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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350802/impact-of-lopinavir-ritonavir-exposure-in-hiv-1-infected-children-and-adolescents-in-madrid-spain-during-2000-2014
#1
Patricia Rojas Sánchez, Luis Prieto, Santiago Jiménez De Ory, Elisa Fernández Cooke, Maria Luisa Navarro, José Tomas Ramos, África Holguín
BACKGROUND: The most-used protease-inhibitor in children is Lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r), which provides durable suppression of viral load and increases CD4+T-counts. This study describes the virological outcome of the HIV-1-infected paediatric population exposed to LPV/r during 15 years in Spain. METHODOLOGY: Patients from the Madrid Cohort of HIV-1-infected-children and adolescents exposed to LPV/r as different line therapy during 2000-2014 were selected. The baseline epidemiological-clinical features, viral suppression, changes in CD4+T-CD8+T cell counts and drug susceptibility were recorded before and during LPV/r exposure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350496/fundamental-theorems-of-evolution
#2
David C Queller
Evolutionary biology is undergirded by an extensive and impressive set of mathematical models. Yet only one result, Fisher's theorem about selection and fitness, is generally accorded the status of a fundamental theorem. I argue that although its fundamental status is justified by its simplicity and scope, there are additional results that seem similarly fundamental. I suggest that the most fundamental theorem of evolution is the Price equation, both because of its simplicity and broad scope and because it can be used to derive four other familiar results that are similarly fundamental: Fisher's average-excess equation, Robertson's secondary theorem of natural selection, the breeder's equation, and Fisher's fundamental theorem...
April 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346880/human-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-and-liver-health-status-quantification-of-urinary-and-circulating-levels-by-lc-ms-ms
#3
Carla Nicolucci, Sonia Errico, Alessandro Federico, Marcello Dallio, Carmelina Loguercio, Nadia Diano
A selective and highly sensitive analytical methodology for determination of Bisphenol A in human plasma was developed and validated. The method was based on selective liquid/solid extraction, combined with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring mode and negative ionization. The linearity of the detector response was verified in human plasma over the concentration range 0.100-200ngmL(-1). The detection limit was 0.03ngmL(-1) and the quantification limit was 0...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346821/structure-activity-relationships-on-cynnamoyl-derivatives-as-inhibitors-of-p300-histone-acetyltransferase
#4
Valentina Noemi Madia, Rosaria Benedetti, Maria Letizia Barreca, Liza Ngo, Luca Pescatori, Antonella Messore, Giovanni Pupo, Francesco Saccoliti, Sergio Valente, Antonello Mai, Luigi Scipione, Yujun George Zheng, Cristina Tintori, Maurizio Botta, Violetta Cecchetti, Lucia Altucci, Roberto Di Santo, Roberta Costi
Human p300 is a polyhedric transcriptional coactivator, playing a crucial role by acetylating histones on specific lysine residues. A great deal of evidences shows that p300 is involved in several diseases as leukemia, tumors and viral infection. Its involvement in pleiotropic biological roles and connections to diseases provide the rationale as to how its modulation could represent an amenable drug target. Several p300 inhibitors (HATi) have been described so far, but all suffer from low potency, lack of specificity or low cell-permeability, highlighting the need to find more effective inhibitors...
March 27, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346561/reduced-intestinal-motility-mucosal-barrier-function-and-inflammation-in-aged-monkeys
#5
E L Mitchell, A T Davis, K Brass, M Dendinger, R Barner, R Gharaibeh, A A Fodor, K Kavanagh
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the general health and intestinal physiology of young and old non-human primates with comparable life histories and dietary environments. DESIGN: Vervet monkeys (Chlorcebus aethiops sabaeus) in stable and comparable social and nutritional environments were selected for evaluation. Health phenotype, circulating cytokines and biomarkers of microbial translocation (MT) were measured (n=26-44). Subsets of monkeys additionally had their intestinal motility, intestinal permeability, and fecal microbiomes characterized...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346339/a-power-planning-algorithm-based-on-rpl-for-ami-wireless-sensor-networks
#6
Marcio L F Miguel, Edgard Jamhour, Marcelo E Pellenz, Manoel C Penna
The advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) is an architecture for two-way communication between electric, gas and water meters and city utilities. The AMI network is a wireless sensor network that provides communication for metering devices in the neighborhood area of the smart grid. Recently, the applicability of a routing protocol for low-power and lossy networks (RPL) has been considered in AMI networks. Some studies in the literature have pointed out problems with RPL, including sub-optimal path selection and instability...
