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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245030/osmotin-a-plant-defense-tool-against-biotic-and-abiotic-stresses
#1
REVIEW
Hakim, Abid Ullah, Amjad Hussain, Muhammad Shaban, Aamir Hamid Khan, Muna Alariqi, Summia Gul, Zhang Jun, Sun Lin, Jianying Li, Shuangxia Jin, Muhammad Farooq Hussain Munis
Plants are prone to a number of pathogens and abiotic stresses that cause various disorders. However, plants possess a defense mechanism to cope with these stresses. The osmotin protein belongs to the PR-5 family of Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, which are produced in response to diseases caused by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Osmotin uses a signal transduction pathway to inhibit the activity of defensive cell wall barriers and increases its own cytotoxic efficiency. However, in response to cytotoxic effects, this pathway stimulates a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade that triggers changes in the cell wall and enables osmotin's entrance into the plasma membrane...
December 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243493/quorum-sensing-network-associated-gene-regulation-in-gram-positive-bacteria
#2
Goutam Banerjee, Arun Kumar Ray
Quorum sensing (QS) is the chemical communication processes between bacteria, which may be inter-genus or intra-genus. In general, several physiological functions, such as nutrient uptake, competence development, biofilm formation, sporulation, and toxin secretion, are accomplished through QS process. The QS (cell density-dependent process) circuit in Gram-positive bacteria consists mainly of two parts: an inducer molecule and a receptor protein. The binding of inducer molecule to receptor activates the target gene, which then performs the necessary function in bacteria...
December 15, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242285/redundancy-and-cooperation-in-notch-intercellular-signaling
#3
Juan C Luna-Escalante, Pau Formosa-Jordan, Marta Ibañes
During metazoan development, Notch signaling drives spatially coordinated differentiation by establishing communication between adjacent cells. This occurs through either lateral inhibition, in which adjacent cells acquire distinct fates, or lateral induction, in which all cells become equivalent. Notch signaling is commonly activated by several distinct ligands, each of which drives signaling with a different efficiency upon binding to the Notch receptor of adjacent cells. Moreover, these ligands can also be distinctly regulated by Notch signaling...
December 14, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242234/arabidopsis-pollen-tube-integrity-and-sperm-release-are-regulated-by-ralf-mediated-signaling
#4
Zengxiang Ge, Tabata Bergonci, Yuling Zhao, Yanjiao Zou, Shuo Du, Ming-Che Liu, Xingju Luo, Hao Ruan, Liliana E García-Valencia, Sheng Zhong, Saiying Hou, Qingpei Huang, Luhua Lai, Daniel S Moura, Hongya Gu, Juan Dong, Hen-Ming Wu, Thomas Dresselhaus, Junyu Xiao, Alice Y Cheung, Li-Jia Qu
In flowering plants, fertilization requires complex cell-to-cell communication events between the pollen tube and the female reproductive tissues, which are controlled by extracellular signaling molecules interacting with receptors at the pollen tube surface. We found that two such receptors in Arabidopsis, BUPS1 and BUPS2, and their peptide ligands, RALF4 and RALF19, are pollen tube-expressed and are required to maintain pollen tube integrity. BUPS1 and BUPS2 interact with receptors ANXUR1 and ANXUR2 via their ectodomains, and both sets of receptors bind RALF4 and RALF19...
December 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242232/ralf4-19-peptides-interact-with-lrx-proteins-to-control-pollen-tube-growth-in-arabidopsis
#5
Martin A Mecchia, Gorka Santos-Fernandez, Nadine N Duss, Sofía C Somoza, Aurélien Boisson-Dernier, Valeria Gagliardini, Andrea Martínez-Bernardini, Tohnyui Ndinyanka Fabrice, Christoph Ringli, Jorge P Muschietti, Ueli Grossniklaus
The communication of changes in the extracellular matrix to the interior of the cell is crucial for a cell's function. The extracellular peptides of the RAPID ALKALINIZATION FACTOR (RALF) family have been identified as ligands of receptor-like kinases of the CrRLK1L subclass, but the exact mechanism of their perception is unclear. We found that Arabidopsis RALF4 and RALF19 redundantly regulate pollen tube integrity and growth, and that their function depends on pollen-expressed proteins of the LEUCINE-RICH REPEAT EXTENSIN (LRX) family, which play a role in cell wall development but whose mode of action is not understood...
