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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917122/a-method-to-culture-chicken-enterocytes-and-their-characterization
#1
Narayan C Rath, Rohana Liyanage, Anamika Gupta, Balamurugan Packialakshmi, Jackson O Lay
Enterocytes function as both absorptive and protective components of intestine that come in close contact with a variety of enteric factors, such as dietary, microbial, and parasites, that have potential to affect the organismal health. Understanding how enterocytes interact with this complex array of factors may help improve gut health particularly in the context of poultry production where it is also linked to food safety issues. The enterocyte in vitro culture can help screen different factors and their interactions with microbiome, and potentially be utilized in the development of interventions strategies for pathogens such as antibiotic alternatives...
June 15, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916949/central-line-in-long-term-parenteral-nutrition-in-children-a-european-survey
#2
Iva Hojsak, Florence Lacaille, Girish L Gupte, Jutta Köglmeier
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The guidelines for the insertion and maintenance of the central venous catheter (CVC) in children on long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) were published 12 years ago and studies evaluating the outcomes are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a survey about criteria for CVC insertion and maintenance in intestinal failure/rehabilitation centres treating children on home PN. METHODS: An on-line cross-sectional survey based on previous European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) PN guidelines was distributed electronically to the members of the ESPGHAN networking group, Network for Intestinal Failure and Transplantation in Europe (NITE) and tertiary paediatric gastroenterology centres in Europe...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915694/histology-of-24-organs-from-asian-elephant-calves-elephas-maximus
#3
Chatchote Thitaram, Pitchaya Matchimakul, Wanpitak Pongkan, Wasan Tangphokhanon, Raktham Maktrirat, Jaruwan Khonmee, Anucha Sathanawongs, Piyamat Kongtueng, Korakot Nganvongpanit
Background: Elephants are the largest and heaviest living terrestrial animals, but information on their histology is still lacking. This study provides a unique insight into the elephant's organs and also provides a comparison between juvenile Asian elephants and adult Asian elephants or other species. Here we report on the histological structure of 24 organs, including the skin, brain (cerebrum, cerebellar hemisphere, vermis, thalamus, midbrain), spinal cord, sciatic nerve, striated skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, bone (flat bone and long bone), cartilage (hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage), heart (right atrium, right ventricle), blood vessels (aorta, pulmonary artery and caudal vena cava), trunk, trachea, lung, tongue, esophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), large intestine (cecum, colon, rectum), liver and pancreas, kidney, ovary, uterus (body and horn) and spleen of two juvenile Asian elephants...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915224/characteristics-of-the-bacterial-microbiome-in-association-with-common-intestinal-parasites-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#4
Laura Rindom Krogsgaard, Lee O 'Brien Andersen, Thor Bech Johannesen, Anne Line Engsbro, Christen Rune Stensvold, Henrik Vedel Nielsen, Peter Bytzer
OBJECTIVE: A low prevalence of intestinal parasites has been identified in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but potential associations with alterations in the bacterial microbiome remain largely unexplored. We aimed to investigate the relationship between parasites and bacteria in individuals with IBS in order to identify potential trans-kingdom microbial characteristics. DESIGN: Stool samples were collected from the Danish background population classified into IBS (n = 119), unspecific gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (n = 114), and asymptomatic controls (n = 186) based on the Rome III criteria for IBS...
June 19, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915104/inter-population-variation-in-the-atlantic-salmon-microbiome-reflects-environmental-and-genetic-diversity
#5
Tamsyn M Uren Webster, Sofia Consuegra, Matthew Hitchings, Carlos Garcia de Leaniz
The microbiome has a crucial influence on host phenotype, and is of broad interest to ecological and evolutionary research. Yet, the extent of variation that occurs in the microbiome within and between populations is unclear. We characterised the skin and gut microbiome of seven populations of juvenile Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) inhabiting a diverse range of environments, including hatchery-reared and wild populations. We found shared skin OTUs across all populations and core gut microbiota for all wild fish, but the diversity and structure of both skin and gut microbial communities were distinct between populations...
June 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914507/impact-of-tgev-infection-on-the-pig-small-intestine
#6
Lu Xia, Yunhan Yang, Jialu Wang, Yuchao Jing, Qian Yang
BACKGROUND: Pig diarrhea causes high mortality and large economic losses in the swine industry. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes pig diarrhea, with 100% mortality in piglets less than 2 weeks old. No investigation has yet been made of the small intestine of piglets that survived infection by TGEV. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the impact of TGEV infection on the small intestine of recovered pigs. RESULTS: Histological analyses showed that TGEV infection led to villi atrophy, and reduced villous height and crypt depth...
June 19, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914179/biosensors-for-non-invasive-detection-of-celiac-disease-biomarkers-in-body-fluids
#7
REVIEW
Tibor Pasinszki, Melinda Krebsz
Celiac disease is a chronic gluten-initiated autoimmune disorder that predominantly damages the mucosa of the small intestine in genetically-susceptible individuals. It affects a large and increasing number of the world’s population. The diagnosis of this disease and monitoring the response of patients to the therapy, which is currently a life-long gluten-free diet, require the application of reliable, rapid, sensitive, selective, simple, and cost-effective analytical tools. Celiac disease biomarker detection in full blood, serum, or plasma offers a non-invasive way to do this and is well-suited to being the first step of diagnosis...
