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large intestine

Emily R Troemel
Microsporidia comprise a phylum of obligate intracellular pathogens related to fungi that infect virtually all animals. Recently, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been developed as a convenient model for studying microsporidia infection in a whole-animal host through the identification and characterization of a natural microsporidian pathogen of this commonly studied laboratory organism. The C. elegans natural microsporidian pathogen is named Nematocida parisii, and it causes a lethal intestinal infection in C...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Lee M Bass, Stanley Kim, Riccardo Superina, Saeed Mohammad
Portal hypertension secondary to portal vein obstruction following liver transplant occurs in 5%-10% of children. Jejunal varices are uncommon in this group. We present a case series of children with significant GI blood loss, negative upper endoscopy, and jejunal varices detected by CE. Case series of patients who had CE for chronic GI blood loss following liver transplantation. Three patients who had their initial transplants at a median age of 7 months were identified at our institution presenting at a median age of 8 years (range 7-16 years) with a median Hgb of 2...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Jin-Yi Wan, Yu-Zhen Zhang, Jin-Bin Yuan, Feng-Qing Yang, Yan Chen, Lian-Di Zhou, Qi-Hui Zhang
Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel has been commonly used in Asia, and Anemoside B4 conducted as its major saponin with diverse pharmaceutical effects. Previous studies showed that intestinal flora plays an important role in the metabolism of herbs administered orally. In this study, the metabolic profile of AB4 with microflora in rat small and large intestine in vitro was investigated. Gut microflora was collected from different intestinal segments and anaerobically incubated with AB4 at 37 °C for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively...
October 19, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Dan Yi, Yongqing Hou, Huimin Mei, Lei Wang, Chien-An Andy Hu, Guoyao Wu
β-Conglycinin (β-CG) is well known for inducing intestinal allergies and dysfunction in neonates and young pigs. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, to clarify the role of autophagy in β-CG-induced cytotoxicity, we investigated the effects of β-CG on cell viability and autophagy activity in porcine enterocytes (IPEC-1 cells). The results indicated that the cell viability was decreased with the increasing levels of β-CG. β-CG treatment enhanced the eGFP-LC3 puncta per cells and LC3-II/LC3-I, and the latter was further increased in IPEC-1 cells cultured with bafilomycin A1...
October 19, 2016: Amino Acids
Esther Peters, Bülent Ergin, Asli Kandil, Ebru Gurel-Gurevin, Andrea van Elsas, Rosalinde Masereeuw, Peter Pickkers, Can Ince
Two small clinical trials indicated that administration of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (AP) improves renal function in critically ill patients with sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI), for which the mechanism of action is not completely understood. Here, we investigated the effects of a newly developed human recombinant AP (recAP) on renal oxygenation and hemodynamics and prevention of kidney damage and inflammation in two in vivo AKI models. To induce AKI, male Wistar rats (n=18) were subjected to renal ischemia (30min) and reperfusion (I/R), or sham-operated...
October 16, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Graeme Milligan, Daniele Bolognini, Eugenia Sergeev
A large number of reviews and commentaries have highlighted the potential role of the short-chain fatty acid receptors GPR41 (FFA3) and, particularly, GPR43 (FFA2) as an interface between the intestinal microbiota and metabolic and inflammatory disorders. However, short-chain fatty acids have very modest potency and display limited selectivity between these two receptors, and studies on receptor knockout mice have resulted in non-uniform conclusions; therefore, selective and high-potency/high-affinity synthetic ligands are required to further explore the contribution of these receptors to health and disease...
