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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335557/ros-production-and-erk-activity-are-involved-in-the-effects-of-d-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-and-metformin-in-a-glucose-deficient-condition
#1
Santosh Lamichhane, Tonking Bastola, Ramesh Pariyar, Eun-Sol Lee, Ho-Sub Lee, Dae Ho Lee, Jungwon Seo
Hypoglycemia, a complication of insulin or sulfonylurea therapy in diabetic patients, leads to brain damage. Furthermore, glucose replenishment following hypoglycemic coma induces neuronal cell death. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying glucose deficiency-induced cytotoxicity and the protective effect of d-β-hydroxybutyrate (D-BHB) using SH-SY5Y cells. The cytotoxic mechanism of metformin under glucose deficiency was also examined. Cell viability under 1 mM glucose (glucose deficiency) was significantly decreased which was accompanied by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and glycogen synthase 3 (GSK3β)...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335522/extracellular-vesicles-deliver-host-and-virus-rna-and-regulate-innate-immune-response
#2
REVIEW
Takahisa Kouwaki, Masaaki Okamoto, Hirotake Tsukamoto, Yoshimi Fukushima, Hiroyuki Oshiumi
The innate immune system plays a crucial role in controlling viral infection. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors and RIG-I-like receptors, sense viral components called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and trigger signals to induce innate immune responses. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, deliver functional RNA and mediate intercellular communications. Recent studies have revealed that EVs released from virus-infected cells deliver viral RNA to dendritic cells and macrophages, thereby activating PRRs in recipient cells, which results in the expression of type I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335520/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-unfolded-protein-response-in-cartilage-pathophysiology-contributing-factors-to-apoptosis-and-osteoarthritis
#3
REVIEW
Alexandria Hughes, Alexandra E Oxford, Ken Tawara, Cheryl L Jorcyk, Julia Thom Oxford
Chondrocytes of the growth plate undergo apoptosis during the process of endochondral ossification, as well as during the progression of osteoarthritis. Although the regulation of this process is not completely understood, alterations in the precisely orchestrated programmed cell death during development can have catastrophic results, as exemplified by several chondrodystrophies which are frequently accompanied by early onset osteoarthritis. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie chondrocyte apoptosis during endochondral ossification in the growth plate has the potential to impact the development of therapeutic applications for chondrodystrophies and associated early onset osteoarthritis...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335502/catechins-and-their-therapeutic-benefits-to-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#4
REVIEW
Fei-Yan Fan, Li-Xuan Sang, Min Jiang
Catechins are natural polyphenolic phytochemicals that exist in food and medicinal plants, such as tea, legume and rubiaceae. An increasing number of studies have associated the intake of catechins-rich foods with the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases in humans, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Some studies have demonstrated that catechins could significantly inhibit the excessive oxidative stress through direct or indirect antioxidant effects and promote the activation of the antioxidative substances such as glutathione peroxidases (GPO) and glutathione (GSH), reducing the oxidative damages to the colon...
March 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335497/ginsenoside-ppd-s-antitumor-effect-via-down-regulation-of-mtor-revealed-by-super-resolution-imaging
#5
Bo Teng, Junguang Jiang, Lijing Zhao, Jing Gao, Junyu Chen, Zhe Liu, Hongda Wang, Binfeng Lu
Derived from Panax ginseng, the natural product 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD) has been reported for its cytotoxicity against several cancer cell lines. The molecular mechanism is, however, not well understood. Here we show that PPD significantly inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and causes G2/M cell cycle arrest in human laryngeal carcinoma cells (Hep-2 cells). PPD also decreases the levels of proteins related to cell proliferation. Moreover, PPD-induced apoptosis is characterized by a dose-dependent down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax, and is accompanied by the activation of Caspase-3 as well...
