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Choline nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880224/parenteral-nutrition-associated-liver-disease-the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota
#1
REVIEW
Monika Cahova, Miriam Bratova, Petr Wohl
Parenteral nutrition (PN) provides life-saving nutritional support in situations where caloric supply via the enteral route cannot cover the necessary needs of the organism. However, it does have serious adverse effects, including parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). The development of liver injury associated with PN is multifactorial, including non-specific intestine inflammation, compromised intestinal permeability, and barrier function associated with increased bacterial translocation, primary and secondary cholangitis, cholelithiasis, short bowel syndrome, disturbance of hepatobiliary circulation, lack of enteral nutrition, shortage of some nutrients (proteins, essential fatty acids, choline, glycine, taurine, carnitine, etc...
September 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873760/butter-serums-and-buttermilks-as-sources-of-bioactive-lipids-from-the-milk-fat-globule-membrane-differences-in-their-lipid-composition-and-potentialities-of-cow-diet-to-increase-n-3-pufa
#2
Christelle Lopez, Marielle Blot, Valérie Briard-Bion, Carole Cirié, Benoit Graulet
Improving the nutritional and health properties of food products, e.g. infant milk formula, by the addition of functional ingredients is of primary importance. This study focused on bioactive milk polar lipids (PLs) recovered from dietary sources that are of increasing interest. The chemical compositions of buttermilks and butter serums were determined and the modulation of the fatty acid composition of milk PLs was investigated. Butter serums contain a higher amount of milk PLs than buttermilks (88 vs. 13-18g/kg dry matter), with a higher proportion of sphingomyelin (34 vs...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873033/corrigendum
#3
(no author information available yet)
Zhu J, Lu T, Chen F, et al. Choline protects against intestinal failure-associated liver disease in parenteral nutrition-fed immature rats [published online November 17, 2016]. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0148607116677048 ).
March 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813537/metabolite-patterns-predicting-sex-and-age-in-participants-of-the-karlsruhe-metabolomics-and-nutrition-karmen-study
#4
Manuela J Rist, Alexander Roth, Lara Frommherz, Christoph H Weinert, Ralf Krüger, Benedikt Merz, Diana Bunzel, Carina Mack, Björn Egert, Achim Bub, Benjamin Görling, Pavleta Tzvetkova, Burkhard Luy, Ingrid Hoffmann, Sabine E Kulling, Bernhard Watzl
Physiological and functional parameters, such as body composition, or physical fitness are known to differ between men and women and to change with age. The goal of this study was to investigate how sex and age-related physiological conditions are reflected in the metabolome of healthy humans and whether sex and age can be predicted based on the plasma and urine metabolite profiles. In the cross-sectional KarMeN (Karlsruhe Metabolomics and Nutrition) study 301 healthy men and women aged 18-80 years were recruited...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783055/usual-choline-intakes-are-associated-with-egg-and-protein-food-consumption-in-the-united-states
#5
Taylor C Wallace, Victor L Fulgoni
Choline is an essential nutrient with critical roles in several biological processes including neuronal development, cell signaling, nerve impulse transmission, and lipid transport and metabolism. The National Cancer Institute method was used to assess usual intakes of choline from foods according to data for participants enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2014 datasets and pregnant women in the 2005-2014 datasets. Suboptimal intakes of choline are present across many gender and life-stage subpopulations, as well as pregnant women in the U...
August 5, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777736/a-pilot-study-of-the-effect-of-human-breast-milk-on-urinary-metabolome-analysis-in-infants
#6
Hiromichi Shoji, Hikari Taka, Naoko Kaga, Naho Ikeda, Tomohiro Kitamura, Yoshiki Miura, Toshiaki Shimizu
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the nutritional effect of breast feeding on healthy term infants by using urinary metabolome analysis. METHODS: Urine samples were collected from 19 and 14 infants at 1 and 6 months, respectively. Infants were separated into two groups: the breast-fed group receiving <540 mL/week of their intake from formula (n=13 at 1 month; n=9 at 6 months); and the formula-fed group receiving no breast milk (BM) (n=6 at 1 month; n=5 at 6 months)...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768106/development-of-high-capacity-enterosorbents-for-aflatoxin-b1-and-other-hazardous-chemicals
#7
Meichen Wang, Cody R Maki, Youjun Deng, Yanan Tian, Timothy D Phillips
Previously, a calcium montmorillonite clay (NovaSil) included in the diet of animals has been shown to bind aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) and reduce the symptoms of aflatoxicosis. To investigate and improve the capacity and efficacy of clay-based materials as aflatoxin sorbents, we developed and tested calcium and sodium montmorillonite clays amended with nutrients including l-carnitine and choline. Also, we determined the sorption of AfB1 by isothermal analysis and tested the ability of these amended sorbents to protect adult hydra from AfB1 toxicity...
