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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917875/exploring-experimental-cerebral-malaria-pathogenesis-through-the-characterisation-of-host-derived-plasma-microparticle-protein-content
#1
Natalia Tiberti, Sharissa L Latham, Stephen Bush, Amy Cohen, Robert O Opoka, Chandy C John, Annette Juillard, Georges E Grau, Valéry Combes
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection responsible for thousands of deaths in children in sub-Saharan Africa. CM pathogenesis remains incompletely understood but a number of effectors have been proposed, including plasma microparticles (MP). MP numbers are increased in CM patients' circulation and, in the mouse model, they can be localised within inflamed vessels, suggesting their involvement in vascular damage. In the present work we define, for the first time, the protein cargo of MP during experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) with the overarching hypothesis that this characterisation could help understand CM pathogenesis...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916601/gaucher-disease-circa-2016-progress-and-ongoing-challenges
#2
REVIEW
Pramod K Mistry, Grisel Lopez, Raphael Schiffmann, Norman W Barton, Neal J Weinreb, Ellen Sidransky
Over the past decades, tremendous progress has been made in the field of Gaucher disease, the inherited deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Many of the colossal achievements took place during the course of the sixty-year tenure of Dr. Roscoe Brady at the National Institutes of Health. These include the recognition of the enzymatic defect involved, the isolation and characterization of the protein, the localization and characterization of the gene and its nearby pseudogene, as well as the identification of the first mutant alleles in patients...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914711/proteomic-based-research-strategy-identified-laminin-subunit-alpha-2-as-a-potential-urinary-specific-biomarker-for-the-medullary-sponge-kidney-disease
#3
Antonia Fabris, Maurizio Bruschi, Laura Santucci, Giovanni Candiano, Simona Granata, Alessandra Dalla Gassa, Nadia Antonucci, Andrea Petretto, Gian Marco Ghiggeri, Giovanni Gambaro, Antonio Lupo, Gianluigi Zaza
Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) disease, a rare kidney malformation featuring recurrent renal stones and nephrocalcinosis, continues to be diagnosed using expensive and time-consuming clinical/instrumental tests (mainly urography). Currently, no molecular diagnostic biomarkers are available. To identify such we employed a proteomic-based research strategy utilizing urine from 22 patients with MSK and 22 patients affected by idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis (ICN) as controls. Notably, two patients with ICN presented cysts...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914242/molecular-lipid-species-in-urinary-exosomes-as-potential-prostate-cancer-biomarkers
#4
Tore Skotland, Kim Ekroos, Dimple Kauhanen, Helena Simolin, Therese Seierstad, Viktor Berge, Kirsten Sandvig, Alicia Llorente
BACKGROUND: Exosomes have recently appeared as a novel source of noninvasive cancer biomarkers, since these nanovesicles contain molecules from cancer cells and can be detected in biofluids. We have here investigated the potential use of lipids in urinary exosomes as prostate cancer biomarkers. METHODS: A high-throughput mass spectrometry quantitative lipidomic analysis was performed to reveal the lipid composition of urinary exosomes in prostate cancer patients and healthy controls...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908503/cobalt-60-machines-and-medical-linear-accelerators-competing-technologies-for-external-beam-radiotherapy
#5
B J Healy, D van der Merwe, K E Christaki, A Meghzifene
Medical linear accelerators (linacs) and cobalt-60 machines are both mature technologies for external beam radiotherapy. A comparison is made between these two technologies in terms of infrastructure and maintenance, dosimetry, shielding requirements, staffing, costs, security, patient throughput and clinical use. Infrastructure and maintenance are more demanding for linacs due to the complex electric componentry. In dosimetry, a higher beam energy, modulated dose rate and smaller focal spot size mean that it is easier to create an optimised treatment with a linac for conformal dose coverage of the tumour while sparing healthy organs at risk...
