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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224172/evaluation-of-clinical-risk-factors-for-osteoporosis-and-applicability-of-the-frax-tool-in-joinville-city-southern-brazil
#1
Dalisbor Marcelo Weber Silva, Victoria Zeghbi Cochenski Borba, John A Kanis
Clinical risk factors for fracture in Southern Brazil are similar to those used in Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX®). Age-dependent intervention thresholds had higher accuracy than a fixed cut-off point. INTRODUCTION: Access to bone mineral density testing is wanted for a large part of the Brazilian population. The FRAX® has an option to calculate the risk of fracture without this costly evaluation but relies on the clinical risk factors (CRFs) identified in the source cohorts used to generate FRAX...
December 9, 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222027/tbk1-from-orange-spotted-grouper-exerts-antiviral-activity-against-fish-viruses-and-regulates-interferon-response
#2
Yin Hu, Youhua Huang, Jiaxin Liu, Jingcheng Zhang, Qiwei Qin, Xiaohong Huang
TANK-binding kinase-1 (TBK1) has been well studied in mammals because of its importance in type I interferon induction in antiviral immunity. However, the roles of fish TBK1 in virus infection still remained largely uncertain. In the current study, a TBK1 homolog from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) (EcTBK1) was cloned and its roles in fish viral infections were investigated. Sequence analysis showed that EcTBK1 encoded a 723-amino acid peptide which shared 98% and 73% identity to large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) and human (homo sapiens), respectively...
December 5, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221933/intestinal-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-sentinels-of-the-mucosal-barrier
#3
REVIEW
Danyvid Olivares-Villagómez, Luc Van Kaer
Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are a large and diverse population of lymphoid cells that reside between the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that form the intestinal mucosal barrier. Although IEL biology has traditionally focused on T cells, recent studies have identified several subsets of T cell receptor (TCR)-negative IELs with intriguing properties. New insight into the development, homeostasis, and functions of distinct IEL subsets has recently been provided. Additional studies have revealed intricate interactions between different IEL subsets, reciprocal interactions between IELs and IECs, and communication of IELs with immune cells that reside outside the intestinal epithelium...
December 5, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220632/immunohistochemical-localization-of-fibrinogen-c-domain-containing-1-on-epithelial-and-mucosal-surfaces-in-human-tissues
#4
Sebastian von Huth, Jesper B Moeller, Anders Schlosser, Niels Marcussen, Ole Nielsen, Vicki Nielsen, Grith L Sorensen, Uffe Holmskov
Fibrinogen C domain containing 1 (FIBCD1) is a transmembrane receptor that binds chitin and other acetylated compounds with high affinity. FIBCD1 has previously been shown to be present in the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we performed a detailed analysis of normally structured human tissues for the expression of FIBCD1 by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. We find that FIBCD1 is expressed in epithelial cells derived from all three germ layers. Endodermal-derived epithelial cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract and the respiratory system showed high expression of FIBCD1 and also mesodermal-derived cells in the genitourinary system and ectodermal-derived epidermis and sebaceous glands cells expressed FIBCD1...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219052/adverse-events-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-potential-mechanisms
#5
Andrea Corsonello, Fabrizia Lattanzio, Silvia Bustacchini, Sabrina Garasto, Annalisa Cozza, Roberto Schepisi, Federica Lenci, Filippo Luciani, Marcello Giuseppe Maggio, Andrea Ticinesi, Valeria Butto, Sara Tagliaferri, Francesco Corica
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at summarizing current evidence about mechanisms for potentially harmful effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). METHODS: A Pubmed search was performed, and 207 studies concerning the relationship between use of PPIs and cardiovascular diseases, kidney impairment, nutritional disorders, fractures, infections, functional decline, and mortality were selected and reviewed. RESULTS: PPIs may cause potentially harmful effects by several mechanisms, including endothelial dysfunction, hypomagnesemia, drug interactions, reduced absorption of selected nutrients, increased gastric microbiota and small intestine bacterial overgrowth, reduced immune response, tubular-interstitial inflammation, increased bone turnover, accumulation of amyloid in the brain...
