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Behavioral neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087806/splenectomy-does-not-improve-long-term-outcome-after-stroke
#1
Dannielle Zierath, Angela Shen, Astiana Stults, Theresa Olmstead, Kyra J Becker
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Immune responses to brain antigens after stroke contribute to poor outcome. We hypothesized that splenectomy would lessen the development of such responses and improve outcome. METHODS: Male Lewis rats (275-350 g) underwent 2-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion immediately after splenectomy or sham splenectomy. Animals were survived to 4 weeks (672 hrs), and immune responses to myelin basic protein determined at euthanasia. Infarct volume was determined in a subset of animals euthanized at 72 hours...
January 13, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079875/early-postnatal-illness-severity-scores-predict-neurodevelopmental-impairments-at-10-years-of-age-in-children-born-extremely-preterm
#2
J W Logan, O Dammann, E N Allred, C Dammann, K Beam, R M Joseph, T M O'Shea, A Leviton, K C K Kuban
OBJECTIVE: A neonatal illness severity score, The Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-II (SNAP-II), predicts neurodevelopmental impairments at two years of age among children born extremely preterm. We sought to evaluate to what extent SNAP-II is predictive of cognitive and other neurodevelopmental impairments at 10 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: In a cohort of 874 children born before 28 weeks of gestation, we prospectively collected clinical, physiologic and laboratory data to calculate SNAP-II for each infant...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077335/omega-3-fatty-acids-regulate-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-and-prevent-behavior-deficits-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Chao Lin, Honglu Chao, Zheng Li, Xiupeng Xu, Yinlong Liu, Zhongyuan Bao, Lijun Hou, Yan Liu, Xiaoming Wang, Yongping You, Ning Liu, Jing Ji
Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) attenuate inflammation and improve neurological outcome in response to traumatic brain injury (TBI), but the specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we found that NLRP3 inflammasome and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokines were activated in human brains after TBI. Rats treated with ω-3 FAs had significantly less TBI-induced caspase-1 cleavage and IL-1β secretion than those with vehicle. G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) was observed to be involved in this anti-inflammation...
January 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074903/alterations-in-the-brain-adenosine-metabolism-cause-behavioral-and-neurological-impairment-in-ada-deficient-mice-and-patients
#4
Aisha V Sauer, Raisa Jofra Hernandez, Francesca Fumagalli, Veronica Bianchi, Pietro L Poliani, Chiara Dallatomasina, Elisa Riboni, Letterio S Politi, Antonella Tabucchi, Filippo Carlucci, Miriam Casiraghi, Nicola Carriglio, Manuela Cominelli, Carlo Alberto Forcellini, Federica Barzaghi, Francesca Ferrua, Fabio Minicucci, Stefania Medaglini, Letizia Leocani, Giancarlo la Marca, Lucia D Notarangelo, Chiara Azzari, Giancarlo Comi, Cristina Baldoli, Sabrina Canale, Maria Sessa, Patrizia D'Adamo, Alessandro Aiuti
Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) deficiency is an autosomal recessive variant of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) caused by systemic accumulation of ADA substrates. Neurological and behavioral abnormalities observed in ADA-SCID patients surviving after stem cell transplantation or gene therapy represent an unresolved enigma in the field. We found significant neurological and cognitive alterations in untreated ADA-SCID patients as well as in two groups of patients after short- and long-term enzyme replacement therapy with PEG-ADA...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072574/motion-compensation-using-origin-ensembles-in-awake-small-animal-positron-emission-tomography
#5
John E Gillam, Georgios I Angelis, Andre Z Kyme, Steven R Meikle
In emission tomographic imaging, the stochastic origin ensembles algorithm provides unique information regarding the detected counts given the measured data. Precision in both voxel and region-wise parameters may be determined for a single data set based on the posterior distribution of the count density allowing uncertainty estimates to be allocated to quantitative measures. Uncertainty estimates are of particular importance in awake animal neurological and behavioral studies for which head motion, unique for each acquired data set, perturbs the measured data...
