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Behavioral neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640803/brain-network-eigenmodes-provide-a-robust-and-compact-representation-of-the-structural-connectome-in-health-and-disease
#1
Maxwell B Wang, Julia P Owen, Pratik Mukherjee, Ashish Raj
Recent research has demonstrated the use of the structural connectome as a powerful tool to characterize the network architecture of the brain and potentially generate biomarkers for neurologic and psychiatric disorders. In particular, the anatomic embedding of the edges of the cerebral graph have been postulated to elucidate the relative importance of white matter tracts to the overall network connectivity, explaining the varying effects of localized white matter pathology on cognition and behavior. Here, we demonstrate the use of a linear diffusion model to quantify the impact of these perturbations on brain connectivity...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637128/maximizing-gait-and-balance-behaviors-and-decision-making-processes-of-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-and-physical-therapists
#2
Elissa Held Bradford, Marcia Finlayson, Andrea White Gorman, Joanne Wagner
PURPOSE: To describe the behavioral decisions used by persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and physical therapists to maximize gait and balance following outpatient physical therapy. METHODS: A multi-method case series with seven matched pairs (persons with MS-physical therapists). Quota sampling maximized variability among persons with MS (disease steps score range 3-6). Three of the four physical therapists were MS or neurology certified. Persons with MS completed a phone survey, follow-up interview, and standardized questionnaires...
February 7, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636935/the-sensory-striatum-is-permanently-impaired-by-transient-developmental-deprivation
#3
Todd M Mowery, Kristina B Penikis, Stephen K Young, Christopher E Ferrer, Vibhakar C Kotak, Dan H Sanes
Corticostriatal circuits play a fundamental role in regulating many behaviors, and their dysfunction is associated with many neurological disorders. In contrast, sensory disorders, like hearing loss (HL), are commonly linked with processing deficits at or below the level of the auditory cortex (ACx). However, HL can be accompanied by non-sensory deficits, such as learning delays, suggesting the involvement of regions downstream of ACx. Here, we show that transient developmental HL differentially affected the ACx and its downstream target, the sensory striatum...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634598/previously-unrecognized-behavioral-phenotype-in-gaucher-disease-type-3
#4
Magy Abdelwahab, Michael Potegal, Elsa G Shapiro, Igor Nestrasil
OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive description of abnormal behaviors in patients with Gaucher disease type 3 (GD3) and relate these behaviors to demographic, neurodevelopmental, and neurologic characteristics. METHODS: Thirty-four Egyptian patients with GD3 (mean age of 7.9 years) were enrolled in the study. They were selected based on parent report and/or physician observation of one or more abnormal behaviors documented in 2 settings and by 2 different individuals and/or by video recording...
June 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633545/late-recovery-of-awareness-in-prolonged-disorders-of-consciousness-a-cross-sectional-cohort-study
#5
Kudret Yelden, Sophie Duport, Leon M James, Agnieszka Kempny, Simon F Farmer, Alex P Leff, E Diane Playford
PURPOSE: To detect any improvement of awareness in prolonged disorders of consciousness in the long term. METHODS: A total of 34 patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (27 vegetative state and seven minimally conscious state; 16 males; aged 21-73) were included in the study. All patients were initially diagnosed with vegetative/minimally conscious state on admission to our specialist neurological rehabilitation unit. Re-assessment was performed 2-16 years later using Coma Recovery Scale-Revised...
June 21, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632024/performance-validity-testing-in-a-clinical-sample-of-adults-with-sickle-cell-disease
#6
Katherine E Dorociak, Evan T Schulze, Lauren E Piper, Robert E Molokie, Julie K Janecek
OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychologists utilize performance validity tests (PVTs) as objective means for drawing inferences about performance validity. The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a well-validated, stand-alone PVT and the Reliable Digit Span (RDS) and Reliable Digit Span-Revised (RDS-R) from the Digit Span subtest of the WAIS-IV are commonly employed, embedded PVTs. While research has demonstrated the utility of these PVTs with various clinical samples, no research has investigated their use in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD), a condition associated with multiple neurological, physical, and psychiatric symptoms...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632021/neuromyelitis-optica-application-of-computer-diagnostics-to-historical-case-reports
#7
Pablo Garcia Reitboeck, Peter Garrard, Timothy Peters
The retrospective diagnosis of illnesses by medical historians can often be difficult and prone to bias, although knowledge of the medical disorders of historical figures is key to the understanding of their behavior and reactions. The recent application of computer diagnostics to historical figures allows an objective differential diagnosis to be accomplished. Taking an example from clinical neurology, we analyzed the earliest reported cases of Devic's disease (neuromyelitis optica) that commonly affects the optic nerve and spinal cord and was previously often confused with multiple sclerosis...
