Read by QxMD icon Read

Cell signaling

Carlos M Guardia, Raffaella De Pace, Rafael Mattera, Juan S Bonifacino
Selective transport of transmembrane proteins to different intracellular compartments often involves the recognition of sorting signals in the cytosolic domains of the proteins by components of membrane coats. Some of these coats have as their key components a family of heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes named AP-1 through AP-5. AP complexes play important roles in all cells, but their functions are most critical in neurons because of the extreme compartmental complexity of these cells. Accordingly, various diseases caused by mutations in AP subunit genes exhibit a range of neurological abnormalities as their most salient features...
March 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Zhaohui Qiu, Jie Peng, Lingli Mou, Xiao Li, Fanqi Meng, Peng Yu
Multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumors occurs when tumor cells exhibit reduced sensitivity to a large number of unrelated drugs. The molecular mechanism of MDR commonly involves overexpression of the plasma membrane drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Overexpression of P-gp may be induced by the selection and/or adaptation of cells during exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, referred to as acquired P-gp-mediated MDR. This study aimed to establish a P-gp quantification method by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography and Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) to better understand the regulation of P-gp expression and its relationship with the level of drug resistance...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Xiao-Mei Shi, Gao-Chao Fan, Xueying Tang, Qingming Shen, Jun-Jie Zhu
Sensitive and specific detection of DNA is of great significance for clinical diagnosis. In this paper, an effective cascade signal amplification strategy was introduced into photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) DNA. This proposed signal amplification strategy integrates λ-exonuclease (λ-Exo) aided target recycling with hybridization chain reaction (HCR) and enzyme catalysis. In the presence of target DNA (tDNA) of HTLV-I, the designed hairpin DNA (h1 DNA) hybridized with tDNA, subsequently recognized and cleaved by λ-Exo to set free tDNA...
March 13, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Sorina Suarasan, Emilia Licarete, Simion Astilean, Ana-Maria Craciun
Nowadays, the non-linear optical effect of two-photon excited (TPE) fluorescence has recently grown in interest in recent years over other optical imaging method, due to improved 3D spatial resolution, deep penetrability and less photodamage of living organism owing to the excitation in near-infrared region (NIR). In parallel, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have gain considerable attention for NIR TPE bio-imaging applications due to their appealing ability to generate strong intrinsic photoluminescence (PL). Here, we demonstrate the capability of differently shaped gelatin-coated AuNPs to perform as reliable label-free contrast agents for the non-invasive NIR imaging of NIH:OVCAR-3 ovary cancer cells via TPE Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM)...
March 14, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Akhilesh Kumar, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Ajay Amit, Amir Zaidi, Raj Kishor Pandey, Ashish Kumar Singh, Shashi S Suman, Vahab Ali, Vidya Nand Rabi Das, Krishna Pandey, Vikas Kumar, Shubhankar Kumar Singh, Shyam Narayan, Hirendra Kumar Chourasia, Pradeep Das, Sanjiva Bimal
We report here a Leishmania donovani ornithine decarboxylase (Ld-ODC) gene used as a DNA vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis in a murine Balb/c mouse model. This study also evaluated the possible mechanism of action directed by this candidate. We found a Th1 immune response after immunization using an Ld-ODC DNA vaccine, with results based on the rearrangement of TCR-V-α-2, proliferation of Carboxy fluorescein Succinimidyle ester positive T cells, which were able to produce cytokines such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-2, but not IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10, and modulations of the STAT-1 and p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways...
March 17, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Ying Huang, Fang Liu, Fang Zhang, Pingsheng Liu, Tao Xu, Wenjun Ding
Numerous studies have demonstrated that vanadium compounds are able to improve lipemia and triglyceridemia in both humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanism remains elusive. The present study was conducted to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of vanadium(IV) complex with 4-chlorodipicolinic acid (VOdipic-Cl)-induced autophagy on hepatic lipid accumulation. To explore the possible underlying mechanisms, primary rat hepatocytes, human hepatoma cell line HepG2, and liver tissue from C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) were used...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Dawei Cai, Zongjian Liu, Guangqi Kong
BACKGROUND Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have emerged as important regulators in carcinogenesis and metastasis. However, the knowledge of circRNAs in bladder cancer remains limited. This study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of circRNAs in the development and progression of bladder cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS Three pairs of bladder carcinomas (including high- and low-grade tumors) and adjacent normal tissues were collected from patients. The total RNAs were extracted from these samples and subjected to Clariom D microarray assays to detect the differentially expressed circRNAs and mRNAs...
