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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355136/evolution-of-technology-for-molecular-genotyping-in-blood-group-systems
#1
REVIEW
Ajit Gorakshakar, Harita Gogri, Kanjaksha Ghosh
The molecular basis of the blood group antigens was identified first in the 1980s and 1990s. Since then the importance of molecular biology in transfusion medicine has been described extensively by several investigators. Molecular genotyping of blood group antigens is one of the important aspects and is successfully making its way into transfusion medicine. Low-, medium- and high-throughput techniques have been developed for this purpose. Depending on the requirement of the centre like screening for high- or low-prevalence antigens where antisera are not available, correct typing of multiple transfused patients, screening for antigen-negative donor units to reduce the rate of alloimmunization, etc...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353739/generation-of-matched-patient-derived-xenograft-in%C3%A2-vitro-in%C3%A2-vivo-models-using-3d-macroporous-hydrogels-for-the-study-of-liver-cancer
#2
Eliza Li Shan Fong, Tan Boon Toh, Xiaoxuan Lin, Zheng Liu, Lissa Hooi, Masturah Bte Mohd Abdul Rashid, Touati Benoukraf, Edward Kai-Hua Chow, The Hung Huynh, Hanry Yu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide, often manifesting at the advanced stage when cure is no longer possible. The discrepancy between preclinical findings and clinical outcome in HCC is well-recognized. So far, sorafenib is the only targeted therapy approved as first-line therapy for patients with advanced HCC. There is an urgent need for improved preclinical models for the development of HCC-targeted therapies. Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor models have been shown to closely recapitulate human tumor biology and predict patient drug response...
January 4, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352674/the-effect-of-vertical-split-flow-patient-management-on-emergency-department-throughput-and-efficiency
#3
John S Garrett, Colyn Berry, Hao Wong, Huanying Qin, Jeffery A Kline
BACKGROUND: To address emergency department overcrowding operational research seeks to identify efficient processes to optimize flow of patients through the emergency department. Vertical flow refers to the concept of utilizing and assigning patients virtual beds rather than to an actual physical space within the emergency department to care of low acuity patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of vertical flow upon emergency department efficiency and patient satisfaction...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352292/rna-seq-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-reveals-alterations-in-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism
#4
For Yue Tso, Andrew V Kossenkov, Salum J Lidenge, Owen Ngalamika, John R Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Jayamanna Wickramasinghe, Eun Hee Kwon, John T West, Paul M Lieberman, Charles Wood
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). It is endemic in a number of sub-Saharan African countries with infection rate of >50%. The high prevalence of HIV-1 coupled with late presentation of advanced cancer staging make KS the leading cancer in the region with poor prognosis and high mortality. Disease markers and cellular functions associated with KS tumorigenesis remain ill-defined. Several studies have attempted to investigate changes of the gene profile with in vitro infection of monoculture models, which are not likely to reflect the cellular complexity of the in vivo lesion environment...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348878/identification-of-cancer-prognosis-associated-functional-modules-using-differential-co-expression-networks
#5
Wenshuai Yu, Shengjie Zhao, Yongcui Wang, Brian Nlong Zhao, Weiling Zhao, Xiaobo Zhou
The rapid accumulation of cancer-related data owing to high-throughput technologies has provided unprecedented choices to understand the progression of cancer and discover functional networks in multiple cancers. Establishment of co-expression networks will help us to discover the systemic properties of carcinogenesis features and regulatory mechanisms of multiple cancers. Here, we proposed a computational workflow to identify differentially co-expressed gene modules across 8 cancer types by using combined gene differential expression analysis methods and a higher-order generalized singular value decomposition...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348166/clinical-evaluation-of-a-blood-assay-to-diagnose-paucibacillary-tuberculosis-via-bacterial-antigens
#6
Chang Liu, Christopher J Lyon, Yang Bu, Zaian Deng, Elisabetta Walters, Yan Li, Liqun Zhang, Anneke C Hesseling, Edward A Graviss, Ye Hu
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB)10 cases primarily relies on methods that detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) bacilli or their DNA in patient samples (e.g., mycobacterial culture and Xpert MTB/RIF assays), but these tests have low clinical sensitivity for patients with paucibacillary TB disease. Our goal was to evaluate the clinical performance of a newly developed assay that can rapidly diagnose active TB cases by direct detection of Mtb-derived antigens in patients' blood samples...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346013/purification-of-lymphocytes-by-acoustic-separation-in-plastic-microchannels
#7
Charles Lissandrello, Ryan Dubay, Kenneth T Kotz, Jason Fiering
Emerging cell therapies have created new demands for instruments that will increase processing efficiency. Purification of lymphocytes prior to downstream steps of gene transfer currently relies on centrifugal separation, which has drawbacks in output sample purity and process automation. Here, we present an alternative approach to blood cell purification using acoustic forces in plastic microchannels. We provide details regarding the system's ability to purify lymphocytes relative to other blood cell types while maintaining a high overall recovery, testing performance starting from leukapheresis product, buffy coat, and whole blood...