September 5, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759122/differential-effects-of-late-gestation-maternal-overnutrition-on-the-regulation-of-surfactant-maturation-in-fetal-and-postnatal-life
#8
Mitchell C Lock, Erin V McGillick, Sandra Orgeig, I Caroline McMillen, Beverly S Mühlhäusler, Song Zhang, Janna L Morrison
With the increasing incidence of obesity worldwide, the proportion of women entering pregnancy overweight or obese has increased dramatically. The fetus of an overnourished mother experiences numerous metabolic changes that may modulate lung development and hence successful transition to air-breathing at birth. We used a sheep model of maternal late gestation overnutrition (LGON; from 115 d gestation, term 147 ± 3 d) to determine the effect of exposure to an increased plane of nutrition in late gestation on lung development in the fetus (at 141 d gestation) and the lamb (30 d after birth)...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724959/hepatic-metabolic-effects-of-curcuma-longa-extract-supplement-in-high-fructose-and-saturated-fat-fed-rats
#9
Fabrice Tranchida, Zo Rakotoniaina, Laetitia Shintu, Léopold Tchiakpe, Valérie Deyris, Mehdi Yemloul, Pierre Stocker, Nicolas Vidal, Odile Rimet, Abel Hiol, Stefano Caldarelli
The metabolic effects of an oral supplementation with a Curcuma longa extract, at a dose nutritionally relevant with common human use, on hepatic metabolism in rats fed a high fructose and saturated fatty acid (HFS) diet was evaluated. High-resolution magic-angle spinning NMR and GC/MS in combination with multivariate analysis have been employed to characterize the NMR metabolite profiles and fatty acid composition of liver tissue respectively. The results showed a clear discrimination between HFS groups and controls involving metabolites such as glucose, glycogen, amino acids, acetate, choline, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and β-hydroxybutyrate as well as an increase of MUFAs and a decrease of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715991/trimethylamine-n-oxide-the-microbiome-and-heart-and-kidney-disease
#10
Steven H Zeisel, Manya Warrier
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a biologically active molecule and is a putative promoter of chronic diseases including atherosclerosis in humans. Host intestinal bacteria produce its precursor trimethylamine (TMA) from carnitine, choline, or choline-containing compounds. Most of the TMA produced is passively absorbed into portal circulation, and hepatic flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) efficiently oxidize TMA to TMAO. Both observational and experimental studies suggest a strong positive correlation between increased plasma TMAO concentrations and adverse cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and death...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687713/tlr9-is-up-regulated-in-human-and-murine-nash-pivotal-role-in-inflammatory-recruitment-and-cell-survival
#11
Auvro R Mridha, Fahrettin Haczeyni, Matthew M Yeh, W Geoffrey Haigh, George N Ioannou, Vanessa Barn, Hussam Ajamieh, Leon Adams, Jeffrey M Hamdorf, Narci C Teoh, Geoffrey C Farrell
Background and aims: TLR9 deletion protects against steatohepatitis due to choline-amino acid depletion and high-fat diet. We measured TLR9 in human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) livers, and tested whether TLR9 mediates inflammatory recruitment in three murine models of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: We assayed TLR mRNA in liver biopsies from bariatric surgery patients. Wild-type (Wt), appetite-dysregulated Alms1 mutant (foz/foz), Tlr9(-/-), and Tlr9(-/-)foz/foz C57BL6/J mice and bone marrow (BM) chimeras were fed 0...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653034/nutrients-required-for-phospholipid-synthesis-are-lower-in-blood-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia
#12
Nick van Wijk, Rosalinde E R Slot, Flora H Duits, Marieke Strik, Egbert Biesheuvel, John W C Sijben, Marinus A Blankenstein, Jörgen Bierau, Wiesje M van der Flier, Philip Scheltens, Charlotte E Teunissen
INTRODUCTION: Synaptic membrane formation depends on nutrients that fuel metabolic pathways for the synthesis of constituent phospholipids. Consequently, insufficient availability of such nutrients may restrict membrane formation and contribute to synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We assessed whether blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of nutrients related to phospholipid synthesis differ among patients with AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and control subjects...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598848/synaptic-membrane-synthesis-in-rats-depends-on-dietary-sufficiency-of-vitamin-c-vitamin-e-and-selenium-relevance-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Mehmet Cansev, Mesut Turkyilmaz, John W C Sijben, Cansu Sevinc, Laus M Broersen, Nick van Wijk
Chronic consumption of a diet enriched with nutritional precursors of phospholipids, including uridine and the polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), was shown previously to enhance levels of brain phospholipids and synaptic proteins in rodents. Vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium may directly affect the breakdown or synthesis of membrane phospholipids. The present study investigated the necessity of antioxidants for the effectiveness of supplementation with uridine plus DHA and EPA (as fish oil) in rats...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520847/maternal-exposure-to-nitrogen-dioxide-intake-of-methyl-nutrients-and-congenital-heart-defects-in-offspring
#14
Jeanette A Stingone, Thomas J Luben, Suzan L Carmichael, Arthur S Aylsworth, Lorenzo D Botto, Adolfo Correa, Suzanne M Gilboa, Peter H Langlois, Wendy N Nembhard, Jennifer Richmond-Bryant, Gary M Shaw, Andrew F Olshan
Nutrients that regulate methylation processes may modify susceptibility to the effects of air pollutants. Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997-2006, were used to estimate associations between maternal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), dietary intake of methyl nutrients and the odds of congenital heart defects in offspring. NO2 concentrations, a marker of traffic-related air pollution, averaged across post-conception weeks 2-8, were assigned to 6160 non-diabetic mothers of cases and controls using inverse distance-squared weighting of air monitors within 50 km of maternal residence...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511023/efficacy-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-choline-vitamin-e-in-paediatric-nash-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#15
Evelyn Zöhrer, Anna Alisi, Jörg Jahnel, Antonella Mosca, Claudia Della Corte, Annalisa Crudele, Günter Fauler, Valerio Nobili
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, is one of the most common hepatic diseases in children. We conducted a randomized controlled clinical trial on children with biopsy-proven NASH based on a combinatorial nutritional approach compared with placebo. Participants were assigned to lifestyle modification plus placebo or lifestyle modification plus a mix containing docosahexaenoic acid, choline, and vitamin E (DHA-CHO-VE). Forty children and adolescents participated in the entire trial...
