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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334664/methyl-dehydroabietate-counters-high-fat-diet-induced-insulin-resistance-and-hepatic-steatosis-by-modulating-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-signaling-in-mice
#1
Hiroki Yoshioka, Yuki Mizuno, Tomohiro Yamaguchi, Yoshimi Ichimaru, Koichi Takeya, Yukio Hitotsuyanagi, Tsunemasa Nonogaki, Yutaka Aoyagi
The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of methyl dehydroabietate (mDA) on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and obesity characteristics induced by high-fat diet (HFD) in mice. Adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells was evaluated after 14 days of incubation with mDA. mDA enhanced adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. For the in vivo evaluation, five-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed HFD or normal CE-2 diet (control) for eight weeks. During the experimental period, mice were administered mDA (50 mg/kg, p...
January 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334655/how-yeast-coordinates-metabolism-growth-and-division
#2
REVIEW
Jennifer C Ewald
All cells, especially single cell organisms, need to adapt their metabolism, growth and division coordinately to the available nutrients. This coordination is mediated by extensive cross-talk between nutrient signaling, metabolism, growth, and the cell division cycle, which is only gradually being uncovered: Nutrient signaling not only controls entry into the cell cycle at the G1/S transition, but all phases of the cell cycle. Metabolites are even sensed directly by cell cycle regulators to prevent cell cycle progression in absence of sufficient metabolic fluxes...
January 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334470/heterologous-expression-of-rhizobial-celc2-cellulase-impairs-symbiotic-signaling-and-nodulation-in-medicago-truncatula
#3
Marta Robledo, Esther Menéndez, Jose Ignacio Jimenez-Zurdo, Raúl Rivas, Encarna Velazquez, Eustoquio Martinez-Molina, Giles Oldroyd, Pedro F Mateos
The infection of legume plants by rhizobia is tightly regulated to ensure accurate bacterial penetration, infection and development of functionally efficient nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Rhizobial Nod Factors (NF) have key roles in the elicitation of nodulation signalling. Infection of white clover roots also involves the tightly regulated specific breakdown of the non-crystalline apex of cell walls in growing root hairs, which is mediated by Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii cellulase CelC2. Here, we have analyzed the impact of this endoglucanase on symbiotic signalling in the model legume Medicago truncatula...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334418/antimicrobial-and-stress-responses-to-increased-temperature-and-bacterial-pathogen-challenge-in-the-holobiont-of-a-reef-building-coral
#4
Jeroen A J M van de Water, Maryam Chaib De Mares, Groves B Dixon, Jean-Baptiste Raina, Bette L Willis, David G Bourne, Madeleine J H van Oppen
Global increases in coral disease prevalence have been linked to ocean warming through changes in coral-associated bacterial communities, pathogen virulence and immune system function. However, the interactive effects of temperature and pathogens on the coral holobiont are poorly understood. Here, we assessed three compartments of the holobiont (host, Symbiodinium, bacterial community) of the coral Montipora aequituberculata challenged with the pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus and the commensal bacterium Oceanospirillales sp...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334390/smartphone-integrated-optoelectrowetting-sioew-for-on-chip-sample-processing-and-microscopic-detection-of-water-quality
#5
Dongyue Jiang, Seunguk Lee, Sung Woo Bae, Sung-Yong Park
With the increasing capabilities and ubiquity of smartphones and their associated digital cameras, this study presents a smartphone integrated optoelectrowetting (SiOEW) device as a simple, portable tool capable of on-chip water sample preparation and microscopic detection of the target cells in water samples, which significantly reduce the detection time and the labor cost required for water quality monitoring. A commercially available smartphone is used as a low-intensity portable light source to perform optoelectrowetting (OEW)-based microfluidic operations such as droplet transportation, merging, mixing, and immobilization on a hydrophobic detection zone...
