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Choline nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888055/dietary-choline-levels-modify-the-effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-rats
#1
Nirelia M Idrus, Kristen R Breit, Jennifer D Thomas
Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a range of physical and behavioral alterations; however, the outcome among children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy varies widely. Some of this variation may be due to nutritional factors. Indeed, higher rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are observed in countries where malnutrition is prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown that many pregnant women throughout the world may not be consuming adequate levels of choline, an essential nutrient critical for brain development, and a methyl donor...
November 23, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886045/nutrition-one-carbon-metabolism-and-neural-tube-defects-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Kelei Li, Mark L Wahlqvist, Duo Li
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of severe congenital malformations, induced by the combined effects of genes and the environment. The most valuable finding so far has been the protective effect of folic acid supplementation against NTDs. However, many women do not take folic acid supplements until they are pregnant, which is too late to prevent NTDs effectively. Long-term intake of folic acid-fortified food is a good choice to solve this problem, and mandatory folic acid fortification should be further promoted, especially in Europe, Asia and Africa...
November 23, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876555/one-carbon-metabolism-and-epigenetics
#3
REVIEW
Simonetta Friso, Silvia Udali, Domenica De Santis, Sang-Woon Choi
The function of one-carbon metabolism is that of regulating the provision of methyl groups for biological methylation reactions including that of DNA and histone proteins. Methylation at specific sites into the DNA sequence and at histone tails are among the major epigenetic feature of mammalian genome for the regulation of gene expression. The enzymes within one-carbon metabolism are dependent from a number of vitamins or nutrients that serve either as co-factors or methyl acceptors or donors among which folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, betaine, choline and methionine have a major role...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856995/choline-protects-against-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-in-parenteral-nutrition-fed-immature-rats
#4
Jie Zhu, Ting Lu, Fei Chen, Junkai Yan, Fan Chen, Qiaosen Zhang, Jifan Wang, Weihui Yan, Tingxi Yu, Qingya Tang, Wei Cai
BACKGROUND: Deficiency of choline, a required nutrient, is related to intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of choline supplementation on IFALD and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) were fed AIN-93G chow and administered intravenous 0.9% saline (control), parenteral nutrition (PN), or PN plus intravenous choline (600 mg/kg) for 7 days. We evaluated body weight, hepatic histology, biochemical indicators, triglycerides, oxidative status, methylation levels of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) gene promoter, expression of PPARα and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), and levels of choline metabolites...
November 17, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855528/dietary-anthropometric-and-biochemical-factors-influencing-plasma-choline-carnitine-trimethylamine-and-trimethylamine-n-oxide-concentrations
#5
Anna M Malinowska, Artur Szwengiel, Agata Chmurzynska
The objective of the study was to evaluate the nutritional, anthropometric, and biochemical factors that influence choline, l-carnitine, trimethylamine (TMA), and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) metabolism in elderly women. The volunteers' diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were estimated using a self-established score method. Body mass index (BMI), serum glucose, total, HDL, LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol, homocysteine (tHcy), free choline (fchol), L-carnitine, TMA, and TMAO were assessed...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830979/dietary-and-supplemental-maternal-methyl-group-donor-intake-and-cord-blood-dna-methylation
#6
Sara Pauwels, Manosij Ghosh, Radu Corneliu Duca, Bram Bekaert, Kathleen Freson, Inge Huybrechts, Sabine Langie, Gudrun Koppen, Roland Devlieger, Lode Godderis
Maternal nutrition is critically involved in the development and health of the fetus. We evaluated maternal methyl-group donor intake through diet (methionine, betaine, choline, folate) and supplementation (folic acid) before and during pregnancy in relation to global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation and gene specific (IGF2 DMR, DNMT1, LEP, RXRA) cord blood methylation. A total of 115 mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the MAternal Nutrition and Offspring's Epigenome (MANOE) study. The intake of methyl-group donors was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire...
