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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213760/endocrine-regulation-of-fueling-by-hyperphagia-in-migratory-birds
#1
Cas Eikenaar
To support migratory endurance flight, birds accumulate large amounts of fat by hyperphagia (fueling). Whereas the factors influencing migrants' motivation to fuel are well described, the physiological mechanism regulating fueling is largely unknown. Hormones are likely involved and arguably the best studied with respect to food intake and fueling is corticosterone. Corticosterone has a permissive effect, as blocking the hormone's actions prohibits efficient fueling. There are no indications, though that corticosterone stimulates fueling, and some studies even observed negative correlations between corticosterone level and food intake and speed of fueling...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212924/ibd-immunopathogenesis-a-comprehensive-review-of-inflammatory-molecules
#2
REVIEW
Jae Hyon Park, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Michael Eisenhut, Jae Il Shin
Inflammatory molecules play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, both of which are chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Abnormal expressions of pro-and anti-inflammatory molecules have been described to cause an imbalance to the gut innate and adaptive immunity, and recently a large portion of research in IBD has been geared towards identifying novel molecules that may be used as potential therapeutic targets...
February 14, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212351/black-box%C3%A2-gastrointestinal%C3%A2-tract-needs%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-prospects%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-gaining%C3%A2-insights%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-fate%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-fat-%C3%A2-protein-%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-starch%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-case%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-exocrine%C3%A2-pancreatic%C3%A2-insufficiency%C3%A2-by%C3%A2-using%C3%A2-fistulated%C3%A2-pigs
#3
REVIEW
Anne Mößeler, Josef Kamphues
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) results in the maldigestion and malabsorption of nutrients. The digestive processes in humans and other monogastric species like rat and pig are characterized by a predominantly enzymatic digestion within the small intestine and microbial fermentation located in the hindgut. For protein, it is doctrine that only prececally absorbed amino acids can be transferred to the amino acid pool of the host, while postileal absorption of nitrogen-containing compounds occurs mainly in the form of ammonia, being a burden rather than a benefit for the organism...
February 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212278/the-effect-of-the-human-peptide-ghk-on-gene-expression-relevant-to-nervous-system-function-and-cognitive-decline
#4
Loren Pickart, Jessica Michelle Vasquez-Soltero, Anna Margolina
Neurodegeneration, the progressive death of neurons, loss of brain function, and cognitive decline is an increasing problem for senior populations. Its causes are poorly understood and therapies are largely ineffective. Neurons, with high energy and oxygen requirements, are especially vulnerable to detrimental factors, including age-related dysregulation of biochemical pathways caused by altered expression of multiple genes. GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) is a human copper-binding peptide with biological actions that appear to counter aging-associated diseases and conditions...
February 15, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212256/hepatic-epithelioid-hemangioendothelioma-and-adult-liver-transplantation-proposal-for-a-prognostic-score-based-on-the-analysis-of-the-eltr-elita-registry
#5
Quirino Lai, Estelle Feys, Vincent Karam, Rene Adam, Jurgen Klempnauer, Martin Oliverius, Vincenzo Mazzaferro, Andreas Pascher, Piotr Remiszewski, Helena Isoniemi, Jacques Pirenne, Aksel Foss, Bo G Ericzon, Sasa Markovic, Jan P Lerut
BACKGROUND: Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) is a rare vascular tumor which has an intermediate aggressive behavior. Although the value of liver transplantation (LT) is well established, its place in the management of HEHE is still unclear. The aim of this study is to confirm, based on a very large patient cohort, the value of LT in the management of HEHE and to identify risk factors for post-LT recurrence. METHODS: The outcome of 149 transplant recipients with HEHE recorded in the European Liver Transplant Registry during the period November 1984 to May 2014 was analyzed...