January 15, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334375/a-small-molecule-inhibitor-of-the-ubiquitin-activating-enzyme-for-cancer-treatment
#6
Marc L Hyer, Michael A Milhollen, Jeff Ciavarri, Paul Fleming, Tary Traore, Darshan Sappal, Jessica Huck, Judy Shi, James Gavin, Jim Brownell, Yu Yang, Bradley Stringer, Robert Griffin, Frank Bruzzese, Teresa Soucy, Jennifer Duffy, Claudia Rabino, Jessica Riceberg, Kara Hoar, Anya Lublinsky, Saurabh Menon, Michael Sintchak, Nancy Bump, Sai M Pulukuri, Steve Langston, Stephen Tirrell, Mike Kuranda, Petter Veiby, John Newcomb, Ping Li, Jing Tao Wu, Josh Powe, Lawrence R Dick, Paul Greenspan, Katherine Galvin, Mark Manfredi, Chris Claiborne, Benjamin S Amidon, Neil F Bence
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) comprises a network of enzymes that is responsible for maintaining cellular protein homeostasis. The therapeutic potential of this pathway has been validated by the clinical successes of a number of UPS modulators, including proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory imide drugs (IMiDs). Here we identified TAK-243 (formerly known as MLN7243) as a potent, mechanism-based small-molecule inhibitor of the ubiquitin activating enzyme (UAE), the primary mammalian E1 enzyme that regulates the ubiquitin conjugation cascade...
January 15, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334372/pharmacological-blockade-of-asct2-dependent-glutamine-transport-leads-to-antitumor-efficacy-in-preclinical-models
#7
Michael L Schulte, Allie Fu, Ping Zhao, Jun Li, Ling Geng, Shannon T Smith, Jumpei Kondo, Robert J Coffey, Marc O Johnson, Jeffrey C Rathmell, Joe T Sharick, Melissa C Skala, Jarrod A Smith, Jordan Berlin, M Kay Washington, Michael L Nickels, H Charles Manning
The unique metabolic demands of cancer cells underscore potentially fruitful opportunities for drug discovery in the era of precision medicine. However, therapeutic targeting of cancer metabolism has led to surprisingly few new drugs to date. The neutral amino acid glutamine serves as a key intermediate in numerous metabolic processes leveraged by cancer cells, including biosynthesis, cell signaling, and oxidative protection. Herein we report the preclinical development of V-9302, a competitive small molecule antagonist of transmembrane glutamine flux that selectively and potently targets the amino acid transporter ASCT2...
January 15, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334302/mirnas-as-potential-regulators-of-mtor-pathway-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#8
Inês Nogueira, Francisca Dias, Ana Luísa Teixeira, Rui Medeiros
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most commonly occurring solid cancer of the adult kidney with the majority of RCC cases being detected accidentally. The most aggressive subtype is clear cell RCC (ccRCC). miRNAs, a family of small noncoding RNAs regulating gene expression have been identified as key biological modulators. The von Hippel-Lindau pathway is one of the signaling pathways involved in the pathophysiology of ccRCC. Another oncogenic mechanism involves the activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling and serves as a central regulator of cell metabolism, proliferation and survival...
January 15, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334279/uric-acid-and-the-vaccine-adjuvant-activity-of-aluminum-oxy-hydroxide-nanoparticles
#9
Sachin G Thakkar, Haiyue Xu, Xu Li, Zhengrong Cui
In an effort to improve the adjuvanticity of insoluble aluminum salts, we discovered that the adjuvant activity of aluminum salt nanoparticles is significantly stronger than aluminum salt microparticles, likely related to nanoparticle's stronger ability to directly activate NLRP3 inflammasome as the nanoparticles are more efficiently taken up by phagocytic cells. Endogenous signals such as uric acid from cell damage or death caused by the cytotoxicity of aluminum salts are thought to indirectly activate inflammasome, prompting us to hypothesize that the potent adjuvant activity of aluminum salt nanoparticles is also related to their ability to stimulate uric acid production...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334260/crude-extract-of-origanum-vulgare-l-induced-cell-death-and-suppressed-mapk-and-pi3-akt-signaling-pathways-in-sw13-and-h295r-cell-lines
#10
Beatrice Rubin, Jacopo Mansi, Halenya Monticelli, Loris Bertazza, Marco Redaelli, Francesca Sensi, Maira Zorzan, Carla Scaroni, Caterina Mian, Maurizio Iacobone, Decio Armanini, Cristina Bertolini, Susi Barollo, Marco Boscaro, Raffaele Pezzani
Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) is a common aromatic plant used in Mediterranean and Asian Regions for treating respiratory diseases, painful menstruation, rheumatoid arthritis, etc. Recently its role as an anticancer plant has been suggested, although oregano has been never evaluated into adrenocortical tumour cell models. This study analysed for the first time the anticancer effects of a crude extract of wild mountain oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) in SW13 and H295R cell lines. The crude extract was characterised by GC/MS and the toxic effects of oregano were first analysed by brine shrimp lethality assay...
