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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330952/jaw-muscle-fiber-architecture-and-leverage-in-the-hard-object-feeding-sooty-mangabey-are-not-structured-to-facilitate-relatively-large-bite-forces-compared-to-other-papionins
#1
Andrea B Taylor, Claire E Terhune, Maxx Toler, Megan Holmes, Callum F Ross, Christopher J Vinyard
Numerous studies have sought to link craniofacial morphology with behavioral ecology in primates. Extant hard-object feeders have been of particular interest because of their potential to inform our understanding about the diets of early fossil hominins. Sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) are hard-object feeders that frequently generate what have been described as audibly powerful bites at wide jaw gapes to process materially stiff and hard seeds. We address the hypothesis that sooty mangabeys have features of the masticatory apparatus that facilitate this feeding behavior by comparing fiber architecture and leverage of the masseter and temporalis muscles between sooty mangabeys and three papionin primates that do not specialize on hard objects...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330893/mitogenomic-differences-between-the-normal-and-tumour-cells-of-colorectal-cancer-patients
#2
Katarzyna Skonieczna, Boris Malyarchuk, Arkadiusz Jawień, Andrzej Marszałek, Zbigniew Banaszkiewicz, Paweł Jarmocik, Tomasz Grzybowski
So far, a reliable spectrum of mitochondrial DNA mutations in colorectal cancer cells is still unknown, and neither is their significance in carcinogenesis. Indeed, it remains debatable whether mtDNA mutations are "drivers" or "passengers" of colorectal carcinogenesis. Thus, we analyzed 200 mitogenomes from normal and cancer tissues of 100 colorectal cancer patients. Minority variant mutations were detected at the 1% level. We showed that somatic mutations frequently occur in colorectal cancer cells (75%) and are randomly distributed across the mitochondrial genome...
January 12, 2018: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330422/seabirds-fighting-for-land-phenotypic-consequences-of-breeding-area-constraints-at-a-small-remote-archipelago
#3
Guilherme Tavares Nunes, Sophie Bertrand, Leandro Bugoni
Identifying associations between phenotypes and environmental parameters is crucial for understanding how natural selection acts at the individual level. In this context, genetically isolated populations can be useful models for identifying the forces selecting fitness-related traits. Here, we use a comprehensive dataset on a genetically and ecologically isolated population of the strictly marine bird, the brown booby Sula leucogaster, at the tropical and remote Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, mid-Atlantic Ocean, in order to detect phenotypic adjustments from interindividual differences in diet, foraging behaviour, and nest quality...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330086/learning-profitable-habitat-types-by-juvenile-crayfish
#4
Taylor M Johnson, Adam L Crane
Habitat selection is fundamentally important to animal ecology, and animals that can learn about habitats can increase the probability of avoiding detection by predators or quickly finding food. Here, we tested whether juveniles of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, can learn preference for habitat types based on experience with food availability. Crayfish were housed in arenas with two habitat types, half leaf habitat and half rock habitat. Over several days, crayfish were fed consistently in one of the habitat types...
January 9, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330017/a-wrapped-multi-label-classifier-for-the-automatic-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
C Salvatore, I Castiglioni
BACKGROUND: AD is the most frequent neurodegenerative disease, severely impacting our society. Early diagnosis and prognosis are challenging tasks in the management of AD patients. NEW METHOD: We implemented a machine-learning classifier for the automatic early diagnosis and prognosis of AD by means of features extracted, selected and optimized from structural MRI brain images. The classifier was designed to perform multi-label automatic classification into the following four classes: HC, ncMCI, cMCI, and AD...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329985/the-scavenger-activity-of-the-human-p2x7-receptor-differs-from-p2x7-pore-function-by-insensitivity-to-antagonists-genetic-variation-and-sodium-concentration-relevance-to-inflammatory-brain-diseases
#6
Amber Ou, Ben J Gu, James S Wiley
Activation of P2X7 receptors is widely recognised to initiate proinflammatory responses. However P2X7 also has a dual function as a scavenger receptor which is active in the absence of ATP and plasma proteins and may be important in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Here, we investigated both P2X7 pore formation and its phagocytic function in fresh human monocytes (as a model of microglia) by measuring ATP-induced ethidium dye uptake and fluorescent bead uptake respectively. This was studied in monocytes expressing various polymorphic variants as well as in the presence of different P2X7 antagonists and ionic media...
