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Patient throughput

Kei Sasaki, Norihide Maikusa, Etsuko Imabayashi, Tetsuya Yuasa, Hiroshi Matsuda
INTRODUCTION: Amyloid positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging with (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) is an effective tool for assessing brain amyloid deposits. PET imaging, however, can suffer from the partial volume effect (PVE). PVE has been corrected using MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) image data. However, correction of the PVE of PET using MRI usually requires two separate procedures, imposing a burden on patients and leading to low throughput and inefficient diagnoses. The advent of PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) may potentially overcome these problems and offer higher throughput and reliable quantification of amyloid plaques and assessment of Alzheimer disease (AD)...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Wen-Tao Fan, Yong-Mei Yan, Yu-Long Bie, Qian Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in the population and distribution intestinal microflora and their relationship with depression in post-stroke patients. METHODS: Fecal specimens were obtained from 32 patients with post-stroke depression and 30 healthy adults for gene sequencing of 16S RNA V3 region of the intestinal microorganism using Roche/45 high-throughput sequencing platform. RESULTS: The genus and species of intestinal bacteria showed significant differences between the post-stroke patients and health adults...
October 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Money Gupta, Rashi Chauhan, Yamuna Prasad, Gulshan Wadhwa, Chakresh Kumar Jain
The lack of complete treatments and appearance of multiple drug-resistance strains of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are causing an increased risk of lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Bcc infection is a big risk to human health and demands an urgent need to identify new therapeutics against these bacteria. Network biology has emerged as one of the prospective hope in identifying novel drug targets and hits. We have applied protein-protein interaction methodology to identify new drug-target candidates (orthologs) in Burkhloderia cepacia GG4, which is an important strain for studying the quorum-sensing phenomena...
October 8, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Monika B Dolinska, Nicole Kus, Katie Farney, Paul T Wingfield, Brian P Brooks, Yuri V Sergeev
: Oculocutaneous albinism Type 1 (OCA1) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the tyrosinase gene. Two subtypes of OCA1 have been described: severe OCA1A with complete absence of tyrosinase activity and less severe OCA1B with residual tyrosinase activity. Here, we characterize the recombinant human tyrosinase intra-melanosomal domain and mutant variants, which mimic genetic changes in both subtypes of OCA1 patients. Proteins were prepared using site-directed mutagenesis, expressed in insect larvae, purified by chromatography, and characterized by enzymatic activities- tryptophan fluorescence, and Gibbs free energy changes...
October 24, 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Xuyang Zheng, Chuantao Ye, Jieru Zhao, Peiyu Bian, Ying Zhang, Zhansheng Jia
Objective To observe the alterations of innate immunity related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in exosomes extracted from the plasma of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) patients, and analyze their relationship with the disease stage and severity. Methods Exosomes were extracted from the plasma samples of HFRS patients, healthy controls and recovered HFRS patients. Transmission electronic microscopy and Western blotting were performed to confirm the efficiency of the extraction. lncRNA profiles in the different groups were determined by high-throughput sequencing...
November 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Patricia Yuste-Checa, Sandra Brasil, Alejandra Gámez, Jarl Underhaug, Lourdes R Desviat, Magdalena Ugarte, Celia Pérez-Cerdá, Aurora Martinez, Belén Pérez
The congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG) due to phosphomannomutase 2 deficiency (PMM2-CDG), the most common N-glycosylation disorder, is a multisystem disease for which no effective treatment is available. The recent functional characterization of disease-causing mutations described in patients with PMM2-CDG led to the idea of a therapeutic strategy involving pharmacological chaperones (PC) to rescue PMM2 loss-of-function mutations. The present work describes the high-throughput screening, by differential scanning fluorimetry, of 10,000 low molecular weight compounds from a commercial library, to search for possible PCs for the enzyme PMM2...
October 24, 2016: Human Mutation
Sophie Sabherwal, Jane A English, Melanie Föcking, Gerard Cagney, David R Cotter
Recent evidence supports an association between systemic abnormalities and the pathology of psychotic disorders which has led to the search for peripheral blood-based biomarkers. Areas covered: Here, we summarize blood biomarker findings in schizophrenia from the literature identified by two methods currently driving biomarker discovery in the human proteome; mass spectrometry and multiplex immunoassay. From a total of 14 studies in the serum or plasma of drug-free schizophrenia patients; 47 proteins were found to be significantly altered twice or more, in the same direction...