March 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210093/mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-with-unusual-18-f-fdg-hypermetabolism-arising-at-the-colorectal-anastomosis
#6
Na-Sha Zhang, Fang Shi, Li Kong, Hui Zhu
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma usually originates from the stomach and presents with low (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity with average maximum standard uptake value of 3.6. Colorectal MALT lymphoma is a rare entity that contributes to 1.6% of all MALT lymphomas and < 0.2% of large intestinal malignancies. The case reported herein firstly revealed stage IIE MALT lymphoma with unexpected higher (18)F-FDG avidity of 18.9 arising at the colorectal anastomosis in a patient with a surgical history for sigmoid adenocarcinoma, which was strongly suspected as local recurrence before histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations...
January 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208925/jejunal-epiphany-diverticulae-enteroliths-and-strictures
#7
Priyank Pathak, Babar Rehmani, Navin Kumar
Multiple jejunal diverticulae represent a rare entity and are usually asymptomatic. This case report is about one such jejunal diverticulae along with multiple enteroliths and jejunal strictures. All these three different findings in a short segment of jejunum is a very rare finding with all three variants seen in a segment of jejunum. We herein present a case of a 45-year-old male, who presented with vague abdominal pain for one and half years associated with nausea and vomiting and altered bowel habits. Laparotomy revealed multiple large jejunal diverticulae compressing the bowel with multiple enteroliths and two strictures in a short segment of jejunum leading to intestinal obstruction...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208686/identification-of-autophagy-related-genes-and-their-regulatory-mirnas-associated-with-celiac-disease-in-children
#8
Sergio Comincini, Federico Manai, Cristina Meazza, Sara Pagani, Carolina Martinelli, Noemi Pasqua, Gloria Pelizzo, Marco Biggiogera, Mauro Bozzola
Celiac disease (CD) is a severe genetic autoimmune disorder, affecting about one in 100 people, where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine. Diagnosing CD is quite complex and requires blood tests and intestinal biopsy examinations. Controversy exists regarding making the diagnosis without biopsy, due to the large spectrum of manifesting symptoms; furthermore, small-intestinal gastroscopy examinations have a relatively complex management in the pediatric population. To identify novel molecular markers useful to increase the sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of pediatric CD patients, the expression levels of two key autophagy executor genes (ATG7 and BECN1) and their regulatory validated miRNAs (miR-17 and miR-30a, respectively) were analyzed by relative quantitative real-time-PCR on a cohort of confirmed CD patients compared to age-related controls...
February 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205112/autochthonous-sporadic-acute-hepatitis-e-caused-by-two-distinct-subgenotype-3b-hepatitis-e-virus-strains-with-only-90-nucleotide-identity
#9
Yasuko Yamaguchi, Hitoshi Takagi, Yuhei Suzuki, Kyoko Maruhashi, Takashi Kosone, Satoru Kakizaki, Ken Sato, Masanobu Yamada, Shigeo Nagashima, Masaharu Takahashi, Hiroaki Okamoto
Hepatitis E, which is caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV), is a public health concern in Japan, where the zoonotic food-borne transmission of HEV from domestic pigs and wild boars plays an important role. A 44-year-old Japanese man with autochthonous sporadic acute hepatitis E was admitted with general fatigue and moderate liver dysfunction. In the present study, two distinct HEV strains were recovered from the patient, who had consumed the raw or undercooked pig liver and intestine two or three times per week for 3 months before the disease onset...
February 15, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203647/the-potential-of-blue-lupins-as-a-protein-source-in-the-diets-of-laying-hens
#10
Michael R F Lee, Sarah Parkinson, Hannah R Fleming, Vince J Theobald, Dave K Leemans, Tony Burgess
Layers diets typically contain 15-20% soya due to its high crude protein content (ca. 36%). Reliance on soya for protein can result in large increases in cost of feed due to the law of supply and demand as a global commodity. Lupin grains have high protein content (35-40%) but previous experience with white lupins has shown toxic effects in poultry due to high levels alkaloids and poor performance due to anti-nutritional Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Here blue lupins either processed or whole were trialled for their potential as a protein source...
