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TB, chronic obstructive airway disease

Naoya Tanabe, Dragoş M Vasilescu, Miranda Kirby, Harvey O Coxson, Stijn E Verleden, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Daisuke Kinose, Yasutaka Nakano, Peter D Paré, James C Hogg
The small conducting airways are the major site of obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study examined small airway pathology using a novel combination of multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT), micro-computed tomography (microCT) and histology.Airway branches visible on specimen MDCT were counted and the dimensions of the third- to fifth-generation airways were computed, while the terminal bronchioles (designated TB), preterminal bronchioles (TB-1) and pre-preterminal bronchioles (TB-2) were examined with microCT and histology in eight explanted lungs with end-stage COPD and seven unused donor lungs that served as controls...
February 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Ng'weina Francis Magitta, Richard William Walker, Komalkirti Keshavkiran Apte, Meshack Denson Shimwela, Julius David Mwaiselage, Anna Alphonce Sanga, Anil Kumar Namdeo, Sapna Jitendra Madas, Sundeep Santosh Salvi
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes substantial burden of disease in developed countries, but there are limited data from Africa. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of COPD in Tanzania and identify the risk factors associated with it.This was a cross-sectional descriptive survey involving adults aged ≥35 years. We collected data on symptoms and risk factors using the Burden of Obstructive Lung Diseases questionnaire. Spirometry was performed and COPD diagnosed based on post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity <70%...
February 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Thomas Zoller, Elirehema H Mfinanga, Tresphory B Zumba, Peter J Asilia, Edwin M Mutabazi, David Wimmersberger, Florian Kurth, Francis Mhimbira, Frederick Haraka, Klaus Reither
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a global problem and available data from sub-Saharan Africa is very limited. METHODS: A cross-sectional facility-based pilot study among patients and visitors to an urban and a rural primary healthcare facility was conducted in coastal Tanzania. The primary outcome was the prevalence of chronic airflow obstruction. RESULTS: The final analysis included 598 participants with valid post-bronchodilator spirometry...
January 19, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Andrii Dudnyk, Svitlana Blyzniuk, Oleksandr Pavel'chuk, Olena Zakharchenko, Dmytro Butov, Sergiі Zaіkov
Tuberculosis (TB) may have a similar spirometry findings as a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease but the prevalence of TB-induced airflow obstruction (AO) is still unknown. OBJECTIVES: To measure frequency of AO in new TB cases at the beginning of treatment and to evaluate factors associated with obstructive abnormalities following TB diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 317 patients that have no history of prior AO were recruited into the study with a median age of 39...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Hastings T Banda, Rachael Thomson, Kevin Mortimer, George A F Bello, Grace B Mbera, Rasmus Malmborg, Brian Faragher, S Bertel Squire
BACKGROUND: No community prevalence studies have been done on chronic respiratory symptoms of cough, wheezing and shortness of breath in adult rural populations in Malawi. Case detection rates of tuberculosis (TB) and chronic airways disease are low in resource-poor primary health care facilities. OBJECTIVE: To understand the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and recorded diagnoses of TB in rural Malawian adults in order to improve case detection and management of these diseases...
2017: PloS One
Deepak Aggarwal, Anubhav Gupta, A K Janmeja, Manisha Bhardwaj
CONTEXT: Irreversible airway obstruction is important sequelae of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) that might contribute to a significant proportion of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). India has the highest TB burden in the world. However, there are limited data on the prevalence and presentation of TB-associated COPD from this region. AIMS: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of TB-associated COPD among COPD patients presenting to a tertiary care hospital...
September 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Muhammad Irfan
Tuberculosis (TB) is among the top infectious causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and is associated with frequent pulmonary damage despite microbiological cure. Patients with treated TB may remain lifelong sufferers of disabling structural and functional sequelae of the disease, which subsequently impair quality of life. Long-term follow-up studies have revealed that many patients with treated pulmonary TB show signs of permanent impairment of their lung function. Impairment is variable in pattern and severity, ranging from none to severe, and shows restrictive, obstructive, or mixed patterns...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Tiina Mattila, Markku Heliövaara, Harri Rissanen, Paul Knekt, Pauli Puukka, Tuula Vasankari
There is little long-term follow-up data concerning the association between past pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), airway obstruction and mortality. We aimed to analyse a national health examination survey data from 6701 adult Finns undergoing spirometry between 1978 and 1980 (follow-up through 2013). We identified TB either through a disease history or by a TB-indicative scar on a chest x-ray. We specified obstruction using the lower limit of normal (LLN) and classified severity using the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages 1-4...
April 2017: COPD
Elham Aboualigalehdari, Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Mahnaz Fatahinia, Esmaeil Idani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is a chronic fungal infection that caused by P. jirovecii. Disease is more prevalent among the HIV-infected patients. The colonization of pneumocystis in human respiratory system is associated with the airway inflammation and obstruction. The current study was conducted to identify the prevalence of P. jirovecii among the patients with chronic pulmonary disorders in Ahvaz, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, 115 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens were collected from patients...
December 2015: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Jiang-Nan Zhao, Xian-Xin Zhang, Xiao-Chun He, Guo-Ru Yang, Xiao-Qi Zhang, Wen-Gen Xin, Huai-Chen Li
BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about the specific relationship and impact from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on multidrug-resistant tuberculsosis (MDR-TB). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study included patients aged ≥40 years with a confirmed pulmonary TB at three tertiary hospitals (Shandong, China) between January 2011 and October 2014. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify the relationship of MDR-TB and COPD...