March 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Jelena Krstic, Markus Galhuber, Tim J Schulz, Michael Schupp, Andreas Prokesch
Lifestyle-related disorders, such as the metabolic syndrome, have become a primary risk factor for the development of liver pathologies that can progress from hepatic steatosis, hepatic insulin resistance, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis, to the most severe condition of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While the prevalence of liver pathologies is steadily increasing in modern societies, there are currently no approved drugs other than chemotherapeutic intervention in late stage HCC. Hence, there is a pressing need to identify and investigate causative molecular pathways that can yield new therapeutic avenues...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Timsy Uppal, Roni Sarkar, Ranjit Dhelaria, Subhash C Verma
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus or Human herpesvirus-8 (KSHV/HHV-8), an oncogenic human herpesvirus and the leading cause of cancer in HIV-infected individuals, is a major public health concern with recurring reports of epidemics on a global level. The early detection of KSHV virus and subsequent activation of the antiviral immune response by the host's immune system are crucial to prevent KSHV infection. The host's immune system is an evolutionary conserved system that provides the most important line of defense against invading microbial pathogens, including viruses...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Sahla Belhadj, Olfa Hentati, Ghaith Hamdaoui, Khaskhoussi Fakhreddine, Elisa Maillard, Stéphanie Dal, Séverine Sigrist
Hyperglycemia occurs during diabetes and insulin resistance. It causes oxidative stress by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, leading to cellular damage. Polyphenols play a central role in defense against oxidative stress. In our study, we investigated the antioxidant properties of simmondsin, a pure molecule present in jojoba seeds, and of the aqueous extract of jojoba seeds on fructose-induced oxidative stress in RINm5f beta cells. The exposure of RINm5f beta cells to fructose triggered the loss of cell viability (-48%, p < 0...
March 20, 2018: Nutrients
Heekyeong Park, Sungho Lee, Seok Hwan Jeong, Ui Hyun Jung, Kidong Park, Min Goo Lee, Sunkook Kim, Joonhyung Lee
Flexible sensors connected to cell phones are a promising technology that can aid in continuously monitoring signals in our daily lives, such as an individual's health status and information from buildings, farms, and industry. Among such signals, real-time humidity monitoring is crucial to a comfortable life, as human bodies, plants, and industrial environments require appropriate humidity to be maintained. We propose a hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene (H-PTFE)-based flexible humidity sensor integrated with readout circuitry, wireless communication, and a mobile battery...
March 20, 2018: Sensors
Jae-Yean Kim
Communication between cells is an essential process for developing and maintaining multicellular collaboration during plant development and physiological adaptation in response to environmental stimuli. The intercellular movement of proteins and RNAs in addition to the movement of small nutrients or signaling molecules such as sugars and phytohormones has emerged as a novel mechanism of cell-to-cell signaling in plants. As a strategy for efficient intercellular communication and long-distance molecule movement, plants have evolved plant-specific symplasmic communication networks via plasmodesmata (PDs) and the phloem...
March 20, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Quanwei Zhang, Qi Wang, Jishang Gong, Jiaxing Du, Yong Zhang, Xingxu Zhao
Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) recapitulates many of the activities of insulin and promotes differentiation of myoblasts and osteoblasts, which likely contribute to genetic variations of growth potential. However, little is known about the functions and signaling properties of IGF2 variants in yaks. The over-expression vector and knockdown sequence of yak IGF2 were transfected into yak fibroblasts, and the effects were detected by a series of assays. IGF2 expression in yak muscle tissues was significantly lower than that of other tissues...
March 20, 2018: Genes
Adriano Mendes, Richard J Kuhn
Alphavirus nucleocapsids are assembled in the cytoplasm of infected cells from 240 copies of the capsid protein and the approximately 11 kb positive strand genomic RNA. However, the challenge of how the capsid specifically selects its RNA package and assembles around it has remained an elusive one to solve. In this review, we will summarize what is known about the alphavirus capsid protein, the packaging signal, and their roles in the mechanism of packaging and assembly. We will review the discovery of the packaging signal and how there is as much evidence for, as well as against, its requirement to specify packaging of the genomic RNA...
