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Behavioral neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806641/acute-ethanol-administration-results-in-a-protective-cytokine-and-neuroinflammatory-profile-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Akila Chandrasekar, Florian Olde Heuvel, Annette Palmer, Birgit Linkus, Albert C Ludolph, Tobias M Boeckers, Borna Relja, Markus Huber-Lang, Francesco Roselli
Ethanol intoxication is a common comorbidity in traumatic brain injury. To date, the effect of ethanol on TBI pathogenic cascades and resulting outcomes remains debated. A closed blunt weight-drop murine TBI model has been implemented to investigate behavioral (by sensorimotor and neurological tests), and neuro-immunological (by tissue cytokine arrays and immuno-histology) effects of ethanol intoxication on TBI. The effect of the occurrence of traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage was also studied. The results indicate that ethanol pretreatment results in a faster and better recovery after TBI with reduced infiltration of leukocytes and reduced microglia activation...
August 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803158/balasubramide-derivative-3c-modulates-microglia-activation-via-camkk%C3%AE-dependent-ampk-pgc-1%C3%AE-pathway-in-neuroinflammatory-conditions
#2
Yunjie Wang, Wenchen Ruan, Junru Mi, Jingzi Xu, Haojie Wang, Zhengyu Cao, Juan M Saavedra, Luyong Zhang, Hansen Lin, Tao Pang
Neuroinflammation plays a vital role in the pathological process of cerebral ischemic stroke, but currently there is no effective treatment. After ischemia, microglia-produced proinflammatory mediator expression contributes to the aggravation of neuroinflammation, while anti-inflammatory activation of microglia develops an anti-neuroinflammatory effect via secretion of anti-inflammatory factor. Promoting the anti-inflammatory activation of microglia might be an effective treatment of stroke. Previously, we discovered one derivative of the natural product (+)-balasubramide, compound 3C, that exhibits a remarkably anti-neuroinflammatory effect in vitro with unknown mechanisms...
August 9, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802958/interaction-of-erythromycin-and-ketoconazole-on-the-neurological-biochemical-and-behavioral-responses-in-crucian-carp
#3
Jianchao Liu, Yuanfei Cai, Guanghua Lu, Xiaoxiang Dan, Donghai Wu, Zhenhua Yan
The presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment has received great attention due to their potential impacts on public health. The single, as well as the combined toxicities of erythromycin (ERY) and ketoconazole (KCZ) on the bioaccumulation, biochemical and behavioral responses, were examined in crucian carp. This study focused on the uptake of contaminants, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain, swimming and shoaling behavior of fish. After 14days of binary exposure, the addition of KCZ at nominal concentrations of 0...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799488/environment-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-an-update-on-mirna-role
#4
Margherita Ferrante, Gea Oliveri Conti
INTRODUCTION: The importance of neurodegenerative diseases on the management of public health is growing and the real role of the environment and miRNA in their occurrence is still unclear. miRNA can affect significantly the regulatory network. The complex variety and gene-regulatory capacity of miRNAs is particularly valuable in the brain, being a very complex organ with a functional specialization of neurons highly adaptable to environmental stimuli. In particular a miRNAs role is demonstrated in neurological diseases as the effect to toxic and mutagenic substances exposure by the environment...
August 11, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797191/systematic-review-seeking-erythropoietin-role-for-neuroprotection-in-neonates-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-presently-where-do-we-stand
#5
Bhawan Deep Garg, Deepak Sharma, Anju Bansal
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is one of the leading causes of neonatal mortality in developing countries and leads to some form of neuro-developmental disability in latter part of life. AIMS: To evaluate the role of erythropoietin (EPO) in neuro-protection for term newborn having HIE. METHOD: The literature search was done for various trials by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, Web of science, Scopus, Index Copernicus, and other data base...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796799/differential-outcomes-of-zika-virus-infection-in-aedes-aegypti-orally-challenged-with-infectious-blood-meals-and-infectious-protein-meals
#6
Yan-Jang S Huang, Amy C Lyons, Wei-Wen Hsu, So Lee Park, Stephen Higgs, Dana L Vanlandingham
BACKGROUND: Infection of mosquitoes is an essential step for the transmission of mosquito-borne arboviruses in nature. Engorgement of infectious blood meals from viremic infected vertebrate hosts allows the entry of viruses and initiates infection of midgut epithelial cells. Historically, the infection process of arboviruses in mosquitoes has been studied through the engorgement of mosquitoes from viremic laboratory animals or from artificial feeders containing blood mixed with viruses harvested from cell cultures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794966/synthetic-cannabinoid-induced-acute-respiratory-depression-case-series-and-literature-review
#7
Mark Henry Alon, Margaret Olibrice Saint-Fleur
Synthetic Cannabinoids are a street drug that is widely attainable and cheap compared to natural cannabis, and has variable potency and unpredictable effects with no commercially available diagnostic test to confirm its presence. Similar to natural cannabis, Synthetic Cannabinoid intoxication can present in several ways with the most common emergency room presentations to be of neurologic and psychiatric manifestation. The respiratory depressive effect of Synthetic Cannabinoids has not been well documented in medical literature...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792284/neurological-involvement-associated-with-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-from-pakistan
#8
Yousaf Abdullah Khan, Usman Hameed Mian, Najia Karim Ghanchi, Ali Bin Sarwar Zubairi, Mohammad Asim Beg
Plasmodium vivax is the most common specie causing malaria outside Africa with approximately 13.8 million reported cases worldwide. We report case of P. vivax infection with cerebral involvement. A nine year old boy presented with high grade fever accompanied by projectile vomiting and abnormal behavior later he developed seizures, shock, and unconsciousness. P. vivax monoinfection was diagnosed based on peripheral smears and PCR. After antimalarial therapy, patient made full recovery. Current case highlights increasing trend of cerebral complications caused by P...