January 10, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070456/a-simple-rat-model-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-device-to-reproduce-anatomical-and-neurological-changes-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Ho Jeong Kim, Soo Jeong Han
Mild traumatic brain injury typically involves temporary impairment of neurological function. Previous studies used water pressure or rotational injury for designing the device to make a rat a mild traumatic brain injury model. The objective of this study was to make a simple model of causing mild traumatic brain injury in rats. The device consisted of a free-fall impactor that was targeted onto the rat skull. The weight (175 g) was freely dropped 30 cm to rat's skull bregma. We installed a safety device made of acrylic panel...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070266/serum-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-immune-mediators-in-children-with-autistic-disorder-a-longitudinal-study
#7
Carlos A Pardo, Cristan A Farmer, Audrey Thurm, Fatma M Shebl, Jorjetta Ilieva, Simran Kalra, Susan Swedo
BACKGROUND: The causes of autism likely involve genetic and environmental factors that influence neurobiological changes and the neurological and behavioral features of the disorder. Immune factors and inflammation are hypothesized pathogenic influences, but have not been examined longitudinally. METHODS: In a cohort of 104 participants with autism, we performed an assessment of immune mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, or growth factors in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (n = 67) to determine potential influences of such mediators in autism...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069460/epilepsy-and-exercise-an-experimental-study-in-female-rats
#8
Diego Vannucci Campos, Glauber Menezes Lopim, Daiana Aparecida da Silva, Alexandre Aparecido de Almeida, Debora Amado, Ricardo Mario Arida
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is the most common neurological chronic condition worldwide, affecting about 2% of world population. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) reaches 40% of all cases of this condition, and it is highly refractory to pharmacological treatment. Physical activity has been suggested as complementary therapy for epilepsy. However, there is no consistent information whether all these effects are plenty applicable to females, since clinical and experimental studies concerning physical exercise and epilepsy are largely performed in males...
January 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069457/quercetin-prevents-chronic-unpredictable-stress-induced-behavioral-dysfunction-in-mice-by-alleviating-hippocampal-oxidative-and-inflammatory-stress
#9
Vineet Mehta, Arun Parashar, Malairaman Udayabanu
It is now evident that chronic stress is associated with anxiety, depression and cognitive dysfunction and very few studies have focused on identifying possible methods to prevent these stress-induced disorders. Previously, we identified abundance of quercetin in Urtica dioica extract, which efficiently attenuated stress related complications. Therefore, current study was designed to investigate the effect of quercetin on chronic unpredicted stress (CUS) induced behavioral dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the mouse hippocampus...
January 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068943/a-case-of-gabar-antibodies-in-schizophrenia
#10
Ida S Haussleiter, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Georg Juckel
BACKGROUND: In the last couple of years, schizophrenia was often discussed as autoimmune disease. Several antibodies were suspected, but so far there has been no proof of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor antibodies in patients with schizophrenia. CASE PRESENTATION: In this case report we present a 21-year old woman with schizophrenic symptoms, who showed anti-GABAB1 antibodies when screened by a vast recombinant neurology mosaic on Human Embryonic Kidney Cells 293 (HEK293) cells...
January 10, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067771/ck2-an-emerging-target-for-neurological-and-psychiatric-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Julia Castello, Andre Ragnauth, Eitan Friedman, Heike Rebholz
Protein kinase CK2 has received a surge of attention in recent years due to the evidence of its overexpression in a variety of solid tumors and multiple myelomas as well as its participation in cell survival pathways. CK2 is also upregulated in the most prevalent and aggressive cancer of brain tissue, glioblastoma multiforme, and in preclinical models, pharmacological inhibition of the kinase has proven successful in reducing tumor size and animal mortality. CK2 is highly expressed in the mammalian brain and has many bona fide substrates that are crucial in neuronal or glial homeostasis and signaling processes across synapses...
January 5, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065740/bacterial-signaling-to-the-nervous-system-via-toxins-and-metabolites
#12
REVIEW
Nicole J Yang, Isaac M Chiu
Mammalian hosts interface intimately with commensal and pathogenic bacteria. It is increasingly clear that molecular interactions between the nervous system and microbes contribute to health and disease. Both commensal and pathogenic bacteria are capable of producing molecules that act on neurons and affect essential aspects of host physiology. Here we highlight several classes of physiologically important molecular interactions that occur between bacteria and the nervous system. First, clostridial neurotoxins block neurotransmission to or from neurons by targeting the SNARE complex, causing the characteristic paralyses of botulism and tetanus during bacterial infection...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061969/role-of-nitric-oxide-in-stress-induced-anxiety-from-pathophysiology-to-therapeutic-target
#13
A Kumar, P Chanana
Stress is often marked by a state of hyperarousal to aid the initiation of necessary stress response for the successful management of stressful stimuli. It can be manifested as a challenge (stimulus) that requires behavioral, psychological, and physiological adaptations for the maintenance of a state of homeostasis in response to stressful stimuli. In an organism, miscellaneous stressors trigger a wide spectrum of alterations in hormonal and neuronal physiologies, resulting in behavioral (anxiety and depression disorders, diminished food intake and gastrointestinal dysfunctions, decline in sexual behavior, diabetes, and loss of cognitive function) and other physiological responses...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060033/the-effects-of-exercise-dose-on-stereotypical-behavior-in-children-with-autism
#14
Stefanie Schmitz Olin, Bridget A McFadden, Devon L Golem, Joseph K Pellegrino, Alan J Walker, David J Sanders, Shawn M Arent
INTRODUCTION: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a prevalent neurological disorder in children characterized by restrictive, repetitive patterns of behavior that place an added burden on everyday functions. Aerobic exercise has the propensity to reduce stereotypic behaviors in children with ASD. This study sought to quantify the acute effect of exercise and assess the influence of duration and intensity on frequency of stereotypic behaviors in children with ASD. METHODS: Participants in this study (N=7, Mage=13...