December 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239921/inferiorly-pedicled-nasolabial-flap-for-reconstruction-of-anterior-maxilla-defects-class-i-and-ii
#6
Qingli Chen, Keremu Abasi, Zhongcheng Gong, Bin Ling, Hui Liu, Bo Shao
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to present the use of inferiorly pedicled nasolabial flap (IPNF) in the reconstruction of anterior maxilla defects class I and II. METHODS: Seven patients, 4 females and 3 males, aging from 38 to 75 (mean = 55.9) years old, from 2014 to 2017 reconstructed anterior part of maxilla with or without oronasal communication were included in this study. Five patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma, 1 patient presented with epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, and 1 patient had ameloblastoma...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239327/influence-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-and-radiation-on-gap-junctional-intercellular-communication-in-glioblastoma-multiforme-cell-lines
#7
Reinhardt Krcek, Pauline Latzer, Irenäus Anton Adamietz, Helmut Bühler, Carsten Theiss
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive glial brain tumor with an unfavorable prognosis despite all current therapies including surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. One characteristic of this tumor is a strong synthesis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an angiogenesis factor, followed by pronounced vascularization. VEGF became a target in the treatment of GBM, for example with bevacizumab or the tyrosine kinase inhibitor axitinib, which blocks VEGF receptors. To improve patients' prognosis, new targets in the treatment of GBM are under investigations...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238306/calcium-imaging-of-nerve-mast-cell-signaling-in-the-human-intestine
#8
Sabine Buhner, Natasja Barki, Wolfgang Greiter, Pieter Giesbertz, Ihsan E Demir, Güralp O Ceyhan, Florian Zeller, Hannelore Daniel, Michael Schemann
Introduction: It is suggested that an altered microenvironment in the gut wall alters communication along a mast cell nerve axis. We aimed to record for the first time signaling between mast cells and neurons in intact human submucous preparations. Methods: We used the Ca2+ sensitive dye Fluo-4 AM to simultaneously image changes in intracellular calcium [Ca+2]i (%ΔF/F) in neurons and mast cells. Data are presented as median with interquartile ranges (25/75%). Results: We recorded nerve responses in 29 samples upon selective activation of 223 mast cells by IgE receptor cross linking with the antibody mAb22E7...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237783/biographical-feature-richard-b-tom-thomson-jr-ph-d-d-abmm-f-aam
#9
Erik Munson
"The previous era was characterized by house staff laboratories in every ward, and house staff and attending physicians often spent long periods performing a diagnostic examination of the expectorated sputum specimen, which had been obtained with great care and plated for prompt incubation in incubators on the ward. Therapeutic decisions were generally based on these results. During the past 30 years, there has been a notable decline in the quality of this exercise. Some of this decline can be ascribed to the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988, which required that staff have credentials to interpret Gram stains of any specimens, thus essentially eliminating the house staff laboratory...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237733/communication-between-n-terminus-and-loop2-tunes-orai-activation
#10
Marc Fahrner, Saurabh K Pandey, Martin Muik, Lukas Traxler, Carmen Butorac, Michael Stadlbauer, Vasilina Zayats, Adéla Krizova, Peter Plenk, Irene Frischauf, Rainer Schindl, Hermann J Gruber, Peter Hinterdorfer, Rüdiger Ettrich, Christoph Romanin, Isabella Derler
Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels constitute the major Ca2+ entry pathway into the cell. They are fully reconstituted via intermembrane coupling of the Ca2+ selective Orai channel and the Ca2+ sensing protein STIM1. In addition to the Orai C-terminus, the main coupling site for STIM1, the Orai N-terminus is indispensable for Orai channel gating. Although the extended transmembrane Orai N-terminal (ETON) region (Orai1: aa73-91; Orai3: aa48-65) is fully conserved in the Orai1 and Orai3 isoforms, Orai3 tolerates larger N-terminal truncations than Orai1 in retaining store-operated activation...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236046/advances-in-proteomic-techniques-for-cytokine-analysis-focus-on-melanoma-research
