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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650446/exosomes-from-plasmodium-infected-hosts-inhibit-tumor-angiogenesis-in-a-murine-lewis-lung-cancer-model
#1
Y Yang, Q Liu, J Lu, D Adah, S Yu, S Zhao, Y Yao, L Qin, L Qin, X Chen
Previous research to investigate the interaction between malaria infection and tumor progression has revealed that malaria infection can potentiate host immune response against tumor in tumor-bearing mice. Exosomes may play key roles in disseminating pathogenic host-derived molecules during infection because several studies have shown the involvement and roles of extracellular vesicles in cell-cell communication. However, the role of exosomes generated during Plasmodium infection in tumor growth, progression and angiogenesis has not been studied either in animals or in the clinics...
June 26, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650395/exosomal-markers-cd63-and-cd9-expression-pattern-using-immunohistochemistry-in-resected-malignant-and-nonmalignant-pancreatic-specimens
#2
Moh'd Khushman, Arun Bhardwaj, Girijesh Kumar Patel, Javier Ariel Laurini, Kelly Roveda, Marcus C Tan, Mary C Patton, Seema Singh, William Taylor, Ajay P Singh
OBJECTIVES: Exosomes are important mediators in intercellular communications and play a role in cancer progression and metastasis. Exosomal membranes are enriched in endosome-specific tetraspanins (CD9 and CD63). Here, we explored the expression of CD63 and CD9 utilizing immunohistochemistry in malignant and nonmalignant cells in 29 resected pancreatic specimens (RPSs) of mixed racial background. METHODS: The pathologic tissues (PTs) and adjacent normal tissues (ANTs) in each RPS were stained for CD63 and CD9...
June 22, 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649987/a-ppar%C3%AE-transcriptional-cascade-directs-adipose-progenitor-cell-niche-interaction-and-niche-expansion
#3
Yuwei Jiang, Daniel C Berry, Ayoung Jo, Wei Tang, Robert W Arpke, Michael Kyba, Jonathan M Graff
Adipose progenitor cells (APCs) reside in a vascular niche, located within the perivascular compartment of adipose tissue blood vessels. Yet, the signals and mechanisms that govern adipose vascular niche formation and APC niche interaction are unknown. Here we show that the assembly and maintenance of the adipose vascular niche is controlled by PPARγ acting within APCs. PPARγ triggers a molecular hierarchy that induces vascular sprouting, APC vessel niche affinity and APC vessel occupancy. Mechanistically, PPARγ transcriptionally activates PDGFRβ and VEGF...
June 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649804/fibroblast-derived-exosomes-promote-epithelial-cell-proliferation-through-tgf-%C3%AE-2-signaling-pathway-in-severe-asthma
#4
Ikhlass Haj-Salem, Sophie Plante, Abdelilah S Gounni, Mahmoud Rouabhia, Jamila Chakir
BACKGROUND: Bronchial fibroblasts play a key role in airway remodeling in asthma. They regulate epithelial cell functions such as proliferation through growth factors, cytokines, chemokines and exosomes. The role of exosomes in the communication between epithelial cells and fibroblasts by vehiculing these mediators in asthma remains to be determined. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of exosomes released by bronchial fibroblasts on epithelial cell proliferation in severe asthma...
June 26, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649760/immunometabolism-of-human-autoimmune-diseases-from-metabolites-to-extracellular-vesicles
#5
REVIEW
Paola de Candia, Veronica De Rosa, Vincenzo Gigantino, Gerardo Botti, Antonio Ceriello, Giuseppe Matarese
Immunometabolism focuses on the mechanisms regulating the impact of metabolism on lymphocyte activity and autoimmunity outbreak. The adipose tissue is long known to release adipokines, either pro- or anti-inflammatory factors bridging nutrition and immune function. More recently, adipocytes were discovered to also release extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing a plethora of biological molecules, including metabolites and microRNAs, which can regulate cell function/metabolism in distant tissues, suggesting that immune regulatory function by the adipose tissue may be far more complex than originally thought...
June 26, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649661/inflammatory-breast-cancer-a-model-for-investigating-cluster-based-dissemination
#6
Mohit Kumar Jolly, Marcelo Boareto, Bisrat G Debeb, Nicola Aceto, Mary C Farach-Carson, Wendy A Woodward, Herbert Levine
Metastases claim more than 90% of cancer-related patient deaths and are usually seeded by a subset of circulating tumor cells shed off from the primary tumor. In circulation, circulating tumor cells are found both as single cells and as clusters of cells. The clusters of circulating tumor cells, although many fewer in number, possess much higher metastatic potential as compared to that of individual circulating tumor cells. In this review, we highlight recent insights into molecular mechanisms that can enable the formation of these clusters-(a) hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype of cells that couples their ability to migrate and adhere, and (b) intercellular communication that can spatially coordinate the cluster formation and provide survival signals to cancer cells...