December 7, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218032/surface-proteins-of-lactococcus-lactis-bacterial-resources-for-muco-adhesion-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#6
REVIEW
Muriel Mercier-Bonin, Marie-Pierre Chapot-Chartier
Food and probiotic bacteria, in particular lactic acid bacteria, are ingested in large amounts by humans and are part of the transient microbiota which is increasingly considered to be able to impact the resident microbiota and thus possibly the host health. The lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis is extensively used in starter cultures to produce dairy fermented food. Also because of a generally recognized as safe status, L. lactis has been considered as a possible vehicle to deliver in vivo therapeutic molecules with anti-inflammatory properties in the gastrointestinal tract...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217483/in-vivo-measurement-of-the-rate-constant-of-liver-handling-of-glucose-and-glucose-uptake-by-insulin-dependent-tissues-using-a-mathematical-model-for-glucose-homeostasis-in-diabetic-rats
#7
Mercedes Lombarte, Maela Lupo, L Fina Brenda, German Campetelli, A R Buzalaf Marilia, Marta Basualdo, Alfredo Rigalli
Diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects glucose homeostasis. The World Health Organization informs that there are over 347 million people in the world with diabetes. The diagnosis and characterization of glucose homeostasis in different metabolic conditions are subjects of great importance with high clinical impact. There are many mathematical models that describe the gluco-regulatory system in detail. However, the use of these models is limited because they have a large number of mathematical equations and parameters and they require complex methodologies to estimate of them...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216297/skn-1a-pou2f3-functions-as-a-master-regulator-to-generate-trpm5-expressing-chemosensory-cells-in-mice
#8
Junpei Yamashita, Makoto Ohmoto, Tatsuya Yamaguchi, Ichiro Matsumoto, Junji Hirota
Transient receptor potential channel M5 (Trpm5)-expressing cells, such as sweet, umami, and bitter taste cells in the oropharyngeal epithelium, solitary chemosensory cells in the nasal respiratory epithelium, and tuft cells in the small intestine, that express taste-related genes function as chemosensory cells. Previous studies demonstrated that Skn-1a/Pou2f3, a POU homeodomain transcription factor is expressed in these Trpm5-expressing chemosensory cells, and is necessary for their generation. Trpm5-expressing cells have recently been found in trachea, auditory tube, urethra, thymus, pancreatic duct, stomach, and large intestine...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212851/omics-of-bifidobacteria-research-and-insights-into-their-health-promoting-activities
#9
REVIEW
Francesca Bottacini, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
Members of the genus Bifidobacterium include gut commensals that are particularly abundant among the microbial communities residing in the gut of healthy breast-fed infants, where their presence has been linked to many beneficial host effects. Next-generation DNA sequencing and comparative and functional genome methodologies have been shown to be particularly useful in exploring the diversity of this genus. These combined approaches have allowed the identification of genetic features related to bifidobacterial establishment in the gut, involving host-microbe as well as microbe-microbe interactions...