#11
REVIEW
Helena Kupcova Skalnikova, Jana Cizkova, Jakub Cervenka, Petr Vodicka
Melanoma is a skin cancer with permanently increasing incidence and resistance to therapies in advanced stages. Reports of spontaneous regression and tumour infiltration with T-lymphocytes makes melanoma candidate for immunotherapies. Cytokines are key factors regulating immune response and intercellular communication in tumour microenvironment. Cytokines may be used in therapy of melanoma to modulate immune response. Cytokines also possess diagnostic and prognostic potential and cytokine production may reflect effects of immunotherapies...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236033/mast-cells-interact-with-endothelial-cells-to-accelerate-in-vitro-angiogenesis
#12
Devandir Antonio de Souza Junior, Vivian Marino Mazucato, Ana Carolina Santana, Constance Oliver, Maria Celia Jamur
Angiogenesis is a complex process that involves interactions between endothelial cells and various other cell types as well as the tissue microenvironment. Several previous studies have demonstrated that mast cells accumulate at angiogenic sites. In spite of the evidence suggesting a relationship between mast cells and angiogenesis, the association of mast cells and endothelial cells remains poorly understood. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between mast cells and endothelial cells during in vitro angiogenesis...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235614/techniques-for-maximizing-the-performance-of-molecular-pathology-testing-responsibilities-of-all-pathologists
#13
Evren Uzun, Sülen Sarioğlu
Molecular pathological analysis has an expanding role in patient diagnosis and management. The performance of these techniques relies on excellent laboratory procedures. However, the crucial step is obtaining the best samples for molecular analysis. Archiving and selection of these are the responsibilities of all pathologists even if they are not working at a center with molecular pathological facilities. This review focuses on the features of different types of materials for molecular pathological analysis...
December 13, 2017: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235124/silver-nanoparticles-increase-connexin43-mediated-gap-junctional-intercellular-communication-in-hacat-cells-through-activation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-and-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-signal-pathway
#14
Yu Qin, Limin Han, Di Yang, Hongying Wei, Yue Liu, Junhui Xu, Herman Autrup, Furong Deng, Xinbiao Guo
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in health and consumer products that routinely contact skin. However, the biological effects and possible mechanisms of AgNPs on skin remain unclear. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) plays a critical role in multicellular organisms to maintain tissue homeostasis. The aim of this study is to examine if non-coated AgNPs affect GJIC in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), and to identify the possible molecular mechanisms responsible for the effects. GJIC, connexin (Cx)43 protein and mRNA expression, and the effect of siRNA-mediated knockdown of Cx43 on GJIC were assessed...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235081/overview-of-the-mechanism-of-cytoskeletal-motors-based-on-structure
#15
REVIEW
Yusuke Kato, Takuya Miyakawa, Masaru Tanokura
In the last two decades, a wealth of structural and functional knowledge has been obtained for the three major cytoskeletal motor proteins, myosin, kinesin and dynein, which we review here. The cytoskeletal motor proteins myosin and kinesin are structurally similar in the core architecture of their motor domains and have similar force-producing mechanisms that are coupled with the chemical cycles of ATP binding, hydrolysis, Pi release and subsequent ADP release. The force is generated through conformational changes in the motor domain during Pi release and ATP binding in myosin and kinesin, respectively, and then converted into the rotation of the lever arm or neck linker (referred to as a power stroke) through the common structural pathways...