March 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335461/design-and-validation-of-a-low-cost-portable-device-to-quantify-postural-stability
#6
Yong Zhu
Measurement of the displacement of the center-of-pressure (COP) is an important tool used in biomechanics to assess postural stability and human balance. The goal of this research was to design and validate a low-cost portable device that can offer a quick indication of the state of postural stability and human balance related conditions. Approximate entropy (ApEn) values reflecting the amount of irregularity hiding in COP oscillations were used to calculate the index. The prototype adopted a portable design using the measurements of the load cells located at the four corners of a low-cost force platform...
March 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335442/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-effects-of-gracilaria-verrucosa-extracts-on-osteoclast-differentiation
#7
Kwang-Jin Kim, Yong-Jin Lee, Yun-Ho Hwang, Kyung-Yun Kang, Sung-Tae Yee, Young-Jin Son
Bone remodeling, a physiological process characterized by bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts, is important for the maintenance of healthy bone in adult humans. Osteoclasts play a critical role in bone erosion and osteoporosis and are bone-specific multinucleated cells generated through differentiation of monocyte/macrophage lineage precursors. Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) has been reported to induce osteoclast differentiation. In this study, we explored whether Gracilaria verrucosa extracts (GE) could affect RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335432/marine-lectins-dlfbl-and-hddsbl-fused-with-soluble-coxsackie-adenovirus-receptor-facilitate-adenovirus-infection-in-cancer-cells-but-have-different-effects-on-cell-survival
#8
Bingbing Wu, Shengsheng Mei, Lianzhen Cui, Zhenzhen Zhao, Jianhong Chen, Tao Wu, Gongchu Li
Cancer development and progression are usually associated with glycosylation change, providing prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets, for various cancers. In this work, Dicentrarchus labrax fucose binding lectin (DlFBL) and Haliotis discus discus sialic acid binding lectin (HddSBL) were genetically fused with soluble coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (sCAR), and produced through a bacterial expression system. Results showed that recombinant sCAR-DlFBL not only facilitated adenovirus Ad-EGFP infection in K562/ADR and U87MG cells, but also enhanced the cytotoxicity of adenovirus harboring gene encoding Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (PPA) or DlFBL (Ad-PPA or Ad-DlFBL) on U87MG cells through inducing apoptosis...
March 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335409/the-formyl-peptide-receptors-diversity-of-ligands-and-mechanism-for-recognition
#9
REVIEW
Hui-Qiong He, Richard D Ye
The formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are G protein-coupled receptors that transduce chemotactic signals in phagocytes and mediate host-defense as well as inflammatory responses including cell adhesion, directed migration, granule release and superoxide production. In recent years, the cellular distribution and biological functions of FPRs have expanded to include additional roles in homeostasis of organ functions and modulation of inflammation. In a prototype, FPRs recognize peptides containing N-formylated methionine such as those produced in bacteria and mitochondria, thereby serving as pattern recognition receptors...
March 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335402/2-hydroxymelatonin-a-predominant-hydroxylated-melatonin-metabolite-in-plants-shows-antitumor-activity-against-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#10
Yi Yang, Rui Zhou, So-Yeon Park, Kyoungwhan Back, Woo Kyun Bae, Kyung Keun Kim, Hangun Kim
2-Hydroxymelatonin is a predominant hydroxylated melatonin metabolite in plants. To investigate whether it has potent cytotoxic effects on colorectal cancer cells, four colorectal cancer cell lines, Caco2, HCT116, DLD1, and CT26, were treated with 2-hydroxymelatonin and melatonin. 2-Hydroxymelatonin had a much lower IC50 value than melatonin in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The cytotoxic effect of 2-hydroxymelatonin was much stronger than that of melatonin at high concentrations (1000 or 2000 μM) in HCT116, DLD1, and CT26 cells, but only at intermediate concentrations (250 or 500 μM) in Caco2 cells...