November 28, 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906628/role-of-genomic-factors-beyond-thymidylate-synthase-in-the-prediction-of-response-to-5-fluorouracil
#6
Godefridus J Peters, K Smid, E Meijer, C J van Groeningen, L G Leon
5-Fluorouracil (5FU) is still a major drug in combinations regimens for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) both in the adjuvant and palliative setting. 5FU or its oral prodrug capecitabine is usually combined with irinotecan/oxaliplatin and the novel agents bevacizumab/cetuximab. Although this improved the outcome, the overall prognosis in patients with metastasized disease is still relatively poor. Although the target for 5FU, thymidylate synthase was shown to have a predictive value, this could only predict response in a subset of patients...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904140/restrictions-in-the-t-cell-repertoire-of-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-high-throughput-immunoprofiling-supports-selection-by-shared-antigenic-elements
#7
A Vardi, E Vlachonikola, M Karypidou, E Stalika, V Bikos, K Gemenetzi, C Maramis, A Siorenta, A Anagnostopoulos, S Pospisilova, N Maglaveras, I Chouvarda, K Stamatopoulos, A Hadzidimitriou
Immunoglobulin (IG) gene repertoire restrictions strongly support antigen selection in the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Given the emerging multifarious interactions between CLL and bystander T cells, we sought to determine whether antigen(s) are also selecting T cells in CLL. We performed a large-scale, next-generation sequencing (NGS) study of the T-cell repertoire, focusing on major stereotyped subsets representing CLL subgroups with undisputed antigenic drive, but also included patients carrying non-subset IG rearrangements to seek for T-cell immunogenetic signatures ubiquitous in CLL...
December 1, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903742/p2y6-receptor-antagonist-mrs2578-inhibits-neutrophil-activation-and-aggregated-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-induced-by-gout-associated-monosodium-urate-crystals
#8
Payel Sil, Craig P Hayes, Barbara J Reaves, Patrick Breen, Shannon Quinn, Jeremy Sokolove, Balázs Rada
Human neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMNs]) generate inflammatory responses within the joints of gout patients upon encountering monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are found abundantly in the synovial fluid of gout patients. The detailed mechanism of MSU crystal-induced NET formation remains unknown. Our goal was to shed light on possible roles of purinergic signaling and neutrophil migration in mediating NET formation induced by MSU crystals. Interaction of human neutrophils with MSU crystals was evaluated by high-throughput live imaging using confocal microscopy...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903527/standardized-flow-cytometry-for-highly-sensitive-mrd-measurements-in-b-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#9
Prisca Theunissen, Ester Mejstrikova, Lukasz Sedek, Alita J van der Sluijs-Gelling, Giuseppe Gaipa, Marius Bartels, Elaine Sobral da Costa, Michaela Kotrova, Michaela Novakova, Edwin Sonneveld, Chiara Buracchi, Paola Bonaccorso, Elen Oliviera, Jeroen G Te Marvelde, Tomasz Szczepanski, Ludovic Lhermitte, Ondrej Hrusak, Quentin Lecrevisse, Georgiana Emilia Grigore, Eva Fronkova, Jan Trka, Monika Brüggemann, Alberto Orfao, Jacques J M van Dongen, Vincent H J van der Velden
A fully-standardized EuroFlow 8-color antibody panel and laboratory procedure was stepwise designed to measure minimal residual disease (MRD) in B-cell precursor (BCP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with a sensitivity of ≤10(-5), comparable to real-time quantitative (RQ)-PCR-based MRD detection via antigen-receptor rearrangements. Leukocyte markers and the corresponding antibodies and fluorochromes were selected based on their contribution in separating BCP-ALL cells from normal/regenerating BCP cells in multidimensional principal component analyses...
