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Behavioral neurology

Sandip Chatterjee, Aditya Banta
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric spinal tuberculosis is characterized by rapid bone destruction and carries the risk of rapid onset neurological deficits and severe deformity of the spine. Behavior of spinal deformity over time is affected by growth of spine. Owing to this dynamic behavior of pediatric spinal tuberculosis both in active phase and in healed phase, it presents with challenges which are quite different from adults with caries spine. A clinician must have high index of suspicion for accurate and early diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis in the pediatric population and should also have a thorough knowledge of differences in natural history between adult and pediatric spinal tuberculosis...
July 13, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Chunmei Wang, Qinqin Wang, Bingyuan Ji, Yanyou Pan, Chao Xu, Baohua Cheng, Bo Bai, Jing Chen
Orexins, also known as hypocretins, are two neuropeptides secreted from orexin-containing neurons, mainly in the lateral hypothalamus (LH). Orexins orchestrate their effects by binding and activating two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), orexin receptor type 1 (OX1R) and type 2 (OX2R). Orexin/receptor pathways play vital regulatory roles in many physiological processes, especially feeding behavior, sleep-wake rhythm, reward and addiction and energy balance. Furthermore several reports showed that orexin/receptor pathways are involved in pathological processes of neurological diseases such as narcolepsy, depression, ischemic stroke, drug addiction and Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Lisa B E Shields, Dennis S Peppas, Eran Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is a rare inborn error of purine metabolism marked by a complete deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). Inherited as an X-linked recessive genetic disorder that primarily affects males, patients with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome exhibit severe neurological impairments, including choreoathetosis, ballismus, cognitive dysfunction, and self-injurious behavior. Uric acid levels are usually abnormally high, leading to kidney and bladder stones which often necessitate urological intervention...
July 12, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Limin Wu, Joon Y Chung, Shivani Saith, Lorenzo Tozzi, Erin M Buckley, Bharat Sanders, Maria A Franceschini, Sevda Lule, Saef Izzy, Josephine Lok, William J Edmiston, Lauren M McAllister, Sloane Mebane, Gina Jin, Jiaxi Lu, John S Sherwood, Sarah Willwerth, Suzanne Hickman, Joseph El Khoury, Eng H Lo, David Kaplan, Michael J Whalen
Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury during adolescence can induce neurological dysfunction through undefined mechanisms. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) contributes to experimental adult diffuse and contusion TBI models, and IL-1 antagonists have entered clinical trials for severe TBI in adults; however, no such data exist for adolescent TBI. We developed an adolescent mouse repetitive closed head injury (rCHI) model to test the role of IL-1 family members in post-injury neurological outcome. Compared to one CHI, three daily injuries (3HD) produced acute and chronic learning deficits and emergence of hyperactivity, without detectable gliosis, neurodegeneration, brain atrophy, and white matter loss at one year...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Alexis S Hill, Yehuda Ben-Shahar
Degenerin/Epithelial Sodium Channels (DEG/ENaCs) are a large family of animal-specific non-voltage gated ion channels, with enriched expression in neuronal and epithelial tissues. While neuronal DEG/ENaCs were originally characterized as sensory receptor channels, recent studies indicate that several DEG/ENaC family members are also expressed throughout the central nervous system. Human genome-wide association studies have linked DEG/ENaC-coding genes with several neurologic and psychiatric disorders, including epilepsy and panic disorder...