January 4, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059805/crocin-protects-against-cerebral-ischemia-induced-damage-in-aged-rats-through-maintaining-the-integrity-of-blood-brain-barrier
#15
Xuan Zhang, Zhixin Fan, Ting Jin
BACKGROUND: A clear relationship exists between oxidative stress and disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) during cerebral ischemia, in which aging may exacerbate the extent of leakage. Here, we aim to examine the potential role of a water-soluble carotenoid-based antioxidant crocin on BBB damage in aged rats following cerebral ischemia. METHODS: A two months oral administration of crocin was applied to 24-month-old rats followed by an induction of brain ischemia by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
January 3, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059647/simulating-vasogenic-brain-edema-using-chronic-vegf-infusion
#16
Martin Piazza, Jeeva Munasinghe, Roger Murayi, Nancy Edwards, Blake Montgomery, Stuart Walbridge, Marsha Merrill, Prashant Chittiboina
OBJECTIVE To study peritumoral brain edema (PTBE), it is necessary to create a model that accurately simulates vasogenic brain edema (VBE) without introducing a complicated tumor environment. PTBE associated with brain tumors is predominantly a result of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted by brain tumors, and VEGF infusion alone can lead to histological blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in the absence of tumor. VBE is intimately linked to BBB breakdown. The authors sought to establish a model for VBE with chronic infusion of VEGF that can be validated by serial in-vivo MRI and histological findings...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054806/early-amygdala-or-hippocampus-damage-influences-adolescent-female-social-behavior-during-group-formation
#17
Gilda Moadab, Eliza Bliss-Moreau, Melissa D Bauman, David G Amaral
This study continues a longitudinal analysis of rhesus macaque social behavior following bilateral neonatal ibotenic acid lesions of the amygdala or hippocampus, or sham operations. The social behavior of female subjects was evaluated at a critical developmental time point-the transition to adulthood. At approximately 4 years of age, female subjects were housed in small groups with other female subjects and reproductively viable adult males. As compared with neurologically intact control animals and animals with early amygdala damage, animals with early hippocampal damage were more social with their female peers...
January 5, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054669/comparison-of-the-pharmacological-profiles-of-selective-pde4b-and-pde4d-inhibitors-in-the-central-nervous-system
#18
Chong Zhang, Ying Xu, Han-Ting Zhang, Mark E Gurney, James M O'Donnell
Inhibition of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-specific phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) has been proposed as a potential treatment for a series of neuropsychological conditions such as depression, anxiety and memory loss. However, the specific involvement of each of the PDE4 subtypes (PDE4A, 4B and 4C) in different categories of behavior has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we compared the possible pharmacological effects of PDE4B and PDE4D selective inhibitors, A-33 and D159687, in mediating neurological function in mice...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053932/neurobrucellosis-presented-with-a-hyperacute-onset-a-case-report
#19
Arefeh Khademi, Maryam Poursadeghfard, Reza Nikandish Noubar
Neurobrucellosis is uncommon; however, it is an important complication of brucellosis, which could be seen in any stage of the disease. It presents with different kinds of neurology manifestations and diagnosis is mainly made on history, physical examination and laboratory tests. The clinical course of the disease is relatively insidious and the most common pattern of presentation is subacute or chronic. It has a long-term treatment period and its response to treatment is slow. Here, we report a case of an apparent healthy 25 yr-old Afghani woman from Fars Province (south of Iran) that presented at first with hyperacute onset of headache and abnormal behavior and diagnosed neurobrucellosis in Nov 2015...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053886/yokukansan-enhances-the-proliferation-of-b65-neuroblastoma
#20
Yoshihiko Nakatani, Taku Amano, Hikaru Yamamoto, Norio Sakai, Minoru Tsuji, Hiroshi Takeda
Yokukansan, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, has been considered to be a novel alternative treatment for several neurological diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, as well as neurosis, insomnia, and behavioral and psychological symptoms in Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, it has been shown that yokukansan has antidepressant-like and pain-relieving effects in animal models. Recently, several studies have shown that yokukansan has a neuroprotective effect. In this study, we focused on whether or no yokukansan influences cell proliferation related to cell-cycle progression by using B65 neuroblastoma cells derived from monoaminergic neurons...
January 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
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