January 1, 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790974/selective-inhibition-of-janus-kinase-3-has-no-impact-on-infarct-size-or-neurobehavioral-outcomes-in-permanent-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#9
Kelly M DeMars, Sean C Pacheco, Changjun Yang, David M Siwarski, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil
Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) is associated with the common gamma chain of several interleukin (IL) receptors essential to inflammatory signaling. To study the potential role of JAK3 in stroke-induced neuroinflammation, we subjected mice to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion and investigated the effects of JAK3 inhibition with decernotinib (VX-509) on infarct size, behavior, and levels of several inflammatory mediators. Results from our double immunofluorescence staining showed JAK3 expression on neurons, endothelial cells, and microglia/macrophages in the ischemic mouse brain (n = 3)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790899/sensory-processing-in-the-dorsolateral-striatum-the-contribution-of-thalamostriatal-pathways
#10
Kevin D Alloway, Jared B Smith, Todd M Mowery, Glenn D R Watson
The dorsal striatum has two functionally-defined subdivisions: a dorsomedial striatum (DMS) region involved in mediating goal-directed behaviors that require conscious effort, and a dorsolateral striatum (DLS) region involved in the execution of habitual behaviors in a familiar sensory context. Consistent with its presumed role in forming stimulus-response (S-R) associations, neurons in DLS receive massive inputs from sensorimotor cortex and are responsive to both active and passive sensory stimulation. While several studies have established that corticostriatal inputs contribute to the stimulus-induced responses observed in the DLS, there is growing awareness that the thalamus has a significant role in conveying sensory-related information to DLS and other parts of the striatum...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790013/chronic-vitamin-e-deficiency-impairs-cognitive-function-in-adult-zebrafish-via-dysregulation-of-brain-lipids-and-energy-metabolism
#11
Melissa McDougall, Jaewoo Choi, Kathy Magnusson, Lisa Truong, Robert Tanguay, Maret G Traber
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are a recognized model for studying the pathogenesis of cognitive deficits and the mechanisms underlying behavioral impairments, including the consequences of increased oxidative stress within the brain. The lipophilic antioxidant vitamin E (α-tocopherol; VitE) has an established role in neurological health and cognitive function, but the biological rationale for this action remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated behavioral perturbations due to chronic VitE deficiency in adult zebrafish fed from 45 days to 18-months of age diets that were either VitE-deficient (E-) or VitE-sufficient (E+)...
August 5, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789870/relevance-of-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-gelatinous-part-in-learned-preferences-induced-by-intragastric-nutrient-administration
#12
María A Zafra, Antonio D Agüera, Filomena Molina, Amadeo Puerto
Food preferences have been investigated in Wistar rats utilizing a learned concurrent flavor preference behavioral procedure. Previous studies have demonstrated that the perivagal administration of neurotoxin capsaicin disrupts the learning of preferences induced by intragastric administration of rewarding nutrients (pre-digested milk). The vagus nerve projects almost exclusively towards the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST), a brain medullary gateway for visceral signals. The objective of this study was to investigate the participation of the lateral portion of the dorsomedial region, the gelatinous subnucleus (SolG), in the learning of a concurrent preference task...
August 5, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782715/corticosterone-potentiates-dfp-induced-neuroinflammation-and-affects-high-order-diffusion-imaging-in-a-rat-model-of-gulf-war-illness
#13
Bang-Bon Koo, Lindsay T Michalovicz, Samanthan Calderazzo, Kimberly A Kelly, Kimberly Sullivan, Ronald J Killiany, James P O'Callaghan
Veterans of the 1991 Gulf War were potentially exposed to a variety of toxic chemicals, including sarin nerve agent and pesticides, which have been suspected to be involved in the development of Gulf War Illness (GWI). Several of these exposures cause a neuroinflammatory response in mice, which may serve as a basis for the sickness behavior-like symptoms seen in veterans with GWI. Furthermore, conditions mimicking the physiological stress experienced during the war can exacerbate this effect. While neuroinflammation has been observed post-exposure using animal models, it remains a challenge to evaluate neuroinflammation and its associated cellular and molecular changes in vivo in veterans with GWI...