October 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
J E Truscott, H C Turner, S H Farrell, R M Anderson
Infections caused by soil-transmitted helminthias (STHs) affect over a billion people worldwide, causing anaemia and having a large social and economic impact through poor educational outcomes. They are identified in the World Health Organization (WHO) 2020 goals for neglected tropical diseases as a target for renewed effort to ameliorate their global public health burden through mass drug administration (MDA) and water and hygiene improvement. In this chapter, we review the underlying biology and epidemiology of the three causative intestinal nematode species that are mostly considered under the STH umbrella term...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
Ying Guo, YouCai Zhang, WeiHua Huang, Felcy Pavithra Selwyn, Curtis D Klaassen
BACKGROUND: Berberine (BBR) is a traditional antimicrobial herbal medicine. Recently, BBR has gained popularity as a supplement to lower blood lipids, cholesterol and glucose. Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate blood levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose and energy homeostasis, and gut flora play an important role in BA metabolism. However, whether BBR alters BAs metabolism or dose-response effect of BBR on gut flora is unknown. METHODS: In this study, the effects of various doses of BBR on the concentrations of BAs in liver and serum of male C57BL/6 mice were determined by UPLC-MS/MS, and the expression of BA-related genes, as well as the amount of 32 of the most abundant gut bacterial species in the terminal ileum and large intestine of male C57BL/6 mice were quantified by RT-PCR and Quantigene 2...
October 18, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Firas Rinawi, Amit Assa, Corina Hartman, Yael Mozer Glassberg, Vered Nachmias Friedler, Yoram Rosenbach, Ari Silbermintz, Noam Zevit, Raanan Shamir
BACKGROUND: Data describing the incidence and the risk factors for surgical interventions in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) is inconsistent. Our aim was to describe the rates of intestinal surgery and to identify associated risk factors in a large cohort of children with CD. METHODS: Medical charts of 482 children with CD from the Schneider Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease cohort who were diagnosed between 1981 and 2013 were carefully reviewed retrospectively...
October 13, 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Yaron Niv, Eyal Gal, Violeta Gabovitz, Marcela Hershkovitz, Lev Lichtenstein, Irit Avni
BACKGROUND AND THE STUDY AIM: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder defined as a transmural inflammation of the bowel wall, affecting the small and large intestine. The Capsule Endoscopy Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CECDAI or Niv score) was devised to measure mucosal disease activity. We extended the Niv score to the colon and have a comprehensive view of the whole intestine. METHODS: We evaluated 3 parameters of intestinal pathology: A, Inflammation; B, Extent of disease; C, Presence of strictures...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Monica D Prakash, Sarah Miller, Sarron Randall-Demllo, Kulmira Nurgali
Cancer development is often associated with chronic inflammation. To date, research into inflammation-induced cancer has largely focused on chemokines, cytokines, and their downstream targets. These inflammatory mediators may promote tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and facilitate angiogenesis. However, the exact mechanisms by which inflammation promotes neoplasia remain unclear. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by recurrent, idiopathic intestinal inflammation, the complications of which are potentially fatal...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
A Lazaridis, M E Drosou, A Fontalis, E Prousali, S E Hadwe, O Giouleme, K Petidis
INTRODUCTION: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease of the small intestine which occurs in genetically predisposed people of all ages. A large clinical spectrum of manifestations accompanies the onset of the disease with diarrhoea, flatulence and weight loss being the most common. However, findings like osteoporosis, iron deficiency, anaemia and hypocalcaemia could also insinuate the existence of the disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 55-year-old man with numbness and tingling of the upper extremities due to hypocalcaemia that proved to be an uncommon case of celiac disease...
October 16, 2016: Scottish Medical Journal
Lucia Mastrototaro, Gerhard Sponder, Behnam Saremi, Jörg R Aschenbach
Methionine (Met) is a neutral, sulfur-containing, essential amino acid with biological functions in the initiation and prolongation step of protein synthesis, transmethylation reactions, the synthesis of cysteine and cystine, and as a component of antioxidant systems. Its key importance is reflected by the fact that it is usually absorbed from the diet with highest efficiency among all proteinogenic amino acids but may yet not optimally support metabolism and health. As such, crystalline Met supplements are partly used in man and heavily used in production of animal species (poultry, fish, shrimps, pigs and cattle) to provide improved health and performance...