January 9, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329834/heterospectral-two-dimensional-correlation-analysis-with-near-infrared-hyperspectral-imaging-for-monitoring-oxidative-damage-of-pork-myofibrils-during-frozen-storage
#7
Weiwei Cheng, Da-Wen Sun, Hongbin Pu, Qingyi Wei
Near-infrared (NIR) spectra contain abundant data, heterospectral two-dimensional correlation (H2D-CS) analysis offers a good way to interpret these data. For the first time, H2D-CS was used to correlate the NIR hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data with mid-infrared spectra and to identify feature-related wavebands for developing models for monitoring the oxidative damage of pork myofibrils during frozen storage. The HSI images were acquired at frozen state without thawing and the oxidative damage of myofibrils was assessed by carbonyl content...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329660/cochlea-ct-radiomics-predicts-chemoradiotherapy-induced-sensorineural-hearing-loss-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-a-machine-learning-and-multi-variable-modelling-study
#8
Hamid Abdollahi, Shayan Mostafaei, Susan Cheraghi, Isaac Shiri, Seied Rabi Mahdavi, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad
OBJECTIVES: Immediately or after head-and-neck (H&N) cancer chemoradiotherapy (CRT), patients may undergone significant sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) which could affect their quality of life. Radiomic feature analysis is proposed to predict SNHL induced by CRT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 490 image features of 94 cochlea from 47 patients treated with three dimensional conformal RT (3DCRT) for different H&N cancers were extracted from CT images. Different machine learning (ML) algorithms and also least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) penalized logistic regression were implemented on radiomic features for feature selection, classification and prediction...
January 9, 2018: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329436/development-of-the-place-based-adelante-social-marketing-campaign-for-prevention-of-substance-use-sexual-risk-and-violence-among-latino-immigrant-youth
#9
E L Andrade, W D Evans, N D Barrett, S D Cleary, M C Edberg, R D Alvayero, E C Kierstead, A Beltran
Immigrant Latino youth represent a high-risk subgroup that should be targeted with health promotion efforts. However, there are considerable barriers to engagement in health-related programming. Little is known about the engagement possibilities of social marketing campaigns and digital strategies for traditionally 'hard-to-reach' immigrants, underscoring the importance of testing these techniques with immigrant Latino adolescents. We developed and piloted a place-based social marketing campaign in coordination with the branded, Positive Youth Development-based (PYD) Adelante intervention targeting risk factors for co-occurring youth substance abuse, sexual risk and violence...
January 9, 2018: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329416/automatic-ecg-based-detection-of-autonomic-arousals-and-their-association-with-cortical-arousals-leg-movements-and-respiratory-events-in-sleep
#10
Mads Olsen, Logan Douglas Schneider, Joseph Cheung, Paul E Peppard, Poul J Jennum, Emmanuel Mignot, Helge Bjarup Dissing Sorensen
Study objectives: The current definition of sleep arousals neglects to address the diversity of arousals and their systemic cohesion. Autonomic arousals (AA) are autonomic activations often associated with cortical arousals (CA), but they may also occur in isolation in relation to a respiratory event, a leg movement event or spontaneously, without any other physiological associations. AA should be acknowledged as essential events to understand and explore the systemic implications of arousals...
January 10, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328649/phenylthiomethyl-ketone-based-fragments-show-selective-and-irreversible-inhibition-of-enteroviral-3c-proteases
#11
Robert Schulz, Amira Atef, Daniel Becker, Franziska Gottschalk, Carolin Tauber, Stefan Wagner, Christoph Arkona, Atef A Abdel-Hafez, Hassan H Farag, Jörg Rademann, Gerhard Wolber
Lead structure discovery mainly focuses on the identification of noncovalently binding ligands. Covalent linkage, however, is an essential binding mechanism for a multitude of successfully marketed drugs although discovered by serendipity in most cases. We present a concept for the design of fragments covalently binding to proteases. Covalent linkage enables fragment binding unrelated to affinity to shallow protein binding sites and at the same time allows differentiated targeted hit verification and binding location verification through mass spectrometry...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328023/features-of-formation-of-collateral-circulation-in-patients-with-subclavian-steal-syndrome
#12
I Kopolovets, P Štefanič, V Rusyn, Š Tóth, V Mashura, P Berek
To date in patients with subclavian steal syndrome diagnosis is only grade of stenosis or localization of occlusion described. Authors recommend to take into account also type of a collateral compensation of cerebral circulation for selection of an optimal treatment The objective of the research was to study the features of formation of collateral circulation in patients with subclavian steal syndrome. The authors described changes in the direction of blood flow in the extracranial vessels of 42 patients with subclavian steal syndrome...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327707/appendiceal-goblet-cell-carcinoids-and-adenocarcinomas-ex-goblet-cell-carcinoid-are-genetically-distinct-from-primary-colorectal-type-adenocarcinoma-of-the-appendix
#13
Moritz Jesinghaus, Björn Konukiewitz, Sebastian Foersch, Albrecht Stenzinger, Katja Steiger, Alexander Muckenhuber, Claudia Groß, Martin Mollenhauer, Wilfried Roth, Sönke Detlefsen, Wilko Weichert, Günter Klöppel, Nicole Pfarr, Anna Melissa Schlitter
The appendix gives rise to goblet cell carcinoids, which represent special carcinomas with distinct biological and histological features. Their genetic background and molecular relationship to colorectal adenocarcinoma is largely unknown. We therefore performed a next-generation sequencing analysis of 25 appendiceal carcinomas including 11 goblet cell carcinoids, 7 adenocarcinomas ex-goblet cell carcinoid, and 7 primary colorectal-type adenocarcinomas, using a modified Colorectal Cancer specific Panel comprising 32 genes linked to colorectal and neuroendocrine tumorigenesis...