November 30, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899923/community-metabolome-correlations-of-gut-microbiota-from-child-turcotte-pugh-of-a-and-b-patients
#10
Xiao Wei, Shan Jiang, Xiangna Zhao, Huan Li, Weishi Lin, Boxing Li, Jing Lu, Yansong Sun, Jing Yuan
The gut flora are widely involved in the cometabolism with the host and have evident effects on the metabolic phenotype of host. This study performed a metabolome analysis of the intestinal microbiota specific for liver cirrhosis. The study population included patients with Child-Turcotte-Pugh score of A (AP, n = 5) and B (BP, n = 5), and control subjects (NM, n = 3). Metagenomic DNA from fecal microbiota was extracted followed by metagenomic sequencing through Illumina MiSeq high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA regions...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899048/the-method-for-breast-cancer-grade-prediction-and-pathway-analysis-based-on-improved-multiple-kernel-learning
#11
Tianci Song, Yan Wang, Wei Du, Sha Cao, Yuan Tian, Yanchun Liang
Breast cancer histologic grade represents the morphological assessment of the tumor's malignancy and aggressiveness, which is vital in clinically planning treatment and estimating prognosis for patients. Therefore, the prediction of breast cancer grade can markedly elevate the detection of early breast cancer and efficiently guide its treatment. With the advent of high-throughput profiling technology, a large number of data of different types are rapidly generated, and each data provides its unique biological insight...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898666/algorithm-optimization-in-methylation-detection-with-multiple-rt-qpcr
#12
Lele Song, Yuemin Li, Jia Jia, Guangpeng Zhou, Jianming Wang, Qian Kang, Peng Jin, Jianqiu Sheng, Guoxiang Cai, Sanjun Cai, Xiaoliang Han
Epigenetic markers based on differential methylation of DNA sequences are used in cancer screening and diagnostics. Detection of abnormal methylation at specific loci by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has been developed to enable high-throughput cancer screening. For tests that combine the results of multiple PCR replicates into a single reportable result, both individual PCR cutoff and weighting of the individual PCR result are essential to test outcome. In this opportunistic screening study, we tested samples from 1133 patients using the triplicate Epi proColon assay with various algorithms and compared it with the newly developed single replicate SensiColon assay that measures methylation status of the same SEPT9 gene sequence...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897013/harnessing-big-data-for-precision-medicine-infrastructures-and-applications
#13
Kun-Hsing Yu, Steven N Hart, Rachel Goldfeder, Qiangfeng Cliff Zhang, Stephen C J Parker, Michael Snyder
Precision medicine is a health management approach that accounts for individual differences in genetic backgrounds and environmental exposures. With the recent advancements in high-throughput omics profiling technologies, collections of large study cohorts, and the developments of data mining algorithms, big data in biomedicine is expected to provide novel insights into health and disease states, which can be translated into personalized disease prevention and treatment plans. However, petabytes of biomedical data generated by multiple measurement modalities poses a significant challenge for data analysis, integration, storage, and result interpretation...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896744/high-dimensional-profiling-for-computational-diagnosis
#14
Claudio Lottaz, Wolfram Gronwald, Rainer Spang, Julia C Engelmann
New technologies allow for high-dimensional profiling of patients. For instance, genome-wide gene expression analysis in tumors or in blood is feasible with microarrays, if all transcripts are known, or even without this restriction using high-throughput RNA sequencing. Other technologies like NMR finger printing allow for high-dimensional profiling of metabolites in blood or urine. Such technologies for high-dimensional patient profiling represent novel possibilities for molecular diagnostics. In clinical profiling studies, researchers aim to predict disease type, survival, or treatment response for new patients using high-dimensional profiles...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895806/genome-wide-epigenomic-profiling-for-biomarker-discovery
#15
REVIEW
René A M Dirks, Hendrik G Stunnenberg, Hendrik Marks
A myriad of diseases is caused or characterized by alteration of epigenetic patterns, including changes in DNA methylation, post-translational histone modifications, or chromatin structure. These changes of the epigenome represent a highly interesting layer of information for disease stratification and for personalized medicine. Traditionally, epigenomic profiling required large amounts of cells, which are rarely available with clinical samples. Also, the cellular heterogeneity complicates analysis when profiling clinical samples for unbiased genome-wide biomarker discovery...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895661/the-genome-conformation-as-an-integrator-of-multi-omic-data-the-example-of-damage-spreading-in-cancer