December 2016: Veterinary and Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203585/can-grafts-provide-superior-tendon-healing-and-clinical-outcomes-after-rotator-cuff-repairs-a-meta-analysis
#11
Yohei Ono, Diego Alejandro Dávalos Herrera, Jarret M Woodmass, Richard S Boorman, Gail M Thornton, Ian K Y Lo
BACKGROUND: Arthroscopic repair of large to massive rotator cuff tears commonly retear. To improve healing rates, a number of different approaches have been utilized, including the use of grafts, which may enhance the biomechanical and biologic aspects of the repair construct. However, the outcomes after the use of grafts are diverse. PURPOSE: To systematically review the literature for large to massive rotator cuff tears to determine whether the use of grafts generally provides superior tendon healing and clinical outcomes to the repairs without grafts...
December 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203278/efficacy-of-granulocyte-and-monocyte-apheresis-for-antibiotic-refractory-pouchitis-after-proctocolectomy-for-ulcerative-colitis-an-open-label-prospective-multicentre-study
#12
Takayuki Yamamoto, Toshiaki Tanaka, Tadashi Yokoyama, Takahiro Shimoyama, Hiroki Ikeuchi, Motoi Uchino, Toshiaki Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) has shown therapeutic efficacy in active ulcerative colitis (UC). We thought that in patients with pouchitis after proctocolectomy for UC, GMA might produce immunological effects in the intestinal mucosa, and improve clinical symptoms. This prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of GMA for antibiotic-refractory pouchitis after proctocolectomy for UC. METHODS: A total of 13 patients with pouchitis disease activity index (PDAI) > 7 unresponsive to 2 weeks of antibiotic therapy were included...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203138/lupus-gastrointestinal-tract-vasculopathy-lupus-enteritis-involving-the-entire-gastrointestinal-tract-from-esophagus-to-rectum
#13
Joseph Bert, Elie Gertner
Gastrointestinal symptoms are very common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Lupus "enteritis" is very responsive to treatment but can have devastating consequences if not detected. Most descriptions of enteritis involve the small and large bowel. This is the first report of lupus "enteritis" involving the entire gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus and stomach to the rectum. Lupus "enteritis" is another cause of upper gastrointestinal involvement in SLE (involving even the esophagus and stomach) in addition to involvement of the lower intestinal tract...
January 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202801/molecular-epidemiology-and-strain-comparison-between-hepatitis-e-virus-in-human-sera-and-pig-livers-during-2014-2016-in-hong-kong
#14
Martin C W Chan, Kirsty Kwok, Tin-Nok Hung, Paul K S Chan
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in developing countries and is considered an emerging food-borne pathogen in previously non-endemic developed countries. To investigate genetic association between human HEV infection and HEV-contaminated high-risk food in Hong Kong, we compared local virus strains obtained from hepatitis E patient sera with those surveyed from high-risk food items during 2014-2016. Twenty-four cases of laboratory-confirmed human HEV infections were identified from January 2014 to March 2016 in our hospitals...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202528/distinct-levels-of-radioresistance-in-lgr5-colonic-epithelial-stem-cells-versus-lgr5-small-intestinal-stem-cells
#15
Guoqiang Hua, Chu Wang, Yan Pan, Zhaoshi Zeng, Sang Gyu Lee, Maria Laura Martin, Adriana Haimovitz-Friedman, Zvi Fuks, Philip B Paty, Richard N Kolesnick
While small and large intestines possess seemingly similar Wnt-driven Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5)+ adult epithelial stem cells, we report here that the two organs exhibit distinct mechanisms of tissue response to ionizing radiation. Employing Lgr5-lacZ transgenic mice and Lgr5 in situ hybridization, we found colonic epithelial stem cells (CESC) markedly more radioresistant in vivo than small intestinal crypt base columnar stem cells (CBC) (D0 6.0±0.3 Gy vs. 1.3±0.1, respectively; p0...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195397/alcohol-injury-damages-intestinal-stem-cells
#16
Rong Lu, Robin M Voigt, Yongguo Zhang, Ikuko Kato, Yinglin Xia, Christopher B Forsyth, Ali Keshavarzian, Jun Sun
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is associated with intestinal injury including intestinal leakiness and the risk of developing progressive gastrointestinal cancer. Alcoholics have disruption of intestinal barrier dysfunction that persists weeks after stopping alcohol intake and this occurs in spite of the fact that intestinal epithelial cells turn over every 3-5 days. The renewal and functional regulation of the intestinal epithelium largely relies on intestinal stem cells (ISCs). Chronic inflammation and tissue damage in the intestine can injure stem cells including accumulation of mutations that may result in ISC dysfunction and transformation...