February 10, 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631035/brief-report-the-negev-hospital-university-based-hub-autism-database
#8
Gal Meiri, Ilan Dinstein, Analya Michaelowski, Hagit Flusser, Michal Ilan, Michal Faroy, Asif Bar-Sinai, Liora Manelis, Dana Stolowicz, Lili Lea Yosef, Nadav Davidovitch, Hava Golan, Shosh Arbelle, Idan Menashe
Elucidating the heterogeneous etiologies of autism will require investment in comprehensive longitudinal data acquisition from large community based cohorts. With this in mind, we have established a hospital-university-based (HUB) database of autism which incorporates prospective and retrospective data from a large and ethnically diverse population. The collected data includes social-demographic characteristics, standardized behavioral testing, detailed clinical history from electronic patient records, genetic samples, and various neurological measures...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630251/valnoctamide-inhibits-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-developing-brain-and-attenuates-neurobehavioral-dysfunctions-and-brain-abnormalities
#9
Sara Ornaghi, Lawrence S Hsieh, Angélique Bordey, Patrizia Vergani, Michael J Paidas, Anthony N van den Pol
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common infectious cause of brain defects and neurological dysfunction in developing human babies. Due to the teratogenicity and toxicity of available CMV antivirals, treatment options during early development are markedly limited. Valnoctamide (VCD), a neuroactive mood stabilizer with no known teratogenic activity, was recently demonstrated to have anti-CMV potential. However, it is not known whether this can be translated into an efficacious therapeutic effect to improve CMV-induced adverse neurological outcomes...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628596/from-disease-to-health-physical-therapy-health-promotion-practices-for-secondary-prevention-in-adult-and-pediatric-neurologic-populations
#10
Lori Quinn, Don Morgan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Over the last decade there has been a substantial increase in efforts to better understand how targeted physical activity and exercise interventions can be used to minimize secondary consequences arising from neurological damage in both adult and pediatric populations. This article offers an overview of contemporary research that addresses mediators of functional and neuroplastic adaptations associated with physical activity and exercise. We emphasize the important role that physical therapists can play to increase participation and improve well-being in adults and children with neurological disorders...
July 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625786/drug-induces-depression-like-phenotypes-and-alters-gene-expression-profiles-in-drosophila
#11
Ming-Di Jiang, Ya Zheng, Jia-Lin Wang, Yu-Feng Wang
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe mental illness that affects more than 350 million people worldwide. However, the molecular mechanisms of depression are currently unclear. Studies suggest that Drosophila and humans have similar depression-like symptoms under pressure. In this research, we choose Drosophila melanogaster as the animal model to explore the molecular mechanisms that trigger depression. RESULTS: We found that feeding D. melanogaster with the medium containing Levodopa or Chlorpromazine could induce depression-like phenotypes in both behavioral and biochemical biomarkers, including significantly decreased food intake, mating frequency, serotonin (5-HT) concentration, and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration as well as reduced activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD)...
June 15, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624333/l-theanine-prevent-quinolinic-acid-induced-motor-deficit-and-striatal-neurotoxicity-reduction-in-oxido-nitrosative-stress-and-restoration-of-striatal-neurotransmitters-level
#12
Sumit Jamwal, Shamsher Singh, Jaskamal Singh Gill, Puneet Kumar
L-theanine has been documented to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective potential in various animal models of neurological disorders. The present study was anticipated to investigate the effect of L-theanine against quinolinic acid induced motor deficits, oxido-nitrosative stress, neuro-inflammation and neurotransmitters alteration in rats. Rats were stereotaxically injected QA (200 nmol/2µl saline; intrastriatal); bilaterally on 0day and L-theanine (25 & 50mg/kg; p.o.) was administered for 21 days starting from day 1 of QA injection...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623165/ocular-effects-of-zika-virus-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Maria Carolina Marquezan, Camila V Ventura, Jeanne S Sheffield, William Christopher Golden, Revaz Omiadze, Rubens Belfort, William May
Zika virus (ZIKV) was considered an innocent pathogen while restricted to the African and Asian population; however, after reaching the Americas in March 2015, it became a global threat. Despite usually causing mild or no symptoms in infected adults, ZIKV displays a different behavior towards fetuses. When infected during gestation, fetuses have their immature neural cells killed by the virus and consequently have devastating findings at birth. In the past year, the drastic effects of ZIKV infection in newborns include neurological, ophthalmological, audiological, and skeletal abnormalities...