August 4, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782500/unapparent-hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyltransferase-deficiency
#14
R J Torres, S Puente, A Menendez, N Fernandez-Garcia
Complete deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) activity causes Lesch Nyhan disease (LND), characterized by hyperuricemia, severe action dystonia, choreoathetosis, ballismus, cognitive and attention deficit and self-injurious behavior. Partial HPRT deficiency is present in patients with Lesch-Nyhan variant (LNV), who present with HPRT-related gout and a variable degree of neurological involvement. The diagnosis of HPRT deficiency relies on clinical, biochemical, enzymatic and molecular data...
August 3, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780369/new-method-to-induce-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rodents-produces-differential-outcomes-in-female-and-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#15
Peter Wirth, Waylin Yu, Amanda L Kimball, Jennifer Liao, Paul Berkner, Melissa J Glenn
BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) are an increasing health concern due to persistent behavioral and neurological effects. To better understand these effects, researchers frequently rely on animal injury models. Existing models, however, may not adequately reproduce the mechanism of injury as it occurs in humans. NEW METHOD: Our new model for inducing mTBI in rodents entails acceleration of the animal toward a stationary impact zone to produce rapid rotational movement of the head...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780000/systemic-infusions-of-anti-interleukin-1%C3%AE-neutralizing-antibodies-reduce-short-term-brain-injury-after-cerebral-ischemia-in-the-ovine-fetus
#16
Xiaodi Chen, Virginia Hovanesian, Syed Naqvi, Yow-Pin Lim, Richard Tucker, John E Donahue, Edward G Stopa, Barbara S Stonestreet
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic reperfusion (I/R)-related brain injury is a leading cause of neurologic morbidity and life-long disability in children. Infants exposed to I/R brain injury develop long-term cognitive and behavioral deficits, placing a large burden on parents and society. Therapeutic strategies are currently not available for infants with I/R brain damage, except for hypothermia, which can only be used in full term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Moreover, hypothermia is only partially protective...
August 2, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779332/neuroprotection-by-propofol-post-conditioning-focus-on-pkm%C3%AE-kcc2-pathway-activity
#17
Chen-Yi Yang, Shu-Ying Liu, Hai-Yun Wang, Yan-Li Li, Di Guo, Xin-Yue Wang, Wei Hua, Guo-Lin Wang
Critical and major operations are often accompanied by brain ischemic complications. Previous studies found that propofol post-conditioning provided neuroprotective functions through upregulating the expression of potassium chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons. Membrane expression and phosphorylation represents KCC2 activity, which were modulated by a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent mechanism. However, the role of propofol in increasing KCC2 phosphorylation and the involvement of protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ), a major subtype of PKC, in the KCC2 pathway remained unclear...
August 4, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778800/anxiety-depression-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-a-treated-or-untreated-unruptured-intracranial-aneurysm
#18
YunPing Li, Weimin Dai, JianMin Zhang
Living with an untreated unruptured intracranial aneurysm(UIA) is stressful, this study was aimed to assess the influence of UIA treatment (surgery clipping and endovascular coiling) on behavior such as anxiety and depression, as well as QoL. A series of 296 UIA patients (including 162 treated and 134 untreated) were analyzed. Postal questionnaires were sent to these patients, included Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self-Rating Depression Scale(SDS) and Short Form-36(SF-36). In total, 198 (66.9%) patients responded to our questionnaires...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778701/differential-effects-of-neonatal-ssri-treatments-on-hypoxia-induced-behavioral-changes-in-male-and-female-offspring
#19
Reiko Nagano, Masatoshi Nagano, Akihito Nakai, Toshiyuki Takeshita, Hidenori Suzuki
Prenatal hypoxia induced by transient intrauterine ischemia is a serious clinical problem, and at present, effective treatments are lacking. Currently, it is unknown how prenatal hypoxia affects behaviors in adulthood. Therefore, we developed a mouse model that mimics prenatal hypoxia in humans using uterine artery occlusion in late gestation. We examined whether prenatal hypoxia induces behavioral changes in adult male and female offspring by conducting a series of behavioral tests. In adulthood, longer immobility was observed in the forced swim test in males, whereas females showed decreased inhibition in the prepulse inhibition test...
August 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778012/polarity-specific-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-effects-on-object-selective-neural-responses-in-the-inferior-parietal-lobe
#20
Jorge Almeida, Ana R Martins, Fredrik Bergström, Lénia Amaral, Andreia Freixo, Ana Ganho-Ávila, Stephanie Kristensen, Dongha Lee, Joana Nogueira, Michaela Ruttorf
Neuromodulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are routinely used for treating neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, and for enhancement of cognitive abilities. Recently, their effectiveness in modulating behavioral and neural responses has been questioned. Here we use excitatory and inhibitory tDCS prior to a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment to show that neural responses for an area's preferred stimuli depend on the polarity of stimulation. This is an important, yet overlooked, data point in demonstrating the effectiveness of these stimulation techniques...
July 13, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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