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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656553/rational-fabrication-of-anti-freezing-non-drying-tough-organohydrogels-by-one-pot-solvent-displacement
#1
Fan Chen, Dan Zhou, Jiahui Wang, Tianzhen Li, Xiaohu Zhou, Tiansheng Gan, Stephan Handschuh-Wang, Xuechang Zhou
Tough hydrogels, polymeric network structures with excellent mechanical properties (e.g. high stretchability and toughness), are emerging soft materials, owing to their great potentials in applications spanning from soft robotics to tissue engineering. Despite their remarkably mechanical features, tough hydrogels exhibit two flaws, i.e., freezing around the icing temperatures of water and drying at arid conditions. Inspired by the applications of cryoprotectants (CPAs) in the inhibition of the icing of water in various biological samples (e...
April 14, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656370/role-of-exosomes-in-human-retroviral-mediated-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Monique Anderson, Fatah Kashanchi, Steven Jacobson
Retroviruses comprise an ancient and varied group of viruses with the unique ability to integrate DNA from an RNA transcript into the genome, a subset of which are able to integrate in humans. The timing of these integrations during human history has dictated whether these viruses have remained exogenous and given rise to various human diseases or have become inseparable from the host genome (endogenous retroviruses). Given the ability of retroviruses to integrate into the host and subsequently co-opt host cellular process for viral propagation, retroviruses have been shown to be closely associated with several cellular processes including exosome formation...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656116/chromogranin-a-and-its-derived-peptides-and-their-pharmacological-effects-during-intestinal-inflammation
#3
REVIEW
Nour Eissa, Hayam Hussein, Geoffrey N Hendy, Charles N Bernstein, Jean-Eric Ghia
The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ that produces a broad range of active peptides. Mucosal changes during inflammation alter the distribution and products of enteroendocrine cells (EECs) that play a role in immune activation and regulation of gut homeostasis by mediating communication between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) typically have altered expression of chromogranin (CHG)-A (CHGA), a major soluble protein secreted by EECs that functions as a pro-hormone...
April 12, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656046/developmental-expression-profiles-and-thyroidal-regulation-of-cytokines-during-metamorphosis-in-the-amphibian-xenopus-laevis
#4
Melanie J Gallant, Natacha S Hogan
Early life-stages of amphibians rely on the innate immune system for defense against pathogens. While thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for metamorphosis and later development of the adaptive immune system, the role of TH in innate immune system development is less clear. An integral part of the innate immune response are pro-inflammatory cytokines - effector molecules that allow communication between components of the immune system. The objective of this study was to characterize the expression of key pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), throughout amphibian development and determine the impacts of thyroidal modulation on their expression...
April 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653230/regulatory-network-analysis-of-high-expressed-long-non-coding-rna-linc00941-in-gastric-cancer
#5
Cong Luo, Yang Tao, Yuwei Zhang, Yinyin Zhu, Derry Ng Minyao, Maria Haleem, Changzheng Dong, Lina Zhang, Xiaohong Zhang, Jinshun Zhao, Qi Liao
Accumulating evidence suggests that the aberrant expression of long non-coding RNAs is closely related to the carcinogenesis and progression of gastric cancer (GC), which is a type of prevalent tumor with a high incidence and mortality rate. However, it is still a challenge to find reliable biomarkers and to understand their molecular mechanisms in GC. In this study, we first confirmed that LINC00941was up-regulated in GC tumor tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues by RT-PCR, and found that the expression level of LINC00941 was correlated with invasion depth, lymphatic metastasis, and the TNM stage of patients with GC...
April 10, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651847/labeling-carboxyl-groups-of-surface-exposed-proteins-provides-an-orthogonal-approach-for-cell-surface-isolation
#6
Nazlı Ezgi Özkan Küçük, Erdem Şanal, Edwin Tan, Timothy Mitchison, Nurhan Özlü
Quantitative profiling of cell surface proteins is critically important for the understanding of cell-cell communication, signaling, tissue development and homeostasis. Traditional proteomics methods are challenging for cell surface proteins due to their hydrophobic nature and low abundance, necessitating alternative methods to efficiently identify and quantify this protein group. Here, we established carboxyl reactive biotinylation for selective and efficient biotinylation and isolation of surface-exposed proteins of living cells...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651473/microfluidic-lung-airway-on-a-chip-with-arrayable-suspended-gels-for-studying-epithelial-and-smooth-muscle-cell-interactions
#7
Mouhita Humayun, Chung-Wai Chow, Edmond W K Young
Chronic lung diseases (CLDs) are regulated by complex interactions between many different cell types residing in lung airway tissues. Specifically, interactions between airway epithelial cells (ECs) and airway smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have been shown in part to play major roles in the pathogenesis of CLDs, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. To advance our understanding of lung pathophysiology and accelerate drug development processes, new innovative in vitro tissue models are needed that can reconstitute the complex in vivo microenvironment of human lung tissues...