January 15, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334196/microfluidic-tumor-vascular-model-to-study-breast-cancer-cell-invasion-and-intravasation
#11
Supriya Nagaraju, Danh Truong, Ghassan Mouneimne, Mehdi Nikkhah
Cancer is a major leading cause of disease-related death in the world. The severe impact of cancer can be attributed to poor understanding of the mechanisms involved in earliest steps of the metastatic cascade, specifically invasion into the surrounding stroma and intravasation into the blood capillaries. However, conducting integrated biological studies of invasion and intravasation have been challenging, within in vivo models and traditional in vitro assay, due to difficulties in establishing a precise tumor microenvironment...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334187/surveying-the-landscape-of-optogenetic-methods-for-detection-of-protein-protein-interactions
#12
REVIEW
Matthew D Wiens, Robert E Campbell
Mapping the protein-protein interaction (PPi) landscape is of critical importance to furthering our understanding how cells and organisms function. Optogenetic methods, that is, approaches that utilize genetically encoded fluorophores or fluorogenic enzyme reactions, uniquely enable the visualization of biochemical phenomena in live cells with high spatial and temporal accuracy. Applying optogenetic methods to the detection of PPis requires the engineering of protein-based systems in which an optical signal undergoes a substantial change when the two proteins of interest interact...
January 15, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334172/silica-nanoparticle-induced-cytokine-responses-in-beas-2b-and-hbec3-kt-cells-significance-of-particle-size-and-signalling-pathways-in-different-lung-cell-cultures
#13
Marit Låg, Tonje Skuland, Anna Godymchuk, Thu H T Nguyen, Hang L T Pham, Magne Refsnes
We have previously reported that silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) of nominal size 50 nm (Si50) induce the pro-inflammatory cytokines CXCL8 and IL-6 in BEAS-2B cells, via mechanisms involving MAPK p38, TACE-mediated TGFα release and the NFκB pathway. In the present study, we examined whether these findings are cell-specific or might be extended to another epithelial lung cell model, HBEC3-KT, and also to SiNPs of a smaller size (nominal size of 10 nm; Si10). The TEM average size of Si10 and Si50 was 10.9 nm and 34...
January 15, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334123/cancer-associated-fibroblasts-tailored-tumor-microenvironment-of-therapy-resistance-in-gastrointestinal-cancers
#14
REVIEW
Yeqi Sun, Ruifen Wang, Meng Qiao, Yanchun Xu, Wenbin Guan, Lifeng Wang
Gastrointestinal cancers (GI) are a group of highly aggressive malignancies with heavy cancer-related mortalities. Even if continued development of therapy methods, therapy resistance has been a great obstruction for cancer treatment and thereby inevitably leads to depressed final mortality. Peritumoral cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs), a versatile population assisting cancer cells to build a facilitated tumor microenvironment (TME), has been demonstrated exerting a promotion influence on cancer proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis and also therapy resistance...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334115/label-free-multidimensional-information-acquisition-from-optogenetically-engineered-cells-using-a-graphene-transistor
#15
Gongxin Li, Jia Yang, Wenguang Yang, Feifei Wang, Yuechao Wang, Wenxue Wang, Lianqing Liu
The optogenetic technique, which allows the manipulation of cellular activity patterns in space and time by light, has transformed the field of neuroscience. However, acquiring multidimensional optogenetic information remains challenging despite the fact that several cellular information detection methods have been proposed. Herein, we present a new method to acquire label-free multidimensional information from optogenetically engineered cells using a graphene transistor. Using a graphene film to form a strong densely packed layer with cells, the cellular action potentials were characterized as light-activated transistor conductance signals, which quantified the multidimensional optogenetic information...