January 1, 2018: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345162/genetic-defect-of-a-combined-17-%C3%AE-hydroxylase-17-20-lyase-deficiency-patient-with-adrenal-crisis
#8
Yunqiang Zhang, Xuyin Zhang, Yiqun Wang, Keqin Hua, Jingxin Ding
Combined 17 α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency (17OHD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease that is a type of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, which results in hypertension, hypokalemia, sexual infantilism, primary amenorrhea in females (46,XX), or pseudohermaphroditism in males (46,XY). It is mainly caused by mutation in the CYP17A1 gene, which encodes a key enzyme in the steroidogenic pathway. However, these patients rarely experience adrenal crisis, due to abnormally high corticosterone levels. Here, we report a 17OHD patient who experienced clinical adrenal crisis on day 1 after gonadectomy...
January 18, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344901/imaging-characteristics-and-first-experience-of-68ga-thp-psma-a-novel-probe-for-rapid-kit-based-ga-68-labeling-and-pet-imaging-comparative-analysis-with-68ga-psma-i-t
#9
Thorsten Derlin, Sebastian Schmuck, Cathleen Juhl, Steffi Teichert, Johanna Zörgiebel, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Sophie M Schneefeld, Almut C A Walte, James T Thackeray, Tobias L Ross, Frank M Bengel
PURPOSE: [68Ga]Trishydroxypyridinone (THP)-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a novel tracer that can be labeled in one step by cold reconstitution of a kit with unprocessed generator eluate, targeting PSMA via the lysine-urea-glutamate (KuE) motif. The aim of this study was to evaluate the human imaging characteristics of [68Ga]THP-PSMA. PROCEDURES: [68Ga]THP-PSMA positron emission tomography (PET)/x-ray computed tomography (CT) was performed in 25 patients with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343688/wee1-inhibitor-mk1775-sensitizes-kras-mutated-nsclc-cells-to-sorafenib
#10
Elisa Caiola, Roberta Frapolli, Michele Tomanelli, Rossana Valerio, Alice Iezzi, Marina C Garassino, Massimo Broggini, Mirko Marabese
Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) is a poorly chemosensitive tumor and targeted therapies are only used for about 15% of patients where a specific driving and druggable lesion is observed (EGFR, ALK, ROS). KRAS is one of the most frequently mutated genes in NSCLC and patients harboring these mutations do not benefit from specific treatments. Sorafenib, a multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was proposed as a potentially active drug in KRAS-mutated NSCLC patients, but clinical trials results were not conclusive...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343519/uremic-solute-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-tissue-factor-axis-associates-with-thrombosis-after-vascular-injury-in-humans
#11
Vijaya B Kolachalama, Moshe Shashar, Faisal Alousi, Sowmya Shivanna, Keshab Rijal, Mostafa E Belghasem, Joshua Walker, Shinobu Matsuura, Gary H Chang, C Michael Gibson, Laura M Dember, Jean M Francis, Katya Ravid, Vipul C Chitalia
Individuals with CKD are particularly predisposed to thrombosis after vascular injury. Using mouse models, we recently described indoxyl sulfate, a tryptophan metabolite retained in CKD and an activator of tissue factor (TF) through aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signaling, as an inducer of thrombosis across the CKD spectrum. However, the translation of findings from animal models to humans is often challenging. Here, we investigated the uremic solute-AHR-TF thrombosis axis in two human cohorts, using a targeted metabolomics approach to probe a set of tryptophan products and high-throughput assays to measure AHR and TF activity...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343412/implementing-genome-driven-personalized-cardiology-in-clinical-practice
#12
REVIEW
Ares Pasipoularides