April 13, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651280/collective-vortex-like-movement-of-bacillus-subtilis-facilitates-the-generation-of-floating-biofilms
#8
Nitai Steinberg, Gili Rosenberg, Alona Keren-Paz, Ilana Kolodkin-Gal
Bacteria in nature are usually found in complex multicellular structures, called biofilms. One common form of a biofilm is pellicle -a floating mat of bacteria formed in the water-air interphase. So far, our knowledge on the basic mechanisms underlying the formation of biofilms at air-liquid interfaces is not complete. In particular, the co-occurrence of motile cells and extracellular matrix producers has not been studied. In addition, the potential involvement of chemical communication in pellicle formation remained largely undefined...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650269/current-perspectives-on-the-crosstalk-between-lung-cancer-stem-cells-and-cancer-associated-fibroblasts
#9
REVIEW
Cristina Alguacil-Núñez, Inés Ferrer-Ortiz, Elena García-Verdú, Pilar López-Pirez, Irene Maria Llorente-Cortijo, Bruno Sainz
Lung cancer, in particular non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), is the second most common cancer in both men and women and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Its prognosis and diagnosis are determined by several driver mutations and diverse risk factors (e.g. smoking). While immunotherapy has proven effective in some patients, treatment of NSCLC using conventional chemotherapy is largely ineffective. The latter is believed to be due to the existence of a subpopulation of stem-like, highly tumorigenic and chemoresistant cells within the tumor population known as cancer stem cells (CSC)...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649319/unraveling-endothelin-1-induced-hypercontractility-of-human-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-from-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#10
Jamie L Wilson, Rod Warburton, Linda Taylor, Deniz Toksoz, Nicholas Hill, Peter Polgar
Contraction of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMC) isolated from pulmonary arterial hypertensive (PAH) and normal (non-PAH) subject lungs was determined and measured with real-time electrical impedance. Treatment of HPASMC with vasoactive peptides, endothelin-1 (ET-1) and bradykinin (BK) but not angiotensin II, induced a temporal decrease in the electrical impedance profile mirroring constrictive morphological change of the cells which typically was more robust in PAH as opposed to non-PAH cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648443/shedding-light-on-the-molecular-pathology-of-amyloid-plaques-in-transgenic-alzheimer-s-disease-mice-using-multimodal-maldi-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#11
Ibrahim Kaya, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Jörg Hanrieder
Senile plaques formed by aggregated amyloid β peptides are one of the major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) which have been suggested to be the primary influence triggering the AD pathogenesis and the rest of the disease process. However, neurotoxic Aβ aggregation and progression are associated with a wide range of enigmatic biochemical, biophysical and genetic processes. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a label-free method to elucidate the spatial distribution patterns of intact molecules in biological tissue sections...
April 12, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643475/tumor-derived-exosomal-lnc-sox2ot-promotes-emt-and-stemness-by-acting-as-a-cerna-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#12
Zhonghu Li, Peng Jiang, Jie Li, Minjie Peng, Xin Zhao, Xi Zhang, Kai Chen, Yujun Zhang, Hui Liu, Lang Gan, Huaqiang Bi, Ping Zhen, Jin Zhu, Xiaowu Li
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) or exosomes have recently been shown to play vital regulatory or communication roles in cancer biology. However, the roles and mechanisms of exosomal lncRNAs in tumor invasion or metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remain unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the detailed roles and mechanisms of tumor-generated exosomes in progression and metastasis of PDAC in vitro and in vivo. We identified a lncRNA-Sox2ot from exosomes of highly invasive PDAC cells, and analyzed the expression of Sox2ot in the plasma samples and found that the plasma exosomal Sox2ot expression was high and correlated with TNM stage and overall survival rate of PDAC patients...
April 12, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643357/release-of-staphylococcus-aureus-extracellular-vesicles-and-their-application-as-a-vaccine-platform
#13
Xiaogang Wang, Christopher D Thompson, Christopher Weidenmaier, Jean C Lee
Secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs), a process common to eukaryotes, archae, and bacteria, represents a secretory pathway that allows cell-free intercellular communication. Microbial EVs package diverse proteins and influence the host-pathogen interaction, but the mechanisms underlying EV production in Gram-positive bacteria are poorly understood. Here we show that EVs purified from community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus package cytosolic, surface, and secreted proteins, including cytolysins...