June 13, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622489/the-role-of-exercise-and-patient-education-in-the-noninvasive-management-of-whiplash-a-clinical-commentary
#14
Trudy Rebbeck
Synopsis The majority of people with whiplash associated disorder (WAD) do not have neurological deficit or fracture and are therefore largely managed with non-surgical interventions such as exercise, patient education, and behavioral based-interventions. To date clinical guidelines, systematic reviews, and the results of high quality randomized controlled trials recommend exercise and patient education as the primary interventions for people in both acute and chronic stages after injury. However, the relatively weak evidence and small effect sizes in individual trials have led authors of some systematic reviews to reach equivocal recommendations for either exercise or patient education and for policy makers and funders to question whether the more expensive intervention (exercise) should be funded at all...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622418/severe-apparently-isolated-fetal-ventriculomegaly-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome
#15
Mathilde Letouzey, Alexandra Chadie, Marie Brasseur-Daudruy, François Proust, Eric Verspyck, Pascal Boileau, Stéphane Marret
OBJECTIVE: To assess the neurodevelopmental outcome of children with a prenatal diagnosis of apparently isolated severe ventriculomegaly (SVM). METHOD: Retrospective cohort study from 1994 to 2011. We included fetuses with unilateral or bilateral ventriculomegaly equal to or greater than 15 mm at prenatal ultrasound and confirmed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging, whose parents chose continuation of pregnancy past 22 weeks, and with no associated findings at diagnosis (i...
June 16, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622086/naringenin-ameliorates-behavioral-dysfunction-and-neurological-deficits-in-a-d-galactose-induced-aging-mouse-model-through-activation-of-pi3k-akt-nrf2-pathway
#16
Yan Zhang, Bin Liu, Xi Chen, Ning Zhang, Guang Li, Li-Hong Li-Hong Zhang, Li-Yan Li-Yan Tan
In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of naringenin on aging mice induced by D-gal. Open field test and Morris water maze test were performed to evaluate the effect of naringenin on behavioral dysfunction. HE staining, TUNEL staining and Nissl staining were used to estimate the effect of naringenin on neurological deficits. Furthermore, naringenin markedly activated PI3K/Akt signaling, eventually promoted the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and induced the expressions of HO-1and NQO1. SOD, CAT and TBARS assays were conducted to evaluate oxidative stress in D-gal-induced aging mice...
June 16, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620276/an-analysis-of-a-novel-short-term-therapeutic-psychoeducational-program-for-children-and-adolescents-with-chronic-neurological-illness-and-their-parents-feasibility-and-efficacy
#17
Bonglim Joo, Young-Mock Lee, Heung Dong Kim, Soyong Eom
The purpose of this intervention was to develop a therapeutic psycho-educational program that improves quality of life in children and adolescents who are experiencing chronic neurological illness, including epilepsy, and their parents, and to analyze the intervention's feasibility and efficacy and participants' satisfaction. Participants were eight children (n = 8) and adolescents and their parents; participating children were experiencing chronic neurological illness with psychological comorbidity; children with intellectual impairment were excluded (IQ < 80)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619545/blast-related-disinhibition-and-risk-seeking-in-mice-and-combat-veterans-potential-role-for-dysfunctional-phasic-dopamine-release
#18
A G Schindler, J S Meabon, K F Pagulayan, R C Hendrickson, K D Meeker, M Cline, G Li, C Sikkema, C W Wilkinson, D P Perl, M R Raskind, E R Peskind, J J Clark, D G Cook
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) caused by exposure to high explosives has been called the "signature injury" of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. There is a wide array of chronic neurological and behavioral symptoms associated with blast-induced mTBI. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here we used a battlefield-relevant mouse model of blast-induced mTBI and in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to investigate whether the mesolimbic dopamine system contributes to the mechanisms underlying blast-induced behavioral dysfunction...
June 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619309/scalp-acupuncture-attenuates-neurological-deficits-in-a-rat-model-of-hemorrhagic-stroke
#19
Hao Liu, Xiaowei Sun, Wei Zou, Mengtong Leng, Beng Zhang, Xiaoyu Kang, Tao He, Hui Wang
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately 15% of all stroke cases, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Limited human studies suggested that scalp acupuncture could facilitate functional recovery after cerebral hemorrhage. In the current study, we used an animal model of cerebral hemorrhage to examine the potential effects of scalp acupuncture. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received autologous blood (50μL) into the right caudate nucleus on the right side under pentobarbital anesthesia, and then received scalp acupuncture (DU20 through GB7 on the lesion side) or sham acupuncture (1cm to the right side of the acupoints) (n=10 per group)...
June 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619114/reducing-the-rate-and-duration-of-re-admissions-among-patients-with-unipolar-disorder-and-bipolar-disorder-using-smartphone-based-monitoring-and-treatment-the-radmis-trials-study-protocol-for-two-randomized-controlled-trials
#20
Maria Faurholt-Jepsen, Mads Frost, Klaus Martiny, Nanna Tuxen, Nicole Rosenberg, Jonas Busk, Ole Winther, Jakob Eyvind Bardram, Lars Vedel Kessing
BACKGROUND: Unipolar and bipolar disorder combined account for nearly half of all morbidity and mortality due to mental and substance use disorders, and burden society with the highest health care costs of all psychiatric and neurological disorders. Among these, costs due to psychiatric hospitalization are a major burden. Smartphones comprise an innovative and unique platform for the monitoring and treatment of depression and mania. No prior trial has investigated whether the use of a smartphone-based system can prevent re-admission among patients discharged from hospital...
June 15, 2017: Trials
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