December 6, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212771/establishment-of-a-surgical-bile-duct-injection-technique-giving-direct-access-to-the-bile-ducts-for-studies-of-the-murine-biliary-tree
#10
Natalie Lie Berntsen, Bjarte Fosby, Laura Valestrand, Corey Tan, Henrik Reims, Elisabeth Schrumpf, Tom H Karlsen, Pål-Dag Line, Espen Melum
Cholangiopathies are progressive disorders with largely unknown pathoetiology and limited treatment options. We aimed to develop a novel surgical technique with direct access to the bile ducts that would complement existing mouse models of cholestasis, biliary inflammation and fibrosis, and present a new route of administration for testing of potential treatment strategies. We developed a surgical technique to access the murine biliary tree by injection of different solvents through catheterization of the gall bladder with simultaneous clamping of the common bile duct...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211757/distinct-fecal-and-oral-microbiota-composition-in-human-type-1-diabetes-an-observational-study
#11
Pieter F de Groot, Clara Belzer, Ömrüm Aydin, Evgeni Levin, Johannes H Levels, Steven Aalvink, Fransje Boot, Frits Holleman, Daniël H van Raalte, Torsten P Scheithauer, Suat Simsek, Frank G Schaap, Steven W M Olde Damink, Bart O Roep, Joost B Hoekstra, Willem M de Vos, Max Nieuwdorp
OBJECTIVE: Environmental factors driving the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) are still largely unknown. Both animal and human studies have shown an association between altered fecal microbiota composition, impaired production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and T1D onset. However, observational evidence on SCFA and fecal and oral microbiota in adults with longstanding T1D vs healthy controls (HC) is lacking. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We included 53 T1D patients without complications or medication and 50 HC matched for age, sex and BMI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211313/comparative-study-of-lung-and-extrapulmonary-poorly-differentiated-neuroendocrine-carcinomas-a-seer-database-analysis-of-162-983-cases
#12
Arvind Dasari, Kathan Mehta, Lauren A Byers, Halfdan Sorbye, James C Yao
BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are poorly studied and are managed similar to lung NECs, which may not account for differences between the 2 groups of tumors as well as the heterogeneity within extrapulmonary NEC. METHODS: Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program between 1973 and 2012 were used to estimate the relative percentages of lung NECs and subgroups of extrapulmonary NECs, epidemiological patterns at these sites, and the median and 5-year overall survival rates...
December 6, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210363/inos-and-nox1-dependent-ros-production-maintains-bacterial-homeostasis-in-the-ileum-of-mice
#13
C Matziouridou, S D C Rocha, O A Haabeth, K Rudi, H Carlsen, A Kielland
The intestinal epithelial cells constitute the first line of defense against gut microbes, which includes secretion of various antimicrobial substances. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are well characterized as part of the innate phagocytic immunity; however, a role in controlling microorganisms in the gut lumen is less clear. Here, we show a role for nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)- and NOX1-produced ROS in maintaining homeostasis of the gut microbiota. In vivo imaging revealed distinctly high levels of ROS in the ileum of normal healthy mice, regulated in accordance with the amount of gut bacteria...
December 6, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209564/leukotriene-b4-receptor-1-mediated-host-response-shapes-gut-microbiota-and-controls-colon-tumor-progression
#14
Venkatakrishna R Jala, Paramahamsa Maturu, Sobha R Bodduluri, Elangovan Krishnan, Steven Mathis, Krishnaprasad Subbarao, Min Wang, Alfred B Jenson, Mary L Proctor, Eric C Rouchka, Rob Knight, Bodduluri Haribabu
Inflammation and infection are key promoters of colon cancer but the molecular interplay between these events is largely unknown. Mice deficient in leukotriene B4 receptor1 (BLT1) are protected in inflammatory disease models of arthritis, asthma and atherosclerosis. In this study, we show that BLT1-/- mice when bred onto a spontaneous tumor (ApcMin/+) model displayed an increase in the rate of intestinal tumor development and mortality. A paradoxical increase in inflammation in the tumors from the BLT1-/-ApcMin/+ mice is coincidental with defective host response to infection...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209524/heterogeneity-of-colon-cancer-from-bench-to-bedside
#15
REVIEW
Marco C Merlano, Cristina Granetto, Elena Fea, Vincenzo Ricci, Ornella Garrone
The large bowel shows biomolecular, anatomical and bacterial changes that proceed from the proximal to the distal tract. These changes account for the different behaviour of colon cancers arising from the diverse sides of the colon-rectum as well as for the sensitivity to the therapy, including immunotherapy. The gut microbiota plays an important role in the modulation of the immune response and differs between the right colon cancer and the left colorectal cancer. The qualitative and quantitative difference of the commensal bacteria between the right side and the left side induces epigenetic changes in the intestinal epithelial cells as well as in the resident immune population...