February 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191783/concise-review-the-potential-use-of-intestinal-stem-cells-to-treat-patients-with-intestinal-failure
#17
Sung Noh Hong, James C Y Dunn, Matthias Stelzner, Martín G Martín
Intestinal failure is a rare life-threatening condition that results in the inability to maintain normal growth and hydration status by enteral nutrition alone. Although parenteral nutrition and whole organ allogeneic transplantation have improved the survival of these patients, current therapies are associated with a high risk for morbidity and mortality. Development of methods to propagate adult human intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and pluripotent stem cells raises the possibility of using stem cell-based therapy for patients with monogenic and polygenic forms of intestinal failure...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191513/dietary-cholesterol-and-egg-yolk-should-be-avoided-by-patients-at-risk-of-vascular-disease
#18
REVIEW
J David Spence
Recent recommendations that limits to dietary cholesterol be dropped were probably heavily influenced by propaganda from the egg industry. After conviction for false advertising, the industry has spent hundreds of millions of dollars to convince the public, physicians, and policy makers that dietary cholesterol and egg yolk are harmless. However, there are good reasons for longstanding recommendations that dietary cholesterol be limited to <200 mg/ day in persons at risk of vascular disease. It is seldom understood that this essentially means all people in developed countries who expect to attain an advanced age...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188751/r1-immunohistochemical-study-of-mucins-in-human-intestinal-spirochetosis
#19
Sho Ogata, Ken Shimizu, Susumu Tominaga, Kuniaki Nakanishi
Most patients with human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS; a colorectal bacterial infection caused by Brachyspira species) seem asymptomatic, and its pathogenicity remains unclear. Recently, alterations in mucin expression were reported in animal Brachyspira infection. The present question was "Is mucin expression altered in HIS?". Using antibodies for MUCs 1, 2, 4, 5 AC, and 6, we immunohistochemically compared 215 specimens from 83 histology-confirmed HIS cases with 106 specimens from 26 non-HIS cases. Positive staining (which included even focal positive staining) was rated "high (+)" or "low (+)"...
February 8, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188481/internal-exposure-to-neutron-activated-56-mn-dioxide-powder-in-wistar-rats-part%C3%A2-1-dosimetry
#20
Valeriy Stepanenko, Tolebay Rakhypbekov, Keiko Otani, Satoru Endo, Kenichi Satoh, Noriyuki Kawano, Kazuko Shichijo, Masahiro Nakashima, Toshihiro Takatsuji, Aya Sakaguchi, Hiroaki Kato, Yuichi Onda, Nariaki Fujimoto, Shin Toyoda, Hitoshi Sato, Altay Dyussupov, Nailya Chaizhunusova, Nurlan Sayakenov, Darkhan Uzbekov, Aisulu Saimova, Dariya Shabdarbaeva, Mazhin Skakov, Alexandr Vurim, Vyacheslav Gnyrya, Almas Azimkhanov, Alexander Kolbayenkov, Kasym Zhumadilov, Yankar Kairikhanova, Andrey Kaprin, Vsevolod Galkin, Sergey Ivanov, Timofey Kolyzhenkov, Aleksey Petukhov, Elena Yaskova, Irina Belukha, Artem Khailov, Valeriy Skvortsov, Alexander Ivannikov, Umukusum Akhmedova, Viktoria Bogacheva, Masaharu Hoshi
There were two sources of ionizing irradiation after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: (1) initial gamma-neutron irradiation at the moment of detonation and (2) residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity consisted of two components: radioactive fallout containing fission products, including radioactive fissile materials from nuclear device, and neutron-activated radioisotopes from materials on the ground. The dosimetry systems DS86 and DS02 were mainly devoted to the assessment of initial radiation exposure to neutrons and gamma rays, while only brief considerations were given for the estimation of doses caused by residual radiation exposure...
February 10, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
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