense investigation in the past few years, leading to the discovery of its role in vasoactive, cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory responses. Recently, we made a critical observation that H2S also has a protective role in paramyxovirus infection by modulating inflammatory responses and viral replication. In this study we tested the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity of the H2S slow-releasing donor GYY4137 on enveloped RNA viruses from Ortho-, Filo-, Flavi- and Bunyavirus families, for which there is no FDA-approved vaccine or therapeutic available, with the exception of influenza...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105855/analysis-of-a549-cell-proteome-alteration-in-response-to-recombinant-influenza-a-virus-nucleoprotein-and-its-interaction-with-cellular-proteins-a-preliminary-study
#16
D Kumar, K Tiwari, M S Rajala
 Influenza A virus undergoes frequent changes of antigenicity and contributes to seasonal epidemics or unpredictable pandemics. Nucleoprotein, encoded by gene segment 5, is an internal protein of the virus and is conserved among strains of different host origins. In the current study, we analyzed the differentially expressed proteins in A549 cells transiently transfected with the recombinant nucleoprotein of influenza A virus by 2D gel electrophoresis. The resolved protein spots on gel were identified by MALDI-TOF/Mass spectrometry analysis...
January 19, 2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105854/t-705-favipiravir-suppresses-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-production-in-response-to-influenza-virus-infection-a-beneficial-feature-of-t-705-as-an-anti-influenza-drug
#17
T Tanaka, T Kamiyama, T Daikoku, K Takahashi, N Nomura, M Kurokawa, K Shiraki
Influenza virus infection induces the production of various cytokines, which play important roles in the pathogenesis of infection. Among the cytokines induced by influenza, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production has been correlated with the severity of lung lesions. We investigated the effects of T-705 (Favipiravir, 6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyrazinecarboxamide) on cytokine production due to influenza virus infection in vitro and in vivo, compared with oseltamivir or GS 4071, an active form of oseltamivir. TNF-α production in mouse macrophage-derived P388D1 cells infected with the influenza virus was lower following treatment with T-705 at concentrations of 0...
January 19, 2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105842/absolute-quantification-of-h5-subtype-avian-influenza-viruses-using-droplet-digital-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification
#18
Yi Hu, Peng Xu, Jing Luo, Hongxuan He, Wenbin Du
Human infection with avian influenza A H5N1 viruses can cause severe diseases with high mortality rate and continues to pose a significant threat to global public health. Rapid diagnosis is needed for identifying the types of influenza viruses for making timely treatment decisions. Here, we demonstrate absolute quantification of H5-subtype influenza viruses by digital loop-mediated isothermal amplification (dLAMP) on our recently developed cross-interface emulsification (XiE) method. Our results show that XiE-based dLAMP is highly specific and displays comparable sensitivity to real-time PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (dPCR)...
January 3, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105835/silver-nanoclusters-beacon-as-stimuli-responsive-versatile-platform-for-multiplex-dnas-detection-and-aptamer-substrate-complexes-sensing
#19
Guoliang Liu, Jingjing Li, Da-Qian Feng, Jun-Jie Zhu, Wei Wang
An activatable silver nanoclusters beacon (ASNCB) was synthesized through a facile one-pot approach and applied for multiplex DNAs, small molecule, and protein sensing. Multifunctional single-stranded DNA sequences are rationally designed and used for ASNCB in situ synthesis. Via target-responsive structure transformation of ASNCB, target recognition induced ASNCB conformational transition and lit up the fluorescent signal of silver nanoclusters. By further implementing two different color ASNCBs (520 and 600 nm), the parallel multiplexed analysis of two target genes (Influenza A virus genes H1N1 and H5N1) is achieved...
January 3, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105530/molecular-characterization-of-a-novel-reassortant-h7n6-subtype-avian-influenza-virus-from-poultry-in-eastern-china-in-2016
#20
Haibo Wu, Rufeng Lu, Xiuming Peng, Xiaorong Peng, Bin Chen, Linfang Cheng, Nanping Wu
During the surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in live poultry markets in Eastern China, in 2016, a novel reassortant H7N6 AIV was isolated from a chicken. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this strain received its genes from H9N2, H7N9 and H5N6 AIVs infecting poultry in China. This strain showed moderate pathogenicity in mice and was able to replicate in mice without prior adaptation. Considering that this novel reassorted H7N6 virus was isolated from poultry in this study, it is possible that chickens play an important role in the generation of novel reassorted H7N6 AIVs...
January 19, 2017: Archives of Virology
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