2017: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209321/consumption-of-diet-containing-free-amino-acids-exacerbates-colitis-in-mice
#16
Adna Luciana Souza, Sarah Leão Fiorini Aguiar, Mariana Camila Gonçalves Miranda, Luisa Lemos, Mauro Andrade Freitas Guimaraes, Daniela Silva Reis, Patrícia Aparecida Vieira Barros, Emerson Soares Veloso, Toniana Gonçalves Carvalho, Fabiola Mara Ribeiro, Enio Ferreira, Denise Carmona Cara, Ana Cristina Gomes-Santos, Ana Maria Caetano Faria
Dietary proteins can influence the maturation of the immune system, particularly the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, when consumed from weaning to adulthood. Moreover, replacement of dietary proteins by amino acids at weaning has been shown to impair the generation of regulatory T cells in the gut as well as immune activities such as protective response to infection, induction of oral and nasal tolerance as well as allergic responses. Polymeric and elemental diets are used in the clinical practice, but the specific role of intact proteins and free amino acids during the intestinal inflammation are not known...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209116/gastric-xanthelasma-and-metabolic-disorders-a-large-retrospective-study-among-chinese-population
#17
Yi Chen, Xin-Jue He, Min-Jian Zhou, You-Ming Li
AIM: To gain knowledge of xanthelasma, a large population-based study was conducted. METHODS: Patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China during Jan 2009 to Nov 2016 were included. General characteristics as well as clinical data were collected, including blood routine, serum biochemical analysis, endoscopic findinds, histological evaluation and comorbiditie. Statistical analyses was performed using SPSS 20...
November 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209106/noncoding-rnas-as-drivers-of-the-phenotypic-plasticity-of-oesophageal-mucosa
#18
EDITORIAL
Matteo Fassan, Sonia Facchin, Giada Munari, Giuseppe Nicolò Fanelli, Greta Lorenzon, Edoardo Savarino
The histological commitment of the lower oesophageal mucosa largely depends on a complex molecular landscape. After extended inflammatory insult due to gastroesophageal reflux disease, squamous oesophageal mucosa may differentiate into columnar metaplastic mucosa. In this setting, the presence of intestinal metaplasia is considered the starting point of Barrett's carcinogenetic cascade. Aside from secondary prevention strategies for Barrett's mucosa (BM) patients, there are multiple endoscopic ablative therapies available for BM eradication and for the replacement of metaplastic epithelia with a neosquamous mucosa...
November 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208770/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-the-effects-of-maternal-obesity-during-pregnancy-on-offspring-metabolism
#19
Liyuan Zhou, Xinhua Xiao
Obesity is considered a global epidemic. Specifically, obesity during pregnancy programs an increased risk of the offspring developing metabolic disorders in addition to the adverse effects on the mother per se. Large numbers of human and animal studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in obesity and metabolic diseases. Similarly, maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with alterations in the composition and diversity of the intestine microbial community. Recently, the microbiota in the placenta, amniotic fluid, and meconium in healthy gestations has been investigated, and the results supported the "in utero colonization hypothesis" and challenged the traditional "sterile womb" that has been acknowledged worldwide for more than a century...
December 5, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208693/dysregulation-of-junctional-adhesion-molecule-a-contributes-to-ethanol-induced-barrier-disruption-in-intestinal-epithelial-cell-monolayers
#20
Daniel M Chopyk, Pradeep Kumar, Reben Raeman, Yunshan Liu, Tekla Smith, Frank A Anania
Alcohol consumption promotes loss of intestinal barrier function. However, mechanisms by which ethanol affects the tight junction (TJ), the cellular structure responsible for maintaining the gut epithelial barrier, are not well understood. Three classes of transmembrane proteins comprise TJs: occludin, claudins, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs). It has recently been postulated that JAM-A (F11R), the most abundant JAM expressed in intestinal epithelium, regulates "leak" pathway flux, a paracellular route for the nonselective permeation of large solutes...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
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