June 16, 2018: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914163/intestinal-microbiota-ecological-response-to-oral-administrations-of-hydrogen-rich-water-and-lactulose-in-female-piglets-fed-a-fusarium-toxin-contaminated-diet
#8
Weijiang Zheng, Xu Ji, Qing Zhang, Wen Yao
The objective of the current experiment was to explore the intestinal microbiota ecological response to oral administrations of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) and lactulose (LAC) in female piglets fed a Fusarium mycotoxin-contaminated diet. A total of 24 individually-housed female piglets (Landrace × large × white; initial average body weight, 7.25 ± 1.02 kg) were randomly assigned to receive four treatments (six pigs/treatment): uncontaminated basal diet (negative control, NC), mycotoxin-contaminated diet (MC), MC diet + HRW (MC + HRW), and MC diet + LAC (MC + LAC) for 25 days...
June 16, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913680/mechanisms-of-visceral-pain-in-health-and-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Adam D Farmer, Qasim Aziz
Background and aims Chronic visceral pain is common both in patients with identifiable organic disease and also in those without any structural, biochemical or immunological abnormality such as in the functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). We aim to provide a contemporaneous summary of pathways involved in visceral nociception and how a variety of mechanisms may influence an individual's experience of visceral pain. Methods In this narrative review, we have brought together evidence through a detailed search of Medline in addition to using our experience and exposure to recent research developments from ourselves and other research groups...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912317/microrna-590-5p-inhibits-intestinal-inflammation-by-targeting-yap
#10
Minhao Yu, Yang Luo, Zhijie Cong, Yifei Mu, Yier Qiu, Ming Zhong
Background/Aims: Hippo signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that controls organ size by regulating cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis, and stem cell self-renewal. In addition, Hippo signaling is profoundly implicated in intestinal regeneration and cancer. However, its roles in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) remain largely unexplored. Methods: Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to identify the deregulated molecules in Hippo signaling...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911939/clinical-features-and-outcome-in-horses-with-severe-large-intestinal-thickening-diagnosed-with-transabdominal-ultrasonography-25-cases-2003-2010
#11
Elizabeth W Biscoe, Mary Beth Whitcomb, Betsy Vaughan, Julie E Dechant, K Gary Magdesian
OBJECTIVE To describe clinical features and outcome of horses with severe large intestinal thickening diagnosed with transabdominal ultrasonography. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 25 horses. PROCEDURES Medical records of horses that underwent transabdominal ultrasonography between 2003 and 2010 were reviewed. Horses were included if the wall of the large intestine was ≥ 9 mm thick in any of 6 abdominal zones. RESULTS Median age was 13 years (range, 3 to 28 years). Horses were initially examined because of colic, diarrhea, inappetence, weight loss, lethargy, fever, or hematuria...
July 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910739/effects-of-dietary-phosphorus-level-on-the-expression-of-calcium-and-phosphorus-transporters-in-laying-hens
#12
Peng Li, Rongmei Wang, Hongchao Jiao, Xiaojuan Wang, Jingpeng Zhao, Hai Lin
The transport of calcium and phosphorus is mainly relied on their corresponding transporters. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary phosphorus level on the expression of the relevant calcium and phosphorus transporters in laying hens, which has a large amount of calcium and phosphorus input from intestine and output from kidney and eggshell gland. Thirty-six 25-week-old Hy-line Brown hens were fed diets with different available phosphorus level (AP, 0.15, 0.41, and 0.82%), respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909313/combinational-effect-of-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-and-nanopolystyrene-particles-at-environmentally-relevant-concentrations-on-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans
#13
Shuangshuang Dong, Man Qu, Qi Rui, Dayong Wang
The possible adverse effects of nanoplastics have received the great attention recently; however, their effects at environmentally relevant concentration on organisms are still largely unclear. We here employed Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the combinational effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 -NPs) and nanopolystyrene particles at environmentally relevant concentrations on organisms. In wild-type nematodes, prolonged exposure to nanopolystyrene particles (1 μg/L) could enhance the toxicity of TiO2 -NPs (1 μg/L) in decreasing locomotion behavior and in inducing intestinal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
June 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909020/diet-modifies-colonic-microbiota-and-cd4-t-cell-repertoire-to-induce-flares-of-colitis-in-mice-with-myeloid-cell-expression-of-interleukin-23
#14
Lili Chen, Zhengxiang He, Alina Cornelia Iuga, Sebastião N Martins Filho, Jeremiah J Faith, Jose C Clemente, Madhura Deshpande, Anitha Jayaprakash, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Juan J Lafaille, Ravi Sachidanandam, Glaucia C Furtado, Sergio A Lira
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Several studies have shown that signaling via the interleukin 23 (IL23) receptor is required for development of colitis. We studied the roles of IL23, dietary factors, alterations to the microbiota, and T cells in development and progression of colitis in mice. METHODS: All mice were maintained on lab diet 5053, unless otherwise noted. We generated mice that express IL23 in CX3CR1-positive myeloid cells (R23FR mice) upon cyclic administration of tamoxifen dissolved in diet 2019...