2017: NPJ Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649136/viral-effects-on-the-content-and-function-of-extracellular-vesicles
#7
REVIEW
Nancy Raab-Traub, Dirk P Dittmer
The release of membrane-bound vesicles from cells is being increasingly recognized as a mechanism of intercellular communication. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) or exosomes are produced by virus-infected cells and are thought to be involved in intercellular communication between infected and uninfected cells. Viruses, in particular oncogenic viruses and viruses that establish chronic infections, have been shown to modulate the production and content of EVs. Viral microRNAs, proteins and even entire virions can be incorporated into EVs, which can affect the immune recognition of viruses or modulate neighbouring cells...
June 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648659/enterochromaffin-cells-are-gut-chemosensors-that-couple-to-sensory-neural-pathways
#8
Nicholas W Bellono, James R Bayrer, Duncan B Leitch, Joel Castro, Chuchu Zhang, Tracey A O'Donnell, Stuart M Brierley, Holly A Ingraham, David Julius
Dietary, microbial, and inflammatory factors modulate the gut-brain axis and influence physiological processes ranging from metabolism to cognition. The gut epithelium is a principal site for detecting such agents, but precisely how it communicates with neural elements is poorly understood. Serotonergic enterochromaffin (EC) cells are proposed to fulfill this role by acting as chemosensors, but understanding how these rare and unique cell types transduce chemosensory information to the nervous system has been hampered by their paucity and inaccessibility to single-cell measurements...
June 21, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647887/connexins-and-pannexins-in-bone-and-skeletal-muscle
#9
REVIEW
Lilian I Plotkin, Hannah M Davis, Bruno A Cisterna, Juan C Sáez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss current knowledge on the role of connexins and pannexins in the musculoskeletal system. RECENT FINDINGS: Connexins and pannexins are crucial for the development and maintenance of both bone and skeletal muscle. In bone, the presence of connexin and more recently of pannexin channels in osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes has been described and shown to be essential for normal skeletal development and bone adaptation. In skeletal muscles, connexins and pannexins play important roles during development and regeneration through coordinated regulation of metabolic functions via cell-to-cell communication...
June 24, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647610/the-jak-stat3-axis-a-comprehensive-drug-target-for-solid-malignancies
#10
REVIEW
Jennifer Huynh, Nima Etemadi, Frédéric Hollande, Matthias Ernst, Michael Buchert
Intercellular communication between tumor cells, immune cells and the stroma characterises the tumor microenvironment, which is instrumental for establishing the ecological niche that fosters tumor growth and metastasis. While tumor cell intrinsic STAT3 signaling provides a crucial axis to support cell proliferation and survival, it also regulates many activities of the non-transformed cells that collectively make up the tumor microenvironment. Accordingly, excessive activation of STAT3 is a hallmark of many malignancies, and often occurs in response to cytokines of the IL-6 and IL-10 families...
June 21, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647398/immune-modulatory-effects-of-syncytiotrophoblast-extracellular-vesicles-in-pregnancy-and-preeclampsia
#11
Claudia Göhner, Torsten Plösch, Marijke M Faas
Unique immunologic adaptations exist to successfully establish and maintain pregnancy and to avoid an immune attack against the semi allogenic fetus. These adaptations occur both locally at the maternofetal interface and in the peripheral circulation and affect the innate as well as the adaptive immune system. Pregnancy is characterized by a general inflammatory state with activation of monocytes and granulocytes, but also with suppressive lymphocytes (regulatory T cells), and skewing towards T helper 2 immunity...
June 7, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644395/optical-tracking-and-digital-quantification-of-beating-behavior-in-bioengineered-human-cardiac-organoids
#12
Mahesh Devarasetty, Steven Forsythe, Thomas D Shupe, Shay Soker, Colin E Bishop, Anthony Atala, Aleksander Skardal
Organoid and organ-on-a-chip technologies are rapidly advancing towards deployment for drug and toxicology screening applications. Liver and cardiac toxicities account for the majority of drug candidate failures in human trials. Liver toxicity generally produces liver cell death, while cardiac toxicity causes adverse changes in heart beat kinetics. In traditional 2D cultures, beating kinetics can be measured by electrode arrays, but in some 3D constructs, quantifying beating kinetics can be more challenging...
June 23, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643924/exosomes-novel-regulators-of-bone-remodelling-and-potential-therapeutic-agents-for-orthodontics
#13
REVIEW
L S Holliday, K P McHugh, J Zuo, J I Aguirre, J K Neubert, W J Rody
Recent studies suggest that exosomes are involved in intercellular communication required for the maintenance of healthy bone. Exosomes are small (30-150 nm in diameter) extracellular vesicles that are formed in multivesicular bodies and are released from cells as the multivesicular bodies fuse with the plasma membrane. Regulatory exosomes have the capacity to exert profound control over target cells. They can stimulate plasma membrane receptors and are also internalized by the target cell delivering proteins, lipids, small molecules and functional RNAs from the cell of origin...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643868/the-potassium-battery-a-mobile-energy-source-for-transport-processes-in-plant-vascular-tissues
#14
REVIEW
Ingo Dreyer, Judith Lucia Gomez-Porras, Janin Riedelsberger
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. References SUMMARY: Plant roots absorb potassium ions from the soil and transport them in the xylem via the transpiration stream to the shoots. There, in source tissues where sufficient chemical energy (ATP) is available, K(+) is loaded into the phloem and then transported with the phloem stream to other parts of the plant; in part, transport is also back to the roots. This, at first sight, futile cycling of K(+) has been uncovered to be part of a sophisticated mechanism that (1) enables the shoot to communicate its nutrient demand to the root, (2) contributes to the K(+) nutrition of transport phloem tissues and (3) transports energy stored in the K(+) gradient between phloem cytosol and the apoplast...