March 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335401/the-vital-dye-cdr10b-labels-the-zebrafish-mid-intestine-and-lumen
#11
Veronika Sander, Shantanu Patke, Jung Y Lee, Young-Tae Chang, Alan J Davidson
We describe the use of the fluorescent reporter compound CDr10b to label mid-intestinal structures in zebrafish larvae after simple immersion. CDr10b is deposited into the gut where it initially fills the lumen and is excreted. Using laser-mediated injury of the intestine, we show that CDr10b provides a useful readout of the integrity and repair of the epithelial cell barrier. In addition, CDr10b specifically labels the absorptive mid-intestine segment that is analogous to the mammalian small intestine. By perturbing retinoic acid signaling, which regulates the size of the mid-intestine segment, we show that CDr10b is a valuable tool to rapidly assess developmental malformations of the intestine in live animals...
March 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335387/dectin-1-mediated-pathway-contributes-to-fusarium-proliferatum-induced-cxcl-8-release-from-human-respiratory-epithelial-cells
#12
Chang-Ching Yeh, Huann-Cheng Horng, Hong Chou, Hsiao-Yun Tai, Horng-Der Shen, Shie-Liang Hsieh, Peng-Hui Wang
Fusarium species are causative agents of human respiratory disorders and are distributed widely in our environment. Little is known of their interaction with human respiratory epithelial cells, which may contribute to allergic airway responses. In this study, we report on the release of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL-8) from human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells upon stimulation with Fusarium proliferatum extracts. F. proliferatum-induced cytokine release from BEAS-2B cells was determined by cytokine array and CXCL-8 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335262/nanomaterials-for-tissue-engineering-in-dentistry
#13
REVIEW
Manila Chieruzzi, Stefano Pagano, Silvia Moretti, Roberto Pinna, Egle Milia, Luigi Torre, Stefano Eramo
The tissue engineering (TE) of dental oral tissue is facing significant changes in clinical treatments in dentistry. TE is based on a stem cell, signaling molecule, and scaffold triad that must be known and calibrated with attention to specific sectors in dentistry. This review article shows a summary of micro- and nanomorphological characteristics of dental tissues, of stem cells available in the oral region, of signaling molecules usable in TE, and of scaffolds available to guide partial or total reconstruction of hard, soft, periodontal, and bone tissues...
July 21, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335260/a-label-free-microelectrode-array-based-on-one-step-synthesis-of-chitosan-multi-walled-carbon-nanotube-thionine-for-ultrasensitive-detection-of-carcinoembryonic-antigen
#14
Huiren Xu, Yang Wang, Li Wang, Yilin Song, Jinping Luo, Xinxia Cai
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been an extensively used tumor marker responsible for clinical early diagnosis of cervical carcinomas, and pancreatic, colorectal, gastric and lung cancer. Combined with micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS) technology, it is important to develop a novel immune microelectrode array (MEA) not only for rapid analysis of serum samples, but also for cell detection in vitro and in vivo. In this work, we depict a simple approach to modify chitosan-multi-walled carbon nanotubes-thionine (CS-MWCNTs-THI) hybrid film through one-step electrochemical deposition and the CS-MWCNTs-THI hybrid films are successfully employed to immobilize anti-CEA for fabricating simple, label-free, and highly sensitive electro-chemical immune MEAs...
July 11, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335211/noise-removal-with-maintained-spatial-resolution-in-raman-images-of-cells-exposed-to-submicron-polystyrene-particles
#15
Linnea Ahlinder, Susanne Wiklund Lindström, Christian Lejon, Paul Geladi, Lars Österlund
The biodistribution of 300 nm polystyrene particles in A549 lung epithelial cells has been studied with confocal Raman spectroscopy. This is a label-free method in which particles and cells can be imaged without using dyes or fluorescent labels. The main drawback with Raman imaging is the comparatively low spatial resolution, which is aggravated in heterogeneous systems such as biological samples, which in addition often require long measurement times because of their weak Raman signal. Long measurement times may however induce laser-induced damage...