June 14, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906630/a-rare-occurrence-of-viability-of-both-small-and-large-bowel-in-ileosigmoid-knotting-a-case-report
#15
Simbarashe Gift Mungazi, Brightson Mutseyekwa, Mordecai Sachikonye
INTRODUCTION: Ileosigmoid knot is an uncommon cause of acute intestinal obstruction where the ileum wraps around the base of a redundant sigmoid colon. CASE PRESENTATION: We present an unusual case of a 45-year-old male patient who presented with signs and symptoms of intestinal obstruction. Exploratory laparotomy revealed an ileosigmoid knot. Both the small and large bowels were viable. The sigmoid colon was resected an end to end anastomosis was done. His post-operative period was uneventful...
June 8, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906208/feed-efficient-pigs-exhibit-molecular-patterns-allowing-a-timely-circulation-of-hormones-and-nutrients
#16
Henry Reyer, Michael Oster, Elizabeth Magowan, Eduard Murani, Helga Sauerwein, Dirk Dannenberger, Björn Kuhla, Siriluck Ponsuksili, Klaus Wimmers
Feed efficiency (FE) is a measure of the rate between feed intake and body weight gain and is subject to constant progress in pigs, based on extensive performance tests and analyses of physiological parameters. However, endocrine regulatory circuits which comprise the sensation and perception of intrinsic requirements and appropriate systemic responses have not yet been fully elucidated. It is hypothesized that the gut-brain-axis, which is a network of hierarchical anterior regulatory tissues, contributes largely to variations in FE...
June 15, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904374/alpha-ketoglutarate-in-low-protein-diets-for-growing-pigs-effects-on-cecal-microbial-communities-and-parameters-of-microbial-metabolism
#17
Jiashun Chen, Baoju Kang, Qian Jiang, Mengmeng Han, Yurong Zhao, Lina Long, Chenxing Fu, Kang Yao
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG), a critical molecule in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, is beneficial to intestinal functions. However, its influence on intestinal microbiota and metabolism is not fully understood. We investigated the effects of a low-protein (LP) diet supplemented with AKG on cecal microbial communities and the parameters of microbial metabolism in growing pigs. Twenty-seven young pigs (Large White × Landrace) with an average initial body weight of 11.96 ± 0.18 kg were randomly allotted into three groups ( n = 9): a normal protein (NP) diet containing 20% crude protein (CP); LP diet formulated with 17% CP (LP diet); or LP diet supplemented with 10 g kg-1 of AKG (ALP diet)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901842/modulation-of-ruminal-and-intestinal-fermentation-by-medicinal-plants-and-zinc-from-different-sources
#18
Zora Váradyová, Dominika Mravčáková, Monika Holodová, Ľubomira Grešáková, Jana Pisarčíková, Marcin Barszcz, Marcin Taciak, Anna Tuśnio, Svetlana Kišidayová, Klaudia Čobanová
Two experiments were conducted on sheep to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with zinc and a medicinal plant mixture on haematological parameters and microbial activity in the rumen and large intestine. In Experiment 1, 24 male lambs were randomly divided into four groups: One group was fed an unsupplemented basal diet (control), and three groups were fed a diet supplemented with 70 mg Zn/kg diet in the form of Zn sulphate (ZnSO4 ), a Zn-chelate of glycine hydrate (Zn-Gly) or a Zn-proteinate (Zn-Pro), for five months...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901822/malt1-blocks-il-1%C3%AE-production-by-macrophages-in-vitro-and-limits-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-intestinal-inflammation-in-vivo
#19
Mahdis Monajemi, Yvonne C F Pang, Saelin Bjornson, Susan C Menzies, Nico van Rooijen, Laura M Sly
This study tested the hypothesis that Malt1 deficiency in macrophages contributes to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal inflammation in Malt1-deficient mice. In people, combined immunodeficiency caused by a homozygous mutation in the MALT1 gene is associated with increased susceptibility to bacterial infections and chronic inflammation, including severe inflammation along the gastrointestinal tract. The consequences of Malt1 deficiency have largely been attributed to its role in lymphocytes, but Malt1 is also expressed in macrophages, where it is activated downstream of TLR4 and dectin-1...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901711/autotransporter-misl-of-salmonella-enterica-serotype-typhimurium-facilitates-bacterial-aggregation-and-biofilm-formation
#20
Shaohui Wang, Denghui Yang, Xiaojun Wu, Yang Wang, Dong Wang, Mingxing Tian, Tao Li, Jingjing Qi, Xiaolan Wang, Chan Ding, Shengqing Yu
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is an important food-borne zoonotic pathogen that causes increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. The autotransporter (AT) proteins are a large and diverse family of extracellular proteins, many of which contribute to the pathogenicity of Gram-negative bacteria. The S. Typhimurium AT protein MisL mediates intestinal colonization in mice. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that MisL clusters with ATs involved in bacterial biofilm formation, aggregation and adherence...
June 12, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
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