January 12, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327594/liver-resection-and-surgical-strategies-for-management-of-primary-liver-cancer
#14
Sonia T Orcutt, Daniel A Anaya
Primary liver cancer-including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC)-incidence is increasing and is an important source of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Management of these cancers, even when localized, is challenging due to the association with underlying liver disease and the complex anatomy of the liver. Although for ICC, surgical resection provides the only potential cure, for HCC, the risks and benefits of the multiple curative intent options must be considered to individualize treatment based upon tumor factors, baseline liver function, and the functional status of the patient...
January 2018: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327500/multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-detection-of-selected-bacterial-species-from-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-non-vital-teeth-with-primary-endodontic-infections
#15
Smita Pattanshetty, Vijayalakshmi S Kotrashetti, Kishore Bhat, Ramakant S Nayak, Pradeep Somannavar, Madhu Pujar
AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of selective anaerobic microorganisms in primary root canal infections of symptomatic and asymptomatic non-vital teeth with periapical pathosis using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. METHODS: A total of 100 root canal samples (50 from symptomatic and 50 from asymptomatic teeth) were obtained from patients with primary endodontic infections. DNA extracted from the samples was amplified by using specific primers for the 16S rRNA gene of each bacterium, and semiquantification was done to analyze the prevalence of microorganisms and their correlation to clinical features...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327345/serum-lipoprotein-a-predicts-acute-coronary-syndromes-in-patients-with-severe-carotid-stenosis
#16
Fabio Rigamonti, Federico Carbone, Fabrizio Montecucco, Aldo Bonaventura, Luca Liberale, Fabienne Burger, Aline Roth, Maria Bertolotto, Giovanni Spinella, Bianca Pane, Domenico Palombo, Aldo Pende, Franco Dallegri, François Mach, Stefano Bertolini, Livia Pisciotta
Different cut-off values of serum lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] were recently identified in order to better stratify cardiovascular risk categories. Both pathophysiological and prognostic values of Lp(a) remain unclear. Here, the prognostic value of Lp(a) and its correlation with intraplaque features were assessed in patients with severe carotid artery stenosis undergoing endarterectomy (n=180). The cut-off value of 10 mg/dL for serum Lp(a) was selected to predict 24-month follow-up acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In addition, the association between serum Lp(a) and intraplaque lipids, collagen, inflammatory and vascular cells was assessed...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325687/clinical-significance-and-epidemiologic-analyses-of-mycobacterium-avium-and-mycobacterium-intracellulare-lung-disease-from-post-marketing-surveillance
#17
Katsuhiro Suzuki, Atsuyuki Kurashima, Kinji Tatsuno, Jun-Ichi Kadota
BACKGROUND: In Japan, nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease is mostly attributable to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), i.e., M. avium or M. intracellulare. However, clinical features of the disease caused by these two pathogens have not been studied sufficiently yet. METHODS: A post-marketing survey of clarithromycin was performed at 130 facilities across Japan. The data on patients with M. avium infection and patients with M. intracellulare infection were selected from this survey for comparison of background variables and clinical features of the two pathogens...
January 2018: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325615/inherited-dystonias-clinical-features-and-molecular-pathways
#18
Corinne E Weisheit, Samuel S Pappas, William T Dauer
Recent decades have witnessed dramatic increases in understanding of the genetics of dystonia - a movement disorder characterized by involuntary twisting and abnormal posture. Hampered by a lack of overt neuropathology, researchers are investigating isolated monogenic causes to pinpoint common molecular mechanisms in this heterogeneous disease. Evidence from imaging, cellular, and murine work implicates deficiencies in dopamine neurotransmission, transcriptional dysregulation, and selective vulnerability of distinct neuronal populations to disease mutations...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325609/the-cag-polyglutamine-repeat-diseases-a-clinical-molecular-genetic-and-pathophysiologic-nosology
#19
Colleen A Stoyas, Albert R La Spada
Throughout the genome, unstable tandem nucleotide repeats can expand to cause a variety of neurologic disorders. Expansion of a CAG triplet repeat within a coding exon gives rise to an elongated polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the resultant protein product, and accounts for a unique category of neurodegenerative disorders, known as the CAG-polyglutamine repeat diseases. The nine members of the CAG-polyglutamine disease family include spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), Huntington disease, dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy, and six spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 17)...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325379/-pay-attention-to-the-clinical-classification-and-individualized-treatment-of-superior-oblique-palsy
#20
X L Kang, Y Wei
Superior oblique palsy (SOP) has many anatomic variations, and the accompanied paralysis generalization could stimulate the secondary changes of other extra-ocular muscles. Therefore, the clinical manifestations of SOP can be various, and the surgical design is complicated and changeable. It is necessary to understand the clinical development, stages and types of SOP correctly, and to take into account the developmental characteristics of the superior oblique muscle and select the individualized treatment plan...
December 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
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