January 15, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334092/synthetic-cells-produce-a-quorum-sensing-chemical-signal-perceived-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#16
Giordano Rampioni, Francesca D'Angelo, Marco Messina, Alessandro Zennaro, Yutetsu Kuruma, Daniela Tofani, Livia Leoni, Pasquale Stano
Recent developments in bottom-up synthetic biology (e.g., lipid vesicle technology integrated with cell-free protein expression systems) allow the generation of semi-synthetic minimal cells (in short, synthetic cells, SCs) endowed with some distinctive capacities of natural cells. In particular, such approaches provide technological tools and conceptual frameworks for the design and engineering of programmable SCs capable of communicating with natural cells by exchanging chemical signals. Here we describe the generation of giant vesicle-based SCs which, via gene expression, synthesize in their aqueous lumen an enzyme that in turn produces a chemical signal...
January 15, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333980/percentages-of-pd-1-cd4-t-cells-and-pd-l1-dcs-are-increased-and-spd-1-level-is-elevated-in-patients-with-immune-thrombocytopenia
#17
Yingying Wang, Nannan Pang, Xinyou Wang, Ying Liu, Xiujuan Wang, Lei Wang, Mingling Sun, Halida Yasen, Fang Zhao, Wenxia Fan, Jianbing Ding, Xinhong Guo
The present study is to measure the expression of programmed death (PD)-1 / programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) negative costimulatory molecules, soluble format sPD-1 in patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), and to investigate their correlation with the secretion of cytokines. A total of 35 patients with ITP were included in the present study. Twenty healthy subjects who received physical examination at our hospital were included as control group. Peripheral blood was collected from all ITP patients and healthy subjects...
January 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333957/mir-98-promotes-apoptosis-of-glioma-cells-via-suppressing-ikbke-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#18
Lingyan Wang, Shaolei Guo, Heng Zhang
The inhibitor of kappa B kinase epsilon is overexpressed in glioma and plays antiapoptotic role via activating nuclear factor-kappa B. microRNA-98 can suppress glioma, modulate the activities of nuclear factor-kappa B, and bind to the 3'-untranslated region of inhibitor of kappa B kinase epsilon messenger RNA. This study was aimed to investigate the modulation of inhibitor of kappa B kinase epsilon/nuclear factor-kappa B by microRNA-98 in glioma. The results indicated that microRNA-98 was downregulated in glioma cell lines and human glioma tissues...
December 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333928/phosphorylation-of-stat3-promotes-vasculogenic-mimicry-by-inducing-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-colorectal-cancer
#19
Cong Han, Baocun Sun, Xiulan Zhao, Yanhui Zhang, Qiang Gu, Fang Liu, Nan Zhao, Lili Wu
Vasculogenic mimicry refers to the process by which highly invasive cancer cells mimic endothelial cells by forming blood channels. Vasculogenic mimicry is important for the invasion and metastasis of tumor cells in colorectal cancer. STAT3 was initially identified as a mediator of the inflammation-associated acute phase response. The phosphorylation of Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription 3 (p-STAT3) is closely related to tumor invasion and migration. We analyzed the relationship between p-STAT3 and vasculogenic mimicry formation in 65 human colorectal cancer samples, and the results showed that the expression of p-STAT3 is significantly correlated with vasculogenic mimicry, tumor metastasis, Tumor, Lymph Node and Metastasis Stage (TNM Stage), and poor prognosis...
December 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333924/dynamic-mr-imaging-for-functional-vascularization-depends-on-tissue-factor-signaling-in-glioblastoma
#20
Xiao Chen, Tian Xie, Jingqin Fang, Wei Xue, Houyi Kang, Haipeng Tong, Yu Guo, Bo Zhang, Sumei Wang, Yizeng Yang, Weiguo Zhang
Glomeruloid vascular proliferation (GVP) is a diagnostic hallmark and links to aggressive behavior, therapy resistance and poor prognosis in glioblastoma (GBM). It lacks clinical approaches to predict and monitor its formation and dynamic change. Yet the mechanism of GVPs also remains largely unknown. Using an in situ GBM xenograft mouse model, combined clinical MRI images of pre-surgery tumor and pathological investigation, we demonstrated that the inhibition of tissue factor (TF) decreased GVPs in Mouse GBM xenograft model...
January 15, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
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