Genomics designates the coordinated investigation of a large number of genes in the context of a biological process or disease. It may be long before we attain comprehensive understanding of the genomics of common complex cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) such as inherited cardiomyopathies, valvular diseases, primary arrhythmogenic conditions, congenital heart syndromes, hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerotic heart disease, hypertensive syndromes, and heart failure with preserved/reduced ejection fraction. Nonetheless, as genomics is evolving rapidly, it is constructive to survey now pertinent concepts and breakthroughs...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341586/development-of-a-novel-cytopathic-effect-based-phenotypic-screening-assay-against-cryptosporidium
#13
Alexander T Chao, Boon Heng Lee, Kah Fei Wan, Jeremy Selva, Bin Zou, Peter Gedeck, David Beer, Thierry T Diagana, Ghislain Bonamy, Ujjini H Manjunatha
Cryptosporidiosis is a diarrheal disease predominantly caused by Cryptosporidium parvum (Cp) and Cryptosporidium hominis (Ch), apicomplexan parasites which infect the intestinal epithelial cells of their human hosts. The only approved drug for cryptosporidiosis is nitazoxanide, which shows limited efficacy in immunocompromised children, the most vulnerable patient population. Thus, new therapeutics and in vitro infection models are urgently needed to address the current unmet medical need. Toward this aim, we have developed novel cytopathic effect (CPE)-based Cp and Ch assays in human colonic tumor (HCT-8) cells and compared them to traditional imaging formats...
January 17, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341164/patient-derived-organoid-models-help-define-personalized-management-of-gastrointestinal-cancer
#14
REVIEW
M R Aberle, R A Burkhart, H Tiriac, S W M Olde Damink, C H C Dejong, D A Tuveson, R M van Dam
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of patients with different gastrointestinal cancers varies widely. Despite advances in treatment strategies, such as extensive resections and the addition of new drugs to chemotherapy regimens, conventional treatment strategies have failed to improve survival for many tumours. Although promising, the clinical application of molecularly guided personalized treatment has proven to be challenging. This narrative review focuses on the personalization of cancer therapy using patient-derived three-dimensional 'organoid' models...
January 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340148/reducing-unnecessary-culturing-a-systems-approach-to-evaluating-urine-culture-ordering-and-collection-practices-among-nurses-in-two-acute-care-settings
#15
Robert Redwood, Mary Jo Knobloch, Daniela C Pellegrini, Matthew J Ziegler, Michael Pulia, Nasia Safdar
Background: Inappropriate ordering and acquisition of urine cultures leads to unnecessary treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB). Treatment of ASB contributes to antimicrobial resistance particularly among hospital-acquired organisms. Our objective was to investigate urine culture ordering and collection practices among nurses to identify key system-level and human factor barriers and facilitators that affect optimal ordering and collection practices. Methods: We conducted two focus groups, one with ED nurses and the other with ICU nurses...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339533/learning-dependent-chromatin-remodeling-highlights-noncoding-regulatory-regions-linked-to-autism
#16
John N Koberstein, Shane G Poplawski, Mathieu E Wimmer, Giulia Porcari, Charlly Kao, Bruce Gomes, Davide Risso, Hakon Hakonarson, Nancy R Zhang, Robert T Schultz, Ted Abel, Lucia Peixoto
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder that is associated with genetic risk factors. Most human disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are not located in genes but rather are in regulatory regions that control gene expression. The function of regulatory regions is determined through epigenetic mechanisms. Parallels between the cellular basis of development and the formation of long-term memory have long been recognized, particularly the role of epigenetic mechanisms in both processes...