March 25, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345875/reactive-oxygen-species-synergize-to-potently-and-selectively-induce-cancer-cell-death
#7
Hyang Yeon Lee, Elizabeth I Parkinson, Carlotta Granchi, Ilaria Paterni, Dipak Panigrahy, Pankaj Seth, Filippo Minutolo, Paul J Hergenrother
A distinctive feature of cancer cells is their elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a trait that can cause cancer cells to be more sensitive to ROS-inducing agents than normal cells. ROS takes several forms, each with different reactivity and downstream consequence. Here we show that simultaneous generation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide within cancer cells results in significant synergy, causing potent and selective cancer cell death. In these experiments superoxide is generated using the NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) substrate deoxynyboquinone (DNQ), and hydrogen peroxide is generated using the lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) inhibitor NHI-Glc-2...
March 27, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345416/short-step-syntheses-of-naturally-occurring-polyoxygenated-aromatics-based-on-site-selective-transformation
#8
Yasunobu Yamashita, Alan Biard, Kengo Hanaya, Mitsuru Shoji, Takeshi Sugai
Wogonin and astringin were synthesized from inexpensive chrysin and piceid in short steps. The key feature of these syntheses is site-selective transformation. The target molecules were obtained in 27 and 62% yields from the starting materials, respectively.
March 27, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345331/cervical-cancer-screening-in-iranian-women-healthcare-practitioner-perceptions-and-views
#9
Mansoureh Refaei, Nahid Dehghan Nayeri, Zohreh Khakbazan, Minoo Pakgohar
Background: Although regular screening for cervical cancer with the Papanicolaou test is an important element for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, the actual screening program in Iranian women is not sufficiently comprehensive at present. The purpose of this study was to explore healthcare provider perceptions of factors affecting cervical cancer screening in Iranian women. Methods: In this qualitative study performed from September 2015 to August 2016 in Hamadan, Iran, we conducted semi-structured in depth interviews with 14 healthcare providers selected purposefully...
February 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345269/multi-task-diagnosis-for-autism-spectrum-disorders-using-multi-modality-features-a-multi-center-study
#10
Jun Wang, Qian Wang, Jialin Peng, Dong Nie, Feng Zhao, Minjeong Kim, Han Zhang, Chong-Yaw Wee, Shitong Wang, Dinggang Shen
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopment disease characterized by impairment of social interaction, language, behavior, and cognitive functions. Up to now, many imaging-based methods for ASD diagnosis have been developed. For example, one may extract abundant features from multi-modality images and then derive a discriminant function to map the selected features toward the disease label. A lot of recent works, however, are limited to single imaging centers. To this end, we propose a novel multi-modality multi-center classification (M3CC) method for ASD diagnosis...
March 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345177/pharmacogenomics-of-off-target-adrs
#11
REVIEW
Sarah L Garon, Rebecca K Pavlos, Katie D White, Nancy J Brown, Cosby A Stone, Elizabeth J Phillips
Off-target adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are associated with significant morbidity and costs to the healthcare system and their occurrence is not predictable based on the known pharmacological action of the drug's therapeutic effect. Off-target ADRs may or may not be associated with immunological memory although they can manifest with a variety of shared clinical features including maculopapular exanthema, severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), angioedema, pruritus, and bronchospasm. Discovery of specific genes associated with a particular ADR phenotype is a foundational component of clinical translation into screening programs for their prevention...
March 26, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344814/the-role-of-chemotherapy-and-new-targeted-agents-in-the-management-of-primary-prostate-cancer
#12
Sanjeev Srinivas Kumar, Simon Pacey
While early treatment of primary prostate cancer is very effective, the incidence of primary prostate cancer continues to rise and therefore the detection of men with high-risk non-metastatic prostate cancer and their subsequent management is becoming increasingly important. There continues to be no molecularly-targeted or chemotherapeutic options with proven, statistically significant survival benefit in this setting. However, there are indications that further risk stratification using molecular features could potentially help distinguish indolent from aggressive prostate cancer, ultimately providing biological markers that could guide a more personalised approach to therapy selection...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344657/well-positioned-nucleosomes-punctuate-polycistronic-pol-ii-transcription-units-and-flank-silent-vsg-gene-arrays-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#13
Johannes Petrus Maree, Megan Lindsay Povelones, David Johannes Clark, Gloria Rudenko, Hugh-George Patterton
BACKGROUND: The compaction of DNA in chromatin in eukaryotes allowed the expansion of genome size and coincided with significant evolutionary diversification. However, chromatin generally represses DNA function, and mechanisms coevolved to regulate chromatin structure and its impact on DNA. This included the selection of specific nucleosome positions to modulate accessibility to the DNA molecule. Trypanosoma brucei, a member of the Excavates supergroup, falls in an ancient evolutionary branch of eukaryotes and provides valuable insight into the organization of chromatin in early genomes...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344383/spectroscopic-properties-of-poly-9-9-dioctylfluorene-thin-films-possessing-varied-fractions-of-%C3%AE-phase-chain-segments-enhanced-photoluminescence-efficiency-via-conformation-structuring
#14
Aleksandr Perevedentsev, Nathan Chander, Ji-Seon Kim, Donal D C Bradley
Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) is a widely studied blue-emitting conjugated polymer, the optoelectronic properties of which are strongly affected by the presence of a well-defined chain-extended "β-phase" conformational isomer. In this study, optical and Raman spectroscopy are used to systematically investigate the properties of PFO thin films featuring a varied fraction of β-phase chain segments. Results show that the photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE) of PFO films is highly sensitive to both the β-phase fraction and the method by which it was induced...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344109/phylogenomic-proximity-and-metabolic-discrepancy-of-methanosarcina-mazei-go1-across-methanosarcinal-genomes
#15
M Bharathi, P Chellapandi
Methanosarcina mazei Go1 is a heterotrophic methanogenic archaean contributing a significant role in global methane cycling and biomethanation process. Phylogenomic relatedness and metabolic discrepancy of this genome were described herein by comparing its whole genome sequence, intergenomic distance, genome function, synteny homologs and origin of replication, and marker genes with very closely related genomes, Methanosarcina acetivorans and Methanosarcina barkeri. Phylogenomic analysis of this study revealed that genome functional feature and metabolic core of M...