October 22, 2016: Expert Review of Proteomics
Qiang Sun, Tao Zhou, Jun Niu, Peng Wu, Yanan Guo, Yanfei Yang
The aim of this study was to screen the biomarkers of diabetic limb arterial stenosis. Fasting blood samples of 40 patients with diabetic limb arterial stenosis (experimental group), 40 diabetes patients (diabetic control group), and 40 healthy individuals (healthy control group) were collected. Protein-chip assay analysis and ELISA were used to detect tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, endothelin-1, calcitonin gene-related peptide and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in the three groups. Protein-chip array analysis and ELISA found consistent results that endothelin-1, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in the experimental group were significantly up-regulated while the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide was down-regulated compared with the healthy control group (P < 0...
October 21, 2016: Vascular
Margret Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur A Thorsteinsdottir, Finnur F Eiriksson, Hrafnhildur L Runolfsdottir, Inger M Sch Agustsdottir, Steinunn Oddsdottir, Baldur B Sigurdsson, Hordur K Hardarson, Nilesh R Kamble, Snorri Th Sigurdsson, Vidar O Edvardsson, Runolfur Palsson
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder that leads to excessive urinary excretion of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA), causing nephrolithiasis and chronic kidney disease. Treatment with allopurinol or febuxostat reduces DHA production and attenuates the renal manifestations. Assessment of DHA crystalluria by urine microscopy is used for therapeutic monitoring, but lacks sensitivity. We report a high-throughput assay based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for quantification of urinary DHA...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Huma Siddiqui, Tsute Chen, Ardita Aliko, Piotr M Mydel, Roland Jonsson, Ingar Olsen
BACKGROUND: Reduced salivation is considered a major clinical feature of most but not all cases of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Reduced saliva flow may lead to changes in the salivary microbiota. These changes have mainly been studied with culture that typically recovers only 65% of the bacteria present. OBJECTIVE: This study was to use high throughput sequencing, covering both cultivated and not-yet-cultivated bacteria, to assess the bacterial microbiota of whole saliva in pSS patients with normal salivation...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Man Wang, Ping Ma, Xiaonan Xi, Lei Liu, Yabin Wen, Kangning Liu, Liang Sun, Yaxin Lu, Zheng Yin
The bioanalysis and especially the sample preparation of nucleoside drugs in complex media, such as human plasma, has been challenging due to the high polarity and high solubility of these drugs in water. Online solid phase extraction (SPE) offers significant advantages, such as automation and timesaving. Thus, several types of SPE columns have been developed for compounds with different polarities. In this study, SPE was applied to overcome the issue of sample pretreatment of nucleoside drugs in human plasma, with the final aim of establishing a robust analytical platform for drugs with similar structures...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Ahmed Almashrafi, Laura Vanderbloemen
BACKGROUND: Postoperative adverse events are known to increase length of stay and cost. However, research on how adverse events affect patient flow and operational performance has been relatively limited to date. Moreover, there is paucity of studies on the use of simulation in understanding the effect of complications on care processes and resources. In hospitals with scarcity of resources, postoperative complications can exert a substantial influence on hospital throughputs. METHODS: This paper describes an evaluation method for assessing the effect of complications on patient flow within a cardiac surgical department...
October 21, 2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Binyi Lin, Tianchi Chen, Qijun Zhang, Xiaoxiao Lu, Zhiyun Zheng, Jun Ding, Jinfeng Liu, Zhe Yang, Lei Geng, Liming Wu, Lin Zhou, Shusen Zheng
To investigate the potential oncogene promoting recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following liver transplantation (LT), throughput RNA sequencing was performed in a subgroup of HCC patients. The up-regulated FAM83D in HCC tissues was found and further verified in 150 patients by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. FAM83D overexpression significantly correlated with high HCC recurrence rate following LT and poor HCC characteristics such as high AFP, poor differentiation. Of cancer stem cells (CSCs) markers, CD44 expression was effectively suppressed when FAM83D was knocked down by siRNA...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Tao He, Didier Surdez, Juha K Rantala, Saija Haapa-Paananen, Jozef Ban, Maximilian Kauer, Eleni Tomazou, Vidal Fey, Javier Alonso, Heinrich Kovar, Olivier Delattre, Kristiina Iljin
A translocation leading to the formation of an oncogenic EWS-ETS fusion protein defines Ewing sarcoma. The most frequent gene fusion, present in 85 percent of Ewing sarcomas, is EWS-FLI1. Here, a high-throughput RNA interference screen was performed to identify genes whose function is critical for EWS-FLI1 driven cell viability. In total, 6781 genes were targeted by siRNA molecules and the screen was performed both in presence and absence of doxycycline-inducible expression of the EWS-FLI1 shRNA in A673/TR/shEF Ewing sarcoma cells...