#16
Fabio Tordini, Marco Aldinucci, Luciano Milanesi, Pietro Liò, Ivan Merelli
Publicly available multi-omic databases, in particular if associated with medical annotations, are rich resources with the potential to lead a rapid transition from high-throughput molecular biology experiments to better clinical outcomes for patients. In this work, we propose a model for multi-omic data integration (i.e., genetic variations, gene expression, genome conformation, and epigenetic patterns), which exploits a multi-layer network approach to analyse, visualize, and obtain insights from such biological information, in order to use achieved results at a macroscopic level...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893355/performance-evaluation-study-of-id-core-xt-a-high-throughput-blood-group-genotyping-platform
#17
Mónica López, Izaskun Apraiz, Montserrat Rubia, Mercedes Piedrabuena, Maria Azkarate, Barbera Veldhuisen, Miguel Á Vesga, Ellen Van Der Schoot, Fernando Puente, Diego Tejedor
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, red blood cell antigens have been identified using serological methods, but recent advances in molecular biology have made the implementation of methods for genetic testing of most blood group antigens possible. The goal of this study was to validate the performance of the ID CORE XT blood group typing assay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One thousand independent samples from donors, patients and neonates were collected from three research institutes in Spain and the Netherlands...
November 25, 2016: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888685/label-free-piezoelectric-biosensor-for-prognosis-and-diagnosis-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#18
Noelle M do Nascimento, Augusto Juste-Dolz, Elena Grau-García, Jose A Román-Ivorra, Rosa Puchades, Angel Maquieira, Sergi Morais, David Gimenez-Romero
An autoantigen piezoelectric sensor to quantify specific circulating autoantibodies in human serum is developed. The sensor consisted on a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) where TRIM21 and TROVE2 autoantigens were covalently immobilized, allowing the selective determination of autoantibodies for diagnosis and prognosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). The sensitivity of the biosensor, measured as IC50 value, was 1.51U/mL and 0.32U/mL, for anti-TRIM21 and anti-TROVE2 circulating autoantibodies, respectively...
November 9, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884207/potential-contribution-of-the-uterine-microbiome-in-the-development-of-endometrial-cancer
#19
Marina R S Walther-António, Jun Chen, Francesco Multinu, Alexis Hokenstad, Tammy J Distad, E Heidi Cheek, Gary L Keeney, Douglas J Creedon, Heidi Nelson, Andrea Mariani, Nicholas Chia
BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer studies have led to a number of well-defined but mechanistically unconnected genetic and environmental risk factors. One of the emerging modulators between environmental triggers and genetic expression is the microbiome. We set out to inquire about the composition of the uterine microbiome and its putative role in endometrial cancer. METHODS: We undertook a study of the microbiome in samples taken from different locations along the female reproductive tract in patients with endometrial cancer (n = 17), patients with endometrial hyperplasia (endometrial cancer precursor, n = 4), and patients afflicted with benign uterine conditions (n = 10)...
November 25, 2016: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880976/a-novel-quantitative-microarray-antibody-capture-q-mac-assay-identifies-an-extremely-high-hdv-prevalence-amongst-hbv-infected-mongolians
#20
Xiaohua Chen, Odgerel Oidovsambuu, Ping Liu, Rosslyn Grosely, Menashe Elazar, Virginia D Winn, Benjamin Fram, Zhang Boa, Hongjie Dai, Bekhbold Dashtseren, Dahgwahdorj Yagaanbuyant, Zulkhuu Genden, Naranbaatar Dashdorj, Andreas Bungert, Naranjargal Dashdorj, Jeffrey S Glenn
: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) causes the most severe form of human viral hepatitis. HDV requires a hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection to provide HDV with HBV surface antigen envelope proteins. The net effect of HDV is to make the underlying HBV disease worse, including higher rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Accurate assessments of current HDV prevalence have been hampered by the lack of readily available and reliable quantitative assays, combined with the absence of an FDA-approved therapy...
November 23, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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