June 23, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643230/crosstalk-between-m2-macrophages-and-glioma-stem-cells
#15
Leora M Nusblat, Molly J Carroll, Charles M Roth
PURPOSE: Given its extremely poor prognosis, there is a pressing need for an improved understanding of the biology of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), including the roles of tumor subpopulations that may contribute to their growth rate and therapy resistance. The most malignant phenotypes of GBM have been ascribed to the presence of subpopulations of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs and ionizing radiation and which promote invasiveness and metastasis...
June 22, 2017: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643176/a-promising-tool-in-retina-regeneration-current-perspectives-and-challenges-when-using-mesenchymal-progenitor-stem-cells-in-veterinary-and-human-ophthalmological-applications
#16
REVIEW
Anna Cislo-Pakuluk, Krzysztof Marycz
Visual impairment is a common ailment of the current world population, with more exposure to CCD screens and fluorescent lighting, approximately 285 billion people suffer from this deficiency and 13% of those are considered clinically blind. More common causes for visual impairment include age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy (Zhu et al. Molecular Medicine Reports, 2015; Kolb et al. 2007; Machalińska et al. Current Eye Research, 34(9),748-760, 2009) among a few. As cases of retinal and optic nerve diseases rise, it is vital to find a treatment, which has led to investigation of the therapeutic potential of various stem cells types (Bull et al...
June 22, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643167/microbiome-probiotics-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-deciphering-the-gut-brain-axis
#17
REVIEW
Susan Westfall, Nikita Lomis, Imen Kahouli, Si Yuan Dia, Surya Pratap Singh, Satya Prakash
The gut microbiota is essential to health and has recently become a target for live bacterial cell biotherapies for various chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity and neurodegenerative disease. Probiotic biotherapies are known to create a healthy gut environment by balancing bacterial populations and promoting their favorable metabolic action. The microbiota and its respective metabolites communicate to the host through a series of biochemical and functional links thereby affecting host homeostasis and health...
June 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642882/tumor-related-exosomes-contribute-to-tumor-promoting-microenvironment-an-immunological-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Wuzhen Chen, Jingxin Jiang, Wenjie Xia, Jian Huang
Exosomes are a kind of cell-released membrane-form structures which contain proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. These vesicular organelles play a key role in intercellular communication. Numerous experiments demonstrated that tumor-related exosomes (TEXs) can induce immune surveillance in the microenvironment in vivo and in vitro. They can interfere with the maturation of DC cells, impair NK cell activation, induce myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and educate macrophages into protumor phenotype. They can also selectively induce effector T cell apoptosis via Fas/FasL interaction and enhance regulatory T cell proliferation and function by releasing TGF-β...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642743/hiv-1-nef-signaling-in-intestinal-mucosa-epithelium-suggests-the-existence-of-an-active-inter-kingdom-crosstalk-mediated-by-exosomes
#19
REVIEW
Cristina Felli, Olimpia Vincentini, Marco Silano, Andrea Masotti
The human intestinal mucosal surface represents the first defense against pathogens and regulates the immune response through the combination of epithelial cell (EC) functions and immunological factors. ECs act as sensors of luminal stimuli and interact with the immune cells through signal-transduction pathways, thus representing the first barrier that HIV-1 virus encounters during infection. In particular, the HIV-1 Nef protein plays a crucial role in viral invasion and replication. Nef is expressed early during viral infection and interacts with numerous cellular proteins as a scaffold/adaptor...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642463/acute-loss-of-the-hepatic-endo-lysosomal-system-in-vivo-causes-compensatory-changes-in-iron-homeostasis
#20
Christoph Metzendorf, Anja Zeigerer, Sarah Seifert, Richard Sparla, Bahar Najafi, François Canonne-Hergaux, Marino Zerial, Martina U Muckenthaler
Liver cells communicate with the extracellular environment to take up nutrients via endocytosis. Iron uptake is essential for metabolic activities and cell homeostasis. Here, we investigated the role of the endocytic system for maintaining iron homeostasis. We specifically depleted the small GTPase Rab5 in the mouse liver, causing a transient loss of the entire endo-lysosomal system. Strikingly, endosome depletion led to a fast reduction of hepatic iron levels, which was preceded by an increased abundance of the iron exporter ferroportin...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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