April 11, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630035/an-optogenetic-method-to-control-and-analyze-gene-expression-patterns-in-cell-to-cell-interactions
#14
Akihiro Isomura, Ryoichiro Kageyama
Cells should respond properly to temporally changing environments, which are influenced by various factors from surrounding cells. The Notch signaling pathway is one of such essential molecular machinery for cell-to-cell communications, which plays key roles in normal development of embryos. This pathway involves a cell-to-cell transfer of oscillatory information with ultradian rhythms, but despite the progress in molecular biology techniques, it has been challenging to elucidate the impact of multicellular interactions on oscillatory gene dynamics...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630007/optimizing-blood-transfusion-practices-through-bundled-intervention-implementation-in-patients-with-gynecologic-cancer-undergoing-laparotomy
#15
Sumer K Wallace, Jessica W Halverson, Christopher J Jankowski, Stephanie R DeJong, Amy L Weaver, Megan R Weinhold, Bijan J Borah, James P Moriarty, William A Cliby, Daryl J Kor, Andrew A Higgins, Hilary A Otto, Sean C Dowdy, Jamie N Bakkum-Gamez
OBJECTIVE: To examine blood transfusion practices and develop a standardized bundle of interventions to address the high rate of perioperative red blood cell transfusion among patients with ovarian and endometrial cancer. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Our primary aim was to determine whether an implemented bundled intervention was associated with a reduction in perioperative red blood cell transfusions among cases of laparotomy for cancer. Secondary aims included comparing perioperative demographic, surgical, complication, and cost data...
April 6, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628996/regulatory-mechanisms-of-branching-morphogenesis-in-mouse-submandibular-gland-rudiments
#16
REVIEW
Masanori Kashimata, Toru Hayashi
Branching morphogenesis is an important developmental process for many organs, including the salivary glands. Whereas epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, which are cell-to-cell communications, are known to drive branching morphogenesis, the molecular mechanisms responsible for those inductive interactions are still largely unknown. Cell growth factors and integrins are known to be regulators of branching morphogenesis of salivary glands. In addition, functional microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been reported to be present in the developing submandibular gland...
February 2018: Japanese Dental Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628212/chromatin-higher-order-folding-a-perspective-with-linker-dna-angles
#17
REVIEW
Sergei A Grigoryev
The mechanism by which the "beads-on-a-string" nucleosome chain folds into various higher-order chromatin structures in eukaryotic cell nuclei is still poorly understood. The various models depicting higher-order chromatin as regular helical fibers and the very opposite "polymer melt" theory imply that interactions between nucleosome "beads" make the main contribution to the chromatin compaction. Other models in which the geometry of linker DNA "strings" entering and exiting the nucleosome define the three-dimensional structure predict that small changes in the linker DNA configuration may strongly affect nucleosome chain folding and chromatin higher-order structure...
April 5, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628120/immunomorphometric-variations-of-sustentacular-cells-of-the-male-viscacha-adrenal-medulla-during-the-annual-reproductive-cycle-effects-of-androgens-and-melatonin
#18
Luis Ezequiel Gallol, Fabian Heber Mohamed
The adrenal medulla is crucial for the survival of species facing significant environmental changes. The parenchyma is composed mainly of chromaffin cells, ganglion cells and sustentacular cells (SC). The male viscacha exhibits seasonal variations of gonadal activity and other metabolic functions. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of the reproductive conditions on the morphology of SC of this rodent. In addition, the effects of testosterone and melatonin on these cells were studied. Immunoexpression of S100 protein, GFAP and vimentin were analyzed...
April 5, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627763/-lipid-raft-aging-in-the-human-frontal-cortex-during-nonpathological-aging-gender-influences-and-potential-implications-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Mario Díaz, Noemí Fabelo, Isidre Ferrer, Raquel Marín
Lipid rafts are highly dynamic membrane domains featured by distinctive biochemical composition and physicochemical properties compared with the surrounding plasma membrane. These microstructures are associated not only with cellular signaling and communication in normal nerve cells but also with pathological processing of amyloid precursor protein in Alzheimer's disease. Using lipid rafts isolated from human frontal cortex in nondemented subjects aging 24 to 85 years, we demonstrate here that lipid structure of lipid rafts undergo significant alterations of specific lipid classes and phospholipid-bound fatty acids as brain cortex correlating with aging...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626091/the-ubiquitin-specific-protease-usp8-deubiquitinates-and-stabilizes-cx43
#20
Jian Sun, Qianwen Hu, Hong Peng, Cheng Peng, Liheng Zhou, Jinsong Lu, Chuanxin Huang
Connexin 43 (Cx43, also known as GJA1), is the most ubiquitously expressed connexin isoform in mammalian tissues. It forms intercellular gap junction (GJ) channels, enabling adjacent cells to communicate both electrically and metabolically. Cx43 is a short-lived protein which can be quickly degraded by the ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal, endolysosomal and autophagosomal pathways. Here, we report that the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 8 (USP8) interacts with and deubiquitinates Cx43. USP8 reduces both multiple monoubiquitination and polyubiquitination of Cx43 to prevent autophagy-mediated degradation...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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