March 20, 2018: Viruses
Jeffrey K Holden, Christian N Cunningham
The Hippo pathway is a critical transcriptional signaling pathway that regulates cell growth, proliferation and organ development. The transcriptional enhanced associate domain (TEAD) protein family consists of four paralogous transcription factors that function to modulate gene expression in response to the Hippo signaling pathway. Transcriptional activation of these proteins occurs upon binding to the co-activator YAP/TAZ whose entry into the nucleus is regulated by Lats1/2 kinase. In recent years, it has become apparent that the dysregulation and/or overexpression of Hippo pathway effectors is implicated in a wide range of cancers, including prostate, gastric and liver cancer...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Yawara Kawano, Oksana Zavidij, Jihye Park, Michele Moschetta, Katsutoshi Kokubun, Tarek H Mouhieddine, Salomon Manier, Yuji Mishima, Naoka Murakami, Mark Bustoros, Romanos Sklavenitis Pistofidis, Mairead Reidy, Yu J Shen, Mahshid Rahmat, Pavlo Lukyanchykov, Esilida Sula Karreci, Shokichi Tsukamoto, Jiantao Shi, Satoshi Takagi, Daisy Huynh, Antonio Sacco, Yu-Tzu Tai, Marta Chesi, P Leif Bergsagel, Aldo M Roccaro, Jamil Azzi, Irene M Ghobrial
Despite significant advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), most patients succumb to disease progression. One of the major immunosuppressive mechanisms that is believed to play a role in myeloma progression, is the expansion of regulatory T-cells (Tregs). In this study, we demonstrate that myeloma cells drive Treg expansion and activation by secreting type-1 interferon (IFN). Blocking IFNAR1 (interferon alpha and beta receptor 1) on Tregs significantly decreases both, myeloma-associated Treg immunosuppressive function and myeloma progression...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Magdalena Dryglewska, Bogdan Kolarz, Maria Majdan
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that results in uncontrolled immune system activation and overproduction of autoantibodies. The pathogenesis of the disease is complex and not fully understood, nevertheless, genetic and environmental factors play an important role. So far, about 30 genes have been identified to be involved in the SLE pathomechanism. However, not all genetically predisposed individuals develop the disease. This phenomenon can be associated with epigenetic changes that occur under the influence of environmental factors...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Keith G Avin, Julian A Vallejo, Neal X Chen, Kun Wang, Chad D Touchberry, Marco Brotto, Sarah L Dallas, Sharon M Moe, Michael J Wacker
Skeletal muscle dysfunction accompanies the clinical disorders of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets. In both disorders fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived hormone regulating phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, becomes chronically elevated. FGF23 has been shown to play a direct role in cardiac muscle dysfunction; however, it is unknown whether FGF23 signaling can also directly induce skeletal muscle dysfunction. We found expression of potential FGF23 receptors ( Fgfr1-4) and α-Klotho in muscles of two animal models (CD-1 and Cy/+ rat, a naturally occurring rat model of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder) as well as C2 C12 myoblasts and myotubes...
March 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Yinfang Wang, Yitong Huang, Youbin Liu, Jinping Li, Yilong Hao, Peihao Yin, Zongjun Liu, Jingzhou Chen, Ying Wang, Nanping Wang, Peng Zhang
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that are able to change their morphology and cellular distribution by either fission or fusion. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling mitochondrial dynamics in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) remain largely unknown. In this study, we observed that knock down of microtubule-associated tumor suppressor 1 (MTUS1) in ECs inhibited tube formation and migration, accompanied with decreased promigratory signalings. We showed that MTUS1 was localized in the outer membrane of mitochondria in ECs...
March 20, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Andreas Weber, Mareike Barth, Jessica Isabel Selig, Silja Raschke, Konstantinos Dakaras, Alexander Hof, Julia Hesse, Jürgen Schrader, Artur Lichtenberg, Payam Akhyari
Calcific aortic valve disease is an active disease process with lipoprotein deposition, chronic inflammation, and progressive leaflet degeneration. Expression of ectonucleotidases, a group of membrane-bound enzymes that regulate the metabolism of ATP and its metabolites, may coregulate the degeneration process of valvular interstitial cells (VICs). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the enzymes of the purinergic system in the degeneration process of VICs. Ovine VICs were cultivated in vitro under different prodegenerative conditions and treated with inhibitors of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (CD39)/ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1), and 5'-nucleotidase (CD73), as well as with adenosine and adenosine receptor agonists...
March 20, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"