January 16, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337224/an-experimental-study-for-rapid-detection-and-quantification-of-endodontic-microbiota-following-photo-activated-disinfection-via-new-multiplex-real-time-pcr-assay
#17
Maryam Pourhajibagher, Reza Raoofian, Roghayeh Ghorbanzadeh, Abbas Bahador
BACKGROUND: The infected root canal system harbors one of the highest accumulations of polymicrobial infections. Since the eradication of endopathogenic microbiota is a major goal in endodontic infection therapy, photo-activated disinfection (PAD) can be used as an alternative therapeutic method in endodontic treatment. Compared to cultivation-based approaches, molecular techniques are more reliable for identifying microbial agents associated with endodontic infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of designed multiplex real-time PCR protocol for the rapid detection and quantification of six common microorganisms involved in endodontic infection before and after the PAD...
January 11, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337119/sox10-single-transcription-factor-based-fast-and-efficient-generation-of%C3%A2-oligodendrocytes-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#18
Juan Antonio García-León, Manoj Kumar, Ruben Boon, David Chau, Jennifer One, Esther Wolfs, Kristel Eggermont, Pieter Berckmans, Nilhan Gunhanlar, Femke de Vrij, Bas Lendemeijer, Benjamin Pavie, Nikky Corthout, Steven A Kushner, José Carlos Dávila, Ivo Lambrichts, Wei-Shou Hu, Catherine M Verfaillie
Scarce access to primary samples and lack of efficient protocols to generate oligodendrocytes (OLs) from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are hampering our understanding of OL biology and the development of novel therapies. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of the transcription factor SOX10 is sufficient to generate surface antigen O4-positive (O4+) and myelin basic protein-positive OLs from hPSCs in only 22 days, including from patients with multiple sclerosis or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The SOX10-induced O4+ population resembles primary human OLs at the transcriptome level and can myelinate neurons in vivo...
January 10, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336210/semi-supervised-identification-of-cancer-subgroups-using-survival-outcomes-and-overlapping-grouping-information
#19
Wei Wei, Zequn Sun, Willian A da Silveira, Zhenning Yu, Andrew Lawson, Gary Hardiman, Linda E Kelemen, Dongjun Chung
Identification of cancer patient subgroups using high throughput genomic data is of critical importance to clinicians and scientists because it can offer opportunities for more personalized treatment and overlapping treatments of cancers. In spite of tremendous efforts, this problem still remains challenging because of low reproducibility and instability of identified cancer subgroups and molecular features. In order to address this challenge, we developed Integrative Genomics Robust iDentification of cancer subgroups (InGRiD), a statistical approach that integrates information from biological pathway databases with high-throughput genomic data to improve the robustness for identification and interpretation of molecularly-defined subgroups of cancer patients...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335822/emergency-department-throughput-an-intervention
#20
Nowreen Haq, Rona Stewart-Corral, Eric Hamrock, Jamie Perin, Waseem Khaliq
Shortening emergency department (ED) boarding time and managing hospital bed capacity by expediting the inpatient discharge process have been challenging for hospitals nationwide. The objective of this study is was to explore the effect of an innovative prospective intervention on hospital workflow, specifically on early inpatient discharges and the ED boarding time. The intervention consisted of a structured nursing "admission discharge transfer" (ADT) protocol receiving new admissions from the ED and helping out floor nursing with early discharges...
January 15, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
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