October 17, 2016: IUBMB Life
Yan Zhang, Stephanie E Simon, Jeff A Johnson, Michael S Allen
Gastrointestinal microbiota is increasingly recognized as an important component of individual health, and therefore, our ability to quantify its diversity accurately is central for exploring different ways to improve health. Non-invasive sampling methods, such as cloaca swabs, are often used to measure gastrointestinal microbiota diversity within an individual. However, few studies have addressed to what degree differences exist in microbial community composition along the gastrointestinal tract, and measures obtained from the cloaca may not actually represent the diversity present elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Aida Costa, Lynn M Powell, Sally Lowell, Andrew P Jarman
The proneural gene, Atoh1, is necessary and in some contexts sufficient for early inner ear hair cell development. Its function is the subject of intensive research, not least because of the possibility that it could be used in therapeutic strategies to reverse hair cell loss in deafness. However, it is clear that Atoh1's function is highly context dependent. During inner ear development, Atoh1 is only able to promote hair cell differentiation at specific developmental stages. Outside the ear, Atoh1 is required for differentiation of a variety of other cell types, for example in the intestine and cerebellum...
October 14, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Simon Schimmack, Ben Lawrence, Barton Kenney, Hubertus Schmitz-Winnenthal, Irvin M Modlin, Mark Kidd
BACKGROUND: Small intestinal neuroendocrine neoplasm (SI-NEN) proliferation is quantified by Ki67 measurements which capture G1-G2M phases of the cell cycle. G0 and early G1 phases, typical of slow-growing cells, can be detected by minichromosome maintenance protein (MCM) expression. We hypothesized that these replication licensing markers may provide clinically relevant information to augment Ki67 in low-grade neuroendocrine neoplasia. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining (IHC), Western blot analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and copy number variations of MCM2, MCM3, and Ki67 were undertaken in SI-NENs (n = 22)...
October 2016: Translational Oncology
Edna Pereira Gomes Morais, Rachel Riera, Gustavo Jm Porfírio, Cristiane R Macedo, Vivian Sarmento Vasconcelos, Alexsandra de Souza Pedrosa, Maria R Torloni
BACKGROUND: Caesarean sections (CS) are the most frequent major surgery in the world. A transient impairment of bowel motility is expected after CS. Although this usually resolves spontaneously within a few days, it can cause considerable discomfort, require symptomatic medication and delay hospital discharge, thus increasing costs. Chewing gum in the immediate postoperative period is a simple intervention that may be effective in enhancing recovery of bowel function in other types of abdominal surgeries...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Maria Letizia Di Martino, Maurizio Falconi, Gioacchino Micheli, Bianca Colonna, Gianni Prosseda
Shigella is a highly adapted human pathogen, mainly found in the developing world and causing a severe enteric syndrome. The highly sophisticated infectious strategy of Shigella banks on the capacity to invade the intestinal epithelial barrier and cause its inflammatory destruction. The cellular pathogenesis and clinical presentation of shigellosis are the sum of the complex action of a large number of bacterial virulence factors mainly located on a large virulence plasmid (pINV). The expression of pINV genes is controlled by multiple environmental stimuli through a regulatory cascade involving proteins and sRNAs encoded by both the pINV and the chromosome...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Giles Major, Sue Pritchard, Kathryn Murray, Jan Paul Alappadan, Caroline Hoad, Luca Marciani, Penny Gowland, Robin Spiller
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Poorly digested, fermentable carbohydrates may induce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), via unclear mechanisms. We performed a randomized trial with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis to investigate correlations between symptoms and changes in small and large bowel contents following oral challenge. METHODS: We performed a 3-period crossover study of 29 adult patients with IBS (based on Rome III criteria, with symptoms of abdominal pain or discomfort for at least 2 days/week) and reported bloating...
October 13, 2016: Gastroenterology
Everton Cazzo, José Carlos Pareja, Bruno Geloneze, Elinton Adami Chaim, Maria Rita Lazzarini Barreto, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery usually leads to improvement on the general lipid profile, but its role in the levels of apolipoprotein A-IV (Apo-AIV) is not completely understood. Apo-AIV is a gut-released lipoprotein which is enrolled in satiety regulation and presents anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, and anti-oxidative properties. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) in the levels of Apo-AIV. METHODS: This is a prospective exploratory study which evaluated eight obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who underwent BPD (Scopinaro operation) and were followed-up for 12 months...
October 15, 2016: Obesity Surgery
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