November 10, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806977/randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-of-choline-supplementation-in-school-aged-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#7
Tanya T Nguyen, Rashmi D Risbud, Sarah N Mattson, Christina D Chambers, Jennifer D Thomas
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure results in a broad range of cognitive and behavioral impairments. Because of the long-lasting problems that are associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), the development of effective treatment programs is critical. Preclinical animal studies have shown that choline, which is an essential nutrient, can attenuate the severity of alcohol-related cognitive impairments. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to translate preclinical findings to a clinical population to investigate whether choline supplementation can ameliorate the severity of memory, executive function, and attention deficits in children with FASDs...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788773/maternal-choline-supplementation-in-a-sheep-model-of-first-trimester-binge-alcohol-fails-to-protect-against-brain-volume-reductions-in-peripubertal-lambs
#8
Sharla M Birch, Mark W Lenox, Joe N Kornegay, Beatriz Paniagua, Martin A Styner, Charles R Goodlett, Tim A Cudd, Shannon E Washburn
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading potentially preventable birth defect. Poor nutrition may contribute to adverse developmental outcomes of prenatal alcohol exposure, and supplementation of essential micronutrients such as choline has shown benefit in rodent models. The sheep model of first-trimester binge alcohol exposure was used in this study to model the dose of maternal choline supplementation used in an ongoing prospective clinical trial involving pregnancies at risk for FASD. Primary outcome measures including volumetrics of the whole brain, cerebellum, and pituitary derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 6-month-old lambs, testing the hypothesis that alcohol-exposed lambs would have brain volume reductions that would be ameliorated by maternal choline supplementation...
September 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765800/sex-specific-associations-between-one-carbon-metabolism-indices-and-posttranslational-histone-modifications-in-arsenic-exposed-bangladeshi-adults
#9
Caitlin G Howe, Xinhua Liu, Megan N Hall, Vesna Ilievski, Marie A Caudill, Olga Malysheva, Angela M Lomax-Luu, Faruque Parvez, Abu B Siddique, Hasan Shahriar, Mohammad N Uddin, Tariqul Islam, Joseph H Graziano, Max Costa, Mary V Gamble
BACKGROUND: Posttranslational histone modifications (PTHMs) are altered by arsenic, an environmental carcinogen. PTHMs are also influenced by nutritional methyl donors involved in one-carbon metabolism (OCM), which may protect against epigenetic dysregulation. METHODS: We measured global levels of three PTHMs, which are dysregulated in cancers (H3K36me2, H3K36me3, H3K79me2), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 324 participants enrolled in the Folic Acid and Creatine Trial, a randomized trial in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757515/high-throughput-and-simultaneous-quantitative-analysis-of-homocysteine-methionine-cycle-metabolites-and-co-factors-in-blood-plasma-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-by-isotope-dilution-lc-ms-ms
#10
Seu Ping Guiraud, Ivan Montoliu, Laeticia Da Silva, Loïc Dayon, Antonio Núñez Galindo, John Corthésy, Martin Kussmann, Francois-Pierre Martin
The methionine cycle is a key pathway contributing to the regulation of human health, with well-established involvement in cardiovascular diseases and cognitive function. Changes in one-carbon cycle metabolites have also been associated with mild cognitive decline, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. Today, there is no single analytical method to monitor both metabolites and co-factors of the methionine cycle. To address this limitation, we here report for the first time a new method for the simultaneous quantitation of 17 metabolites in the methionine cycle, which are homocysteic acid, taurine, serine, cysteine, glycine, homocysteine, riboflavin, methionine, pyridoxine, cystathionine, pyridoxamine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, S-adenosylmethionine, betaine, choline, dimethylglycine, and 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid...
October 18, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733402/protein-and-zinc-deficient-diets-modulate-the-murine-microbiome-and-metabolic-phenotype
#11
Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, David T Bolick, Joy Leng, Greg L Medlock, Glynis L Kolling, Jason A Papin, Jonathan R Swann, Richard L Guerrant
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteropathy, which is linked to undernutrition and chronic infections, affects the physical and mental growth of children in developing areas worldwide. Key to understanding how these factors combine to shape developmental outcomes is to first understand the effects of nutritional deficiencies on the mammalian system including the effect on the gut microbiota. OBJECTIVE: We dissected the nutritional components of environmental enteropathy by analyzing the specific metabolic and gut-microbiota changes that occur in weaned-mouse models of zinc or protein deficiency compared with well-nourished controls...
November 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719928/metabolomic-analyses-of-banana-during-postharvest-senescence-by-1-h-high-resolution-nmr
#12
Yunfei Yuan, Yupeng Zhao, Jiali Yang, Yueming Jiang, Fei Lu, Yongxia Jia, Bao Yang
Banana is a tropical fruit widely accepted by people over the world. Its chemical composition is critical for its organoleptic properties and nutritional value. In this work, the metabolite changes during postharvest senescence were investigated using NMR spectroscopy. The 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic information revealed the primary and secondary metabolites in banana fruit, including organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates and phenolics. Bananas at five senescence stages showed similar chemical profiles, but the levels of the individual compounds varied to a large extent...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677362/choline-metabolic-pathway-gene-polymorphisms-and-