April 29, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335083/down-regulation-of-dab2ip-promotes-colorectal-cancer-invasion-and-metastasis-by-translocating-hnrnpk-into-nucleus-to-enhance-the-transcription-of-mmp2
#16
X H Zhu, J M Wang, S S Yang, F F Wang, J L Hu, S N Xin, H Men, G F Lu, X L Lan, D Zhang, X Y Wang, W T Liao, Y Q Ding, L Liang
DOC-2/DAB2 interacting protein (DAB2IP) is a RasGAP protein that shows a suppressive effect on cancer progression. Our previous study showed the involvement of transcription regulation of DAB2IP in metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the molecular mechanisms of DAB2IP in regulating the progression of CRC need to be further explored. Here, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNPK) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) as vital downstream targets of DAB2IP in CRC cells by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and cDNA microassay, respectively...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335028/defining-the-5%C3%AE-and-3%C3%AE-landscape-of-the-drosophila-transcriptome-with-exo-seq-and-rnaseh-seq
#17
Shaked Afik, Osnat Bartok, Maxim N Artyomov, Alexander A Shishkin, Sabah Kadri, Mor Hanan, Xiaopeng Zhu, Manuel Garber, Sebastian Kadener
Cells regulate biological responses in part through changes in transcription start sites (TSS) or cleavage and polyadenylation sites (PAS). To fully understand gene regulatory networks, it is therefore critical to accurately annotate cell type-specific TSS and PAS. Here we present a simple and straightforward approach for genome-wide annotation of 5΄- and 3΄-RNA ends. Our approach reliably discerns bona fide PAS from false PAS that arise due to internal poly(A) tracts, a common problem with current PAS annotation methods...
February 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334989/impaired-fetal-muscle-development-and-jak-stat-activation-mark-disease-onset-and-progression-in-a-mouse-model-for-merosin-deficient-congenital-muscular-dystrophy
#18
Andreia M Nunes, Ryan D Wuebbles, Apurva Sarathy, Tatiana M Fontelonga, Marianne Deries, Dean J Burkin, Sólveig Thorsteinsdóttir
Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A) is a dramatic neuromuscular disease in which crippling muscle weakness is evident from birth. Here we use the dyW mouse model for human MDC1A to trace the onset of the disease during development in utero. We find that myotomal and primary myogenesis proceed normally in homozygous dyW-/-embryos. Fetal dyW-/-muscles display the same number of myofibers as wildtype muscles, but by E18.5 dyW-/-muscles are significantly smaller and muscle size is not recovered post-natally...
March 7, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334931/rgf1p-rho1p-gef-is-required-for-double-strand-break-repair-in-fission-yeast
#19
Elvira Manjón, Tomás Edreira, Sofía Muñoz, Yolanda Sánchez
Rho GTPases are conserved molecules that control cytoskeletal dynamics. These functions are expedited by Rho GEFs that stimulate the release of GDP to enable GTP binding, thereby allowing Rho proteins to initiate intracellular signaling. How Rho GEFs and Rho GTPases protect cells from DNA damage is unknown. Here, we explore the extreme sensitivity of a deletion mutation in the Rho1p exchange factor Rgf1p to the DNA break/inducing antibiotic phleomycin (Phl). The Rgf1p mutant cells are defective in reentry into the cell cycle following the induction of severe DNA damage...
March 15, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334913/tdp-43-mutations-causing-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-are-associated-with-altered-expression-of-rna-binding-protein-hnrnp-k-and-affect-the-nrf2-antioxidant-pathway
#20
Diane Moujalled, Alexandra Grubman, Karla Acevedo, Shu Yang, Yazi D Ke, Donia M Moujalled, Clare Duncan, Aphrodite Caragounis, Nirma D Perera, Bradley J Turner, Mercedes Prudencio, Leonard Petrucelli, Ian Blair, Lars M Ittner, Peter J Crouch, Jeffrey R Liddell, Anthony R White
TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a major disease-associated protein involved in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U). Our previous studies found a direct association between TDP-43 and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K). In this study, utilizing ALS patient fibroblasts harboring a TDP-43M337V mutation and NSC-34 motor neuronal cell line expressing TDP-43Q331K mutation, we show that hnRNP K expression is impaired in urea soluble extracts from mutant TDP-43 cell models...
March 9, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
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