May 16, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506357/-research-advances-in-the-association-between-maternal-intake-of-methyl-donor-nutrients-during-pregnancy-and-dna-methylation-in-offspring
#16
REVIEW
Meng-Meng Wu, Fan Yang
Maternal nutrition during pregnancy plays a vital role in the health of the offspring. Methyl donor nutrients, including folate, vitamin B12, choline, betaine, and methionine, directly affect DNA methylation and are closely associated with the health of the offspring. As an important part of epigenetics, DNA methylation plays an important role in the maintenance of normal cellular function, gene expression regulation, and embryonic development. Recent studies have shown that maternal nutrition may have a long-lasting effect on the health of the offspring via the changes in genomic DNA and/or methylation level in the promoter region in specific genes...
May 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498348/nutrients-turned-into-toxins-microbiota-modulation-of-nutrient-properties-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#17
REVIEW
Raul Fernandez-Prado, Raquel Esteras, Maria Vanessa Perez-Gomez, Carolina Gracia-Iguacel, Emilio Gonzalez-Parra, Ana B Sanz, Alberto Ortiz, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), accumulation of uremic toxins is associated with an increased risk of death. Some uremic toxins are ingested with the diet, such as phosphate and star fruit-derived caramboxin. Others result from nutrient processing by gut microbiota, yielding precursors of uremic toxins or uremic toxins themselves. These nutrients include l-carnitine, choline/phosphatidylcholine, tryptophan and tyrosine, which are also sold over-the-counter as nutritional supplements. Physicians and patients alike should be aware that, in CKD patients, the use of these supplements may lead to potentially toxic effects...
May 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427348/comparative-genomics-and-evolution-of-the-amylase-binding-proteins-of-oral-streptococci
#18
Elaine M Haase, Yurong Kou, Amarpreet Sabharwal, Yu-Chieh Liao, Tianying Lan, Charlotte Lindqvist, Frank A Scannapieco
BACKGROUND: Successful commensal bacteria have evolved to maintain colonization in challenging environments. The oral viridans streptococci are pioneer colonizers of dental plaque biofilm. Some of these bacteria have adapted to life in the oral cavity by binding salivary α-amylase, which hydrolyzes dietary starch, thus providing a source of nutrition. Oral streptococcal species bind α-amylase by expressing a variety of amylase-binding proteins (ABPs). Here we determine the genotypic basis of amylase binding where proteins of diverse size and function share a common phenotype...
April 20, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414763/enhanced-offspring-predisposition-to-steatohepatitis-with-maternal-high-fat-diet-is-associated-with-epigenetic-and-microbiome-alterations
#19
Umesh D Wankhade, Ying Zhong, Ping Kang, Maria Alfaro, Sree V Chintapalli, Keshari M Thakali, Kartik Shankar
OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important co-morbidity associated with obesity and a precursor to steatohepatitis. However, the contributions of gestational and early life influences on development of NAFLD and NASH remain poorly appreciated. METHODS: Two independent studies were performed to examine whether maternal over-nutrition via exposure to high fat diet (HFD) leads to exacerbated hepatic responses to post-natal HFD and methionine choline deficient (MCD) diets in the offspring...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356272/choline-and-its-metabolites-are-differently-associated-with-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-history-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-mri-documented-cerebrovascular-disease-in-older-adults
#20
Annie J Roe, Shucha Zhang, Rafeeque A Bhadelia, Elizabeth J Johnson, Alice H Lichtenstein, Gail T Rogers, Irwin H Rosenberg, Caren E Smith, Steven H Zeisel, Tammy M Scott
Background: There is a potential role of choline in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease through its involvement in lipid and one-carbon metabolism.Objective: We evaluated the associations of plasma choline and choline-related compounds with cardiometabolic risk factors, history of cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular pathology.Design: A cross-sectional subset of the Nutrition, Aging, and Memory in Elders cohort who had undergone MRI of the brain (n = 296; mean ± SD age: 73 ± 8.1 y) was assessed...
June 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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