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Ian Njeru

Ian Njeru, Yusuf Ajack, Charles Muitherero, Dickens Onyango, Johnny Musyoka, Iheoma Onuekusi, Jackson Kioko, Nicholas Muraguri, Robert Davis
INTRODUCTION: Polio eradication is now feasible after removal of Nigeria from the list of endemic countries and global reduction of cases of wild polio virus in 2015 by more than 80%. However, all countries must remain focused to achieve eradication. In August 2015, the Catholic bishops in Kenya called for boycott of a polio vaccination campaign citing safety concerns with the polio vaccine. We conducted a survey to establish if the coverage was affected by the boycott. METHODS: A cross sectional survey was conducted in all the 32 counties that participated in the campaign...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Charles Njuguna, Ian Njeru, Elizabeth Mgamb, Daniel Langat, Anselimo Makokha, Dismas Ongore, Evan Mathenge, Samuel Kariuki
BACKGROUND: Shigellosis is the major cause of bloody diarrhoea worldwide and is endemic in most developing countries. In Kenya, bloody diarrhoea is reported weekly as part of priority diseases under Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response System (IDSR) in the Ministry of Health. METHODS: We conducted a case control study with 805 participants (284 cases and 521 controls) between January and December 2012 in Kilifi and Nairobi Counties. Kilifi County is largely a rural population whereas Nairobi County is largely urban...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
John Muthii Muriuki, Philip Kitala, Gerald Muchemi, Ian Njeru, Joan Karanja, Bernard Bett
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted in Bura irrigation scheme in Tana River County and the pastoral area in Ijara, Garissa County in the eastern Kenya to establish the knowledge, attitude and practices on malaria transmission, control and management, and determine malaria prevalence and the associated risk factors. METHODS: A cross sectional survey design that involved 493 randomly selected people from 334 households was used between November and December 2013...
2016: Malaria Journal
Athman Juma Mwatondo, Zipporah Ng'ang'a, Caroline Maina, Lyndah Makayotto, Moses Mwangi, Ian Njeru, Wences Arvelo
INTRODUCTION: Kenya adopted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in 1998 to strengthen disease surveillance and epidemic response. However, the goal of weekly surveillance reporting among health facilities has not been achieved. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of adequate reporting and factors associated with IDSR reporting among health facilities in one Kenyan County. METHODS: Health facilities (public and private) were enrolled using stratified random sampling from 348 facilities prioritized for routine surveillance reporting...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Anne Liljander, Benjamin Meyer, Joerg Jores, Marcel A Müller, Erik Lattwein, Ian Njeru, Bernard Bett, Christian Drosten, Victor Max Corman
Dromedaries in Africa and elsewhere carry the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). To search for evidence of autochthonous MERS-CoV infection in humans, we tested archived serum from livestock handlers in Kenya for MERS-CoV antibodies. Serologic evidence of infection was confirmed for 2 persons sampled in 2013 and 2014.
June 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Mitsuru Toda, Ian Njeru, Dejan Zurovac, Shikanga O-Tipo, David Kareko, Matilu Mwau, Kouichi Morita
We conducted a randomized, controlled trial to test the effectiveness of a text-messaging system used for notification of disease outbreaks in Kenya. Health facilities that used the system had more timely notifications than those that did not (19.2% vs. 2.6%), indicating that technology can enhance disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.