2015: PloS One
Behzad Heidari, Yahya Javadian, Mahmoud Monadi, Yahya Dankob, Alireza Firouzjahi
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has a potential to modulate inflammatory response against noxious particles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The present study was conducted to determine the status of serum vitamin D in COPD versus healthy group. METHODS: The patients presented to the outpatient pulmonary clinic of Ayatollah Rouhani Hospital, Babol Iran. Diagnosis of COPD was confirmed based on airflow limitation defined as FEV1/FVC ratio <70% and FEV1< 80% of predicted...
2015: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
John Scott Earwood, Timothy Daniel Thompson
Hemoptysis is the expectoration of blood from the lung parenchyma or airways. The initial step in the evaluation is determining the origin of bleeding. Pseudohemoptysis is identified through the history and physical examination. In adults, acute respiratory tract infections (e.g., bronchitis, pneumonia), bronchiectasis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and malignancy are the most common causes. Tuberculosis is a major cause of hemoptysis in endemic regions of the world. Although tuberculosis rates are low in the United States, they are increased in persons who are homeless or who were born in other countries; consideration for testing should be made on an individual basis...
February 15, 2015: American Family Physician
Tolu Oni, Rodney Ehrlich
We present a case of complicated silicotuberculosis in a former gold miner with a sufficiently heavy silica dust exposure to cause International Labor Organization grade 2/2 silicosis after a cumulative exposure duration of 11 years. We describe a cascade of complications-active pulmonary tuberculosis despite recent isoniazid prophylactic therapy, non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease, chronic airways obstruction, and spontaneous pneumothorax-and the difficulties, which arose, in diagnosis and management of such combined disease...
June 2015: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Bimaje Akpa, Jeffrey Shehane, Calvin Smith, Jason Martin
SESSION TITLE: Bronchology/Interventional Student/Resident Case Report Posters IISESSION TYPE: Medical Student/Resident Case ReportPRESENTED ON: Tuesday, October 28, 2014 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PMINTRODUCTION: A broncholith is a calcified material in the bronchus. As a result of the relatively low incidence of this disease, broncholithiasis has often been neglected in the differential diagnosis of hemoptysis. As a result, patients have been wrongly tagged with more common diseases causing bronchial obstruction, thereby losing the benefit of prompt diagnosis and therapy...
October 1, 2014: Chest
Kerstin A Heyl, Tilman E Klassert, Annina Heinrich, Mario M Müller, Esther Klaile, Hendrik Dienemann, Christiane Grünewald, Robert Bals, Bernhard B Singer, Hortense Slevogt
UNLABELLED: The C-type lectin receptor Dectin-1 is expressed mainly on myeloid cells mediating the immune response targeting respiratory pathogens such as Aspergillus fumigatus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The pulmonary epithelium serves as an important interface for interactions between these pathogens and the respiratory tract. Therefore, we analyzed the expression pattern of Dectin-1 in the human lung. Immunohistochemically stained human lung sections from 17 out of 19 individuals were positive for Dectin-1, which was expressed mainly apically on bronchial and alveolar epithelium...
2014: MBio
Catherine H Pashley
Collectively asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) and cystic fibrosis (CF) are very common, important causes of disease and ill health. Filamentous fungal colonisation of the airways can occur in all three disease groups, although the clinical relevance is unclear. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a well-recognised severe complication of airway colonisation associated primarily with Aspergillus fumigatus. Fungal colonisation may have a deleterious effect without fulfilling all the diagnostic criteria of ABPA; however, a lack of standardisation in processing respiratory samples hampers comparisons...
December 2014: Mycopathologia
S Dhooria, P Kumar, B Saikia, A N Aggarwal, D Gupta, D Behera, A Chakrabarti, R Agarwal
SETTING: Aspergillus complicates the course of healed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), causing aspergilloma and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Whether Aspergillus also causes allergic sensitisation in PTB-related fibrocavitary disease and bronchiectasis remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of Aspergillus sensitisation in healed fibrocavitary PTB. DESIGN: In a case-control design, consecutive symptomatic new referrals with PTB-related fibrocavitary disease underwent spirometry, Aspergillus skin test and computed tomography of the chest, determination of serum IgE levels (total and Aspergillus fumigatus-specific), serum precipitins against A...
July 2014: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Adriana Trapani, Sante Di Gioia, Stefano Castellani, Annalucia Carbone, Gennara Cavallaro, Giuseppe Trapani, Massimo Conese
Pulmonary delivery of locally-acting drugs encapsulated in nanocarriers provides several advantages for the treatment of respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, cystic fibrosis, tuberculosis and lung cancer. These advantages include, among others, sustained drug delivery to the lungs, reduced therapeutic dose and improved patient compliance. The aim of this review is to give an updated overview on recent advances recorded in the last few years in this field as well as on the major challenges still existing and that remain to be overcome before any clinical application...
2014: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Basappa S Hugar, Y P Girish Chandra, P R Sreenivasa Babu, S H Jayanth, J Vinay
Retropharyngeal abscess is a rare, deep seated infection of the neck that usually affects young children. Chronic retropharyngeal abscess is rare and results from tuberculosis of the spine. Such swelling in the neck gradually increases in size and is detected during the routine radiological screening for symptoms like pain, dysphagia, fever, dyspnoea, progressive inspiratory stridor (from laryngeal obstruction), neck hyperextension etc, but rarely leads to sudden death due to airway obstruction. Thus the forensic pathologist rarely comes across such type of cases...
August 2013: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Heinrich C Weber, Robert P Gie, Mark F Cotton
Until recently, little attention has been given to chronic lung disease (CLD) in HIV-infected children. As the HIV epidemic matures in sub-Saharan Africa, adolescents who acquired HIV by vertical transmission are presenting to health services with chronic diseases. The most common is CLD, which is often debilitating. This review summarizes the limited data available on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical picture, special investigations and management of CLD in HIV-infected adolescents. A number of associated conditions: lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis, tuberculosis and bronchiectasis are well described...
2013: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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