December 12, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233891/the-ftslb-sub-complex-of-the-bacterial-divisome-is-tetramer-with-an-uninterrupted-ftsl-helix-linking-the-transmembrane-and-periplasmic-regions
#16
Samson G F Condon, Deena-Al Mahbuba, Claire R Armstrong, Gladys Díaz-Vázquez, Samuel J Craven, Loren M LaPointe, Ambalika S Khadria, Rahul Chadda, John A Crooks, Nambirajan Rangarajan, Douglas B Weibel, Aaron A Hoskins, Janice L Robertson, Qiang Cui, Alessandro Senes
In Escherichia coli, FtsLB plays a central role in the initiation of cell division, possibly transducing a signal that will eventually lead to the activation of peptidoglycan remodeling at the forming septum. The molecular mechanisms by which FtsLB operates in the divisome, however, are not understood. Here we present a structural analysis of the FtsLB complex - performed with biophysical, computational and in vivo methods - that establishes the organization of the transmembrane region and proximal coiled coil of the complex...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233297/ppi-inhibitor-and-stabilizer-development-in-human-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Jürgen Bosch
All processes in living organisms are regulated by, or at least influenced by, protein-protein interactions (PPI). Membrane proteins play a fundamental part in this class of interactions: by providing inter-cellular communication and sensing capabilities to the cell, they lead to downstream regulation signaling events. It is therefore not surprising that PPI modulators are of keen interest when developing drug-like molecules for a range of diseases and medical conditions. However, techniques for exploiting PPIs in meaningful ways have only recently become readily available...
June 2017: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231990/tendon-explant-cultures-to-study-the-communication-between-adipose-stem-cells-and-native-tendon-niche
#18
Raquel Costa-Almeida, Dominika Berdecka, Márcia T Rodrigues, Rui L Reis, Manuela E Gomes
Poor clinical outcomes of tendon repair, together with limited regenerative capacity of the tissue, have triggered the search for alternative regenerative medicine strategies. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are being investigated as a promising cell source in contributing for tendon repopulation and reconstruction. However, the mechanisms involved in a potential beneficial effect in tendon regeneration are still to be uncovered. To gain further insights on the bi-directional crosstalk occurring between stem cells and the native tendon niche, it was used an indirect (trans-well) system for co-culturing human tendon explants and hASCs...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230832/management-of-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-in-the-setting-of-pregnancy-when-is-leukocytapheresis-appropriate-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Elizabeth M Staley, Sierra C Simmons, Alexander Z Feldman, Robin G Lorenz, Marisa B Marques, Lance A Williams, X Long Zheng, Huy P Pham
BACKGROUND: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a common hematologic malignancy; however, its occurrence during pregnancy is unusual due to its low prevalence in females of childbearing age. There are conflicting reports of how to best manage CML in pregnancy, particularly in the setting of leukocytosis. CASE REPORT: A 30-year-old female was diagnosed with CML at 18 weeks' estimated gestational age. On initial presentation she reported fatigue, night sweats, and early satiety, and was found to have a white blood cell (WBC) count of 69...
December 11, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230197/exosome-mediated-genetic-information-transfer-a-missing-piece-of-osteoblast-osteoclast-communication-puzzle
#20
Pengbin Yin, Houchen Lv, Yi Li, Yuan Deng, Licheng Zhang, Peifu Tang
The skeletal system functions and maintains itself based on communication between cells of diverse origins, especially between osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs), accounting for bone formation and resorption, respectively. Previously, protein-level information exchange has been the research focus, and this has been discussed in detail. The regulative effects of microRNAs (miRNAs) on OB and OC ignite the question as to whether genetic information could be transferred between bone cells. Exosomes, extracellular membrane vesicles 30-100 nm in diameter, have recently been demonstrated to transfer functional proteins, mRNAs, and miRNAs, and serve as mediators of intercellular communication...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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