July 12, 2018: Channels
Xi-Jian Dai, Jian Jiang, Zhiqiang Zhang, Xiao Nie, Bi-Xia Liu, Li Pei, Honghan Gong, Jianping Hu, Guangming Lu, Yang Zhan
Background: Insufficient sleep is common in daily life and can lead to cognitive impairment. Sleep disturbance also exists in neuropsychiatric diseases. However, whether and how acute and chronic sleep loss affect brain morphology remain largely unknown. Methods: We used voxel-based morphology method to study the brain structural changes during sleep deprivation (SD) at six time points of rested wakefulness, 20, 24, 32, 36 h SD, and after one night sleep in 22 healthy subjects, and in 39 patients with chronic primary insomnia relative to 39 status-matched good sleepers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Muhammad Faiz Johan Arief, Brandon Kar Meng Choo, Jia Ling Yap, Yatinesh Kumari, Mohd Farooq Shaikh
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by seizures which result in distinctive neurobiological and behavioral impairments. Not much is known about the causes of epilepsy, making it difficult to devise an effective cure for epilepsy. Moreover, clinical studies involving epileptogenesis and ictogenesis cannot be conducted in humans due to ethical reasons. As a result, animal models play a crucial role in the replication of epileptic seizures. In recent years, non-mammalian models have been given a primary focus in epilepsy research due to their advantages...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Ruicong Zhi, Ghada Zamzmi Dmitry Zamzmi, Dmitry Goldgof, Terri Ashmeade, Yu Sun
Infants' early exposure to painful procedures can have negative short and long-term effects on cognitive, neurological, and brain development. However, infants cannot express their subjective pain experience, as they do not communicate in any language. Facial expression is the most specific pain indicator, which has been effectively employed for automatic pain recognition. In this paper, dynamic pain facial expression representation and fusion scheme for automatic pain assessment in infants is proposed by combining temporal appearance facial features and temporal geometric facial features...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
George S Bakken, Hannes A Schraft, Robert W Cattell, Donna B Tiu, Rulon W Clark
The pit organ defining pit vipers (Crotalinae) contains a membrane covered with temperature receptors that detect thermal radiation from environmental surfaces. Temperature is both the environmental parameter being sensed and the mechanism by which the pit membrane detects the signal. As snakes are ectotherms, temperature also has a strong influence on neurological and locomotor responses to the signal. This study of Pacific Rattlesnakes ( Crotalus oreganus ) systematically examined the effect of body, target, and background temperatures on response to a moving target...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Jeremy D Schmahmann
What the cerebellum does to sensorimotor and vestibular control, it also does to cognition, emotion, and autonomic function. This hypothesis is based on the theories of dysmetria of thought and the universal cerebellar transform, which hold that the cerebellum maintains behavior around a homeostatic baseline, automatically, without conscious awareness, informed by implicit learning, and performed according to context. Functional topography within the cerebellum facilitates the modulation of distributed networks subserving multiple different functions...
July 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Guofeng Li, Weibao Qiu, Zhiqiang Zhang, Qiuju Jiang, Min Su, Ruilin Cai, Yongchuan Li, Feiyan Cai, Zhiting Deng, Di Xu, Huailing Zhang, Hairong Zheng
Neuromodulation is a fundamental method for obtaining basic information about neuronal circuits for use in treatments for neurological and psychiatric disorders. Ultrasound stimulation has become a promising approach for noninvasively inducing neuromodulation in animals and humans. However, the previous investigations were subject to substantial limitations, due to most of them involving anesthetized and fixed small-animal models. Studies of awake and freely moving animals are needed, but the currently used ultrasound devices are too bulky to be applied to a freely moving animal...
April 2, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Duo Chen, Zhao-Bo Nie, Zhi-Hong Chi, Zhan-You Wang, Xiang-Tai Wei, Jun-Hong Guan
Background: The pathophysiology of early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is poorly understood. The present study evaluates the influence of zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) knockout and the depletion of vesicular zinc on EBI. Methodology: SAH was induced in ZnT3 KO mice by internal carotid artery perforation. The changes in behavior were recorded at 24 hours after SAH. Hematoxylin-eosin, Nissl and TUNEL staining were performed to evaluate neuronal apoptosis...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Eduardo F Sanches, Yohan Van de Looij, Audrey Toulotte, Analina R da Silva, Jacqueline Romero, Stephane V Sizonenko
Introduction: Prematurity, through brain injury and altered development is a major cause of neurological impairments and can result in motor, cognitive and behavioral deficits later in life. Presently, there are no well-established effective therapies for preterm brain injury and the search for new strategies is needed. Intra-uterine environment plays a decisive role in brain maturation and interventions using the gestational window have been shown to influence long-term health in the offspring. In this study, we investigated whether pregnancy swimming can prevent the neurochemical metabolic alterations and damage that result from postnatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HI) in very immature rats...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Joseph C Grieco, Beverly Romero, Emuella Flood, Raquel Cabo, Jeannie Visootsak
BACKGROUND: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare, neurological genetic disorder for which no clinical outcomes assessments (COAs) or conceptual models (CM) have been developed. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify symptoms and impacts relevant and important in this patient population and develop a conceptual model of AS, and to evaluate the content validity of selected COA instruments with potential for inclusion in clinical studies of AS to capture treatment benefit...