April 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Githuka George, Jacob Rotich, Hudson Kigen, Kiama Catherine, Bonface Waweru, Waqo Boru, Tura Galgalo, Jane Githuku, Mark Obonyo, Kathryn Curran, Rupa Narra, Samuel J Crowe, Ciara E O'Reilly, Daniel Macharia, Joel Montgomery, John Neatherlin, Kevin M De Cock, Sara Lowther, Zeinab Gura, Daniel Langat, Ian Njeru, Jackson Kioko, Nicholas Muraguri
On January 6, 2015, a man aged 40 years was admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, with acute watery diarrhea. The patient was found to be infected with toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Inaba. A subsequent review of surveillance reports identified four patients in Nairobi County during the preceding month who met either of the Kenya Ministry of Health suspected cholera case definitions: 1) severe dehydration or death from acute watery diarrhea (more than four episodes in 12 hours) in a patient aged ≥5 years, or 2) acute watery diarrhea in a patient aged ≥2 years in an area where there was an outbreak of cholera...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Ian Njeru, Dickens Onyango, Yusuf Ajack, Elizabeth Kiptoo
BACKGROUND: Rubella infection has been identified as a leading cause of birth defects commonly known as Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS). Kenya does not currently have a rubella immunization program nor a CRS surveillance system. In 2014, a rubella outbreak was reported in a rural district in Kenya. We investigated the outbreak to determine its magnitude and describe the outbreak in time, place and person. We also analyzed the laboratory-confirmed rubella cases from 2010 to 2014 to understand the burden of the disease in the country...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
Murithi Mbabu, Ian Njeru, Sarah File, Eric Osoro, Stella Kiambi, Austine Bitek, Peter Ithondeka, Salome Kairu-Wanyoike, Shanaaz Sharif, Eric Gogstad, Francis Gakuya, Kaitlin Sandhaus, Peninah Munyua, Joel Montgomery, Robert Breiman, Carol Rubin, Kariuki Njenga
A One Health (OH) approach that integrates human,animal and environmental approaches to management of zoonotic diseases has gained momentum in the last decadeas part of a strategy to prevent and control emerging infectious diseases. However, there are few examples of howan OH approach can be established in a country. Kenya establishment of an OH office, referred to asthe Zoonotic Disease Unit (ZDU) in 2011. The ZDU bridges theanimal and human health sectors with a senior epidemiologist deployed from each ministry; and agoal of maintaining collaboration at the animal and human health interface towards better prevention and control of zoonoses...
2014: Pan African Medical Journal
Allison Taylor Walker, Samir Sodha, Wick C Warren, Kibet Sergon, Shem Kiptoon, John Ogange, Abdi Hassan Ahmeda, Messeret Eshetu, Melissa Corkum, Satish Pillai, Heather Scobie, Rennatus Mdodo, Danielle M Tack, Cara Halldin, Kristie Appelgren, Katrina Kretsinger, Diana M Bensyl, Ian Njeru, Titus Kolongei, Juliet Muigai, Amina Ismail, Samuel O Okiror
BACKGROUND: Although the Horn of Africa region has successfully eliminated endemic poliovirus circulation, it remains at risk for reintroduction. International partners assisted Kenya in identifying gaps in the polio surveillance and routine immunization programs, and provided recommendations for improved surveillance and routine immunization during the health system decentralization process. METHODS: Structured questionnaires collected information about acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance resources, training, data monitoring, and supervision at provincial, district, and health facility levels...
November 1, 2014: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Anagha Loharikar, Elizabeth Briere, Maurice Ope, Daniel Langat, Ian Njeru, Lucy Gathigi, Lyndah Makayotto, Abdirizak M Ismail, Martin Thuranira, Ahmed Abade, Samuel Amwayi, Jared Omolo, Joe Oundo, Kevin M De Cock, Robert F Breiman, Tracy Ayers, Eric Mintz, Ciara E O'Reilly
BACKGROUND: Cholera remains endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. We characterized the 2009 cholera outbreaks in Kenya and evaluated the response. METHODS: We analyzed surveillance data and estimated case fatality rates (CFRs). Households in 2 districts, East Pokot (224 cases; CFR = 11.7%) and Turkana South (1493 cases; CFR = 1.0%), were surveyed. We randomly selected 15 villages and 8 households per village in each district. Healthcare workers at 27 health facilities (HFs) were surveyed in both districts...
November 1, 2013: Journal of Infectious Diseases
David Mutonga, Daniel Langat, David Mwangi, Julia Tonui, Mercy Njeru, Ahmed Abade, Zephania Irura, Ian Njeru, Melissa Dahlke
BACKGROUND: Kenya has experienced multiple cholera outbreaks since 1971. Cholera remains an issue of major public health importance and one of the 35 priority diseases under Kenya's updated Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response strategy. METHODS: We reviewed the cholera surveillance data reported to the World Health Organization and the Kenya Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation from 1997 through 2010 to determine trends in cholera disease for the 14-year period...
November 1, 2013: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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