March 23, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343867/grid-and-nongrid-cells-in-medial-entorhinal-cortex-represent-spatial-location-and-environmental-features-with-complementary-coding-schemes
#16
Geoffrey W Diehl, Olivia J Hon, Stefan Leutgeb, Jill K Leutgeb
The medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) has been identified as a hub for spatial information processing by the discovery of grid, border, and head-direction cells. Here we find that in addition to these well-characterized classes, nearly all of the remaining two-thirds of mEC cells can be categorized as spatially selective. We refer to these cells as nongrid spatial cells and confirmed that their spatial firing patterns were unrelated to running speed and highly reproducible within the same environment. However, in response to manipulations of environmental features, such as box shape or box color, nongrid spatial cells completely reorganized their spatial firing patterns...
March 20, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343462/exploring-the-neuroanatomical-bases-of-psychotic-features-in-bipolar-disorder
#17
E Maggioni, A C Altamura, P Brambilla
Although bipolar disorder (BD) is traditionally conceptualised as one diagnostic entity, the heterogeneity of pathophysiological manifestations in BD suggests the need to classify the subtypes of the illness based on neural markers. Specifically, the presence of psychotic symptoms seems to be relevant for the clinical outcome and may have specific neuroanatomical bases. The main objective of the present review was to assess whether the distinction between psychotic BD (PBD) and non-psychotic BD (NPBD) can improve the identification of the neurobiological markers of this complex illness...
March 27, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343231/segmental-testicular-infarction-case-series-and-literature-review-of-a-rare-diagnosis-in-men-with-acute-testicular-pain
#18
Simone Ernst, Matthias Saar, Horst Brenneis, Reinhard Kubale, Stefan Ueberdiek, Carsten-Henning Ohlmann, Michael Stoeckle, Julia Heinzelbecker
The incidence of segmental testicular infarction (STI) is very low. Such a disorder most often affects young men. The most common symptom is sudden testicular pain. We report 6 cases of men diagnosed with STI. Clinical examination, blood test, urine analysis, and ultrasound examination with colour Doppler were performed. Furthermore, tissue sonoelastography or MRI was performed in selected patients. All men underwent surgical exploration. In all but one man, the affected testis was preserved. Although STI is a rare condition, it should be taken into account if testicular pain prior to suspicious ultrasound imaging occurs...
March 24, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343178/fetal-cardiac-tumors-clinical-features-management-and-prognosis
#19
Shi-Min Yuan
Fetal cardiac tumors are rare and usually benign. While echocardiography is a reliable technique for diagnosing fetal cardiac tumors, their definitive diagnosis relies on pathological examination. The strategies used to manage fetal cardiac tumors are challenging. A good clinical result is their complete regression during pregnancy or shortly after birth, as often occurs with cardiac rhabdomyomas. Moreover, the fetal prognosis depends on the nature of the tumors, namely, their location, size, number and associated complications...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342738/american-brachytherapy-society-consensus-statement-for-soft-tissue-sarcoma-brachytherapy
#20
A O Naghavi, D C Fernandez, N Mesko, A Juloori, A Martinez, J G Scott, C Shah, L B Harrison
PURPOSE: Radiation therapy represents an essential treatment option in the management of soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Brachytherapy represents an important subset of radiation therapy techniques used for STS, with evolving indications and applications. Therefore, the purpose of this guideline was to update clinicians regarding the data surrounding brachytherapy (BT) and provide recommendations for the utilization of BT in patients with STS. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Members of the American Brachytherapy Society with expertise in STS, and STS BT in particular, created an updated guideline for the use of BT in STS based on a literature review and clinical experience...
March 22, 2017: Brachytherapy
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