July 10, 2018: Patient
Nisha Naicker, Pieter de Jager, Shan Naidoo, Angela Mathee
Lead exposure has been associated with psycho-neurological disorders. Elevated blood lead levels have been found in shooters. This study assesses the association between the blood lead levels of shooters and their levels of aggression. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in Gauteng, South Africa. Participants were recruited from four randomly selected shooting ranges with three randomly selected archery ranges used as a comparison group. A total of 118 (87 shooters and 31 archers) participants were included in the analysis...
July 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ryan N Doan, Taehwan Shin, Christopher A Walsh
Understanding the biological basis for human-specific cognitive traits presents both immense challenges and unique opportunities. Although the question of what makes us human has been investigated with several different methods, the rise of comparative genomics, epigenomics, and medical genetics has provided tools to help narrow down and functionally assess the regions of the genome that seem evolutionarily relevant along the human lineage. In this review, we focus on how medical genetic cases have provided compelling functional evidence for genes and loci that appear to have interesting evolutionary signatures in humans...
July 8, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
Stefany Ortega-Pérez, María Consuelo Amaya-Rey
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury and cerebrovascular disease may lead to motor, behavioral, and/or cognitive disabilities. The associated neurologic and vascular damage triggers a chain of events that lead to a secondary brain injury (SBI), a preventable cause of adverse neurological outcomes. Proper prevention of these factors may limit undesirable outcomes. This article presents a concept analysis that aims to form a single definition of the term secondary brain injury for nursing personnel...
August 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
LuLu Bai, Qianghu Tang, Zhen Zou, Pan Meng, Baijie Tu, Yinyin Xia, Shuqun Cheng, Lina Zhang, Kai Yang, Shaoyu Mu, Xuefeng Wang, Xia Qin, Bo Lv, Xianqing Cao, Qizhong Qin, Xuejun Jiang, Chengzhi Chen
Arsenite exposure is known to increase the risk of neurological disorders via alteration of dopamine content, but the detailed molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, using both dopaminergic neurons of the PC-12 cell line and C57BL/6J mice as in vitro and in vivo models, our results demonstrated that six months of arsenite exposure via drinking water caused significant learning and memory impairment, anxiety-like behavior and alterations in conditioned avoidance and escape responses in male adult mice...
June 29, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Weishuai Li, Si Wu, Qingping Meng, Xiaotian Zhang, Yang Guo, Lin Cong, Shuyan Cong, Dongming Zheng
BACKGROUND: Recently, most reports of Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) antibody encephalitis are from Europe and the US, while the short term outcome and clinical characteristics of Chinese patients are rarely reported,we study the clinical manifestations, laboratory results and brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) of eight patients who were recently diagnosed with LGI1 antibody encephalitis in our hospital to improve the awareness and knowledge of this disease. METHODS: Eight patients (five males and three females; mean age, 63...
July 6, 2018: BMC Neurology
Tomasz Litwin, Petr Dusek, Tomasz Szafrański, Karolina Dzieżyc, Anna Członkowska, Janusz K Rybakowski
Wilson's disease (WD) is an inherited metabolic disorder related to disturbances of copper metabolism, and predominantly presents with liver and neuropsychiatric symptoms. In most cases it can be successfully treated with anti-copper agents, and both liver function and neuropsychiatric symptoms typically improve. Treatment guidelines for WD include recommendations for anti-copper treatment as well as for the treatment of liver failure symptoms. Recently, recommendations for treatment of the neurological symptoms of WD have also been proposed...
July 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
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