October 16, 2016: Gene
Antonino Neri, Katia Todoerti, Marta Lionetti, Vittorio Simeon, Marzia Barbieri, Filomena Nozza, Gabriella Vona, Alessandra Pompa, Luca Baldini, Pellegrino Musto
Primary plasma cell leukemia (PPCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of multiple myeloma. The introduction of novel agents and modern technologies has recently partially changed the clinical and biological scenario of this malignancy, allowing limited, but not negligible, progresses. Areas covered: We will discuss the complex landscape of genetic alterations in PPCL, derived from conventional and high-throughput technologies; the best available treatments for PPCL; the possible future therapeutic perspectives...
October 19, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Jinghua Wu, Shan Jia, Changxi Wang, Wei Zhang, Sixi Liu, Xiaojing Zeng, Huirong Mai, Xiuli Yuan, Yuanping Du, Xiaodong Wang, Xueyu Hong, Xuemei Li, Feiqiu Wen, Xun Xu, Jianhua Pan, Changgang Li, Xiao Liu
Acute B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is one of the most common types of childhood cancer worldwide and chemotherapy is the main treatment approach. Despite good response rates to chemotherapy regiments, many patients eventually relapse and minimal residual disease (MRD) is the leading risk factor for relapse. The evolution of leukemic clones during disease development and treatment may have clinical significance. In this study, we performed immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) repertoire high throughput sequencing (HTS) on the diagnostic and post-treatment samples of 51 pediatric B-ALL patients...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Mustapha Abubakar, Nick Orr, Frances Daley, Penny Coulson, H Raza Ali, Fiona Blows, Javier Benitez, Roger Milne, Herman Brenner, Christa Stegmaier, Arto Mannermaa, Jenny Chang-Claude, Anja Rudolph, Peter Sinn, Fergus J Couch, Peter Devilee, Rob A E M Tollenaar, Caroline Seynaeve, Jonine Figueroa, Mark E Sherman, Jolanta Lissowska, Stephen Hewitt, Diana Eccles, Maartje J Hooning, Antoinette Hollestelle, John W M Martens, Carolien H M van Deurzen, kConFab Investigators, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, Michael Jones, Minouk Schoemaker, Jelle Wesseling, Flora E van Leeuwen, Laura Van 't Veer, Douglas Easton, Anthony J Swerdlow, Mitch Dowsett, Paul D Pharoah, Marjanka K Schmidt, Montserrat Garcia-Closas
BACKGROUND: The value of KI67 in breast cancer prognostication has been questioned due to concerns on the analytical validity of visual KI67 assessment and methodological limitations of published studies. Here, we investigate the prognostic value of automated KI67 scoring in a large, multicentre study, and compare this with pathologists' visual scores available in a subset of patients. METHODS: We utilised 143 tissue microarrays containing 15,313 tumour tissue cores from 8088 breast cancer patients in 10 collaborating studies...
October 18, 2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Wei Yu, Wei Hu, Yongjie Shui, Xiaoyang Zhu, Chao Li, Xiaoqiu Ren, Xueli Bai, Risheng Yu, Li Shen, Tingbo Liang, Lei Zheng, Qichun Wei
OBJECTIVES: To explore the areas at highest risk for postoperative pancreatic cancer local recurrence according to the spatial location of local failures, with the aim to provide a precise target volume for pancreatic cancer adjuvant radiotherapy. METHODS: Patients with pancreatic cancer who had undergone surgery for the primary tumor in pancreas at our institution from January 2010 to August 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. All local recurrences were plotted on the computed tomography (CT) image of a representative patient according to their relative coordinates to superior mesenteric artery (SMA) or celiac axis (CA)...
October 19, 2016: Radiation Oncology
M Schrappe, H Pfaff
In Germany, Health Services Research (HSR) is undergoing rapid and impressive development. Starting from the translation of methods in individual health care (efficacy-effectiveness gap) and the social-scientific description as well as analysis of health care structures and processes, now it is the implementation of complex interventions on the organizational and system level that is the center of interest. This development is mainly triggered by the establishment of the so-called innovation funds by means of legislation in 2015, which has the task to evaluate structural changes and reforms in outpatient and integrated health care...
October 18, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
Seong-Tshool Hong
The human intestine contains a massive and complex microbial community called gut microbiota. A typical human carries 100 trillion microbes in his/her body which is 10 times greater than the number of their host cells, i.e. whole number of human cells. A combined microbial genome constituting gut microbiota is well excess our own human genome. The microbial composition of gut microbiotata and its role on diseases became a booming area of research, presenting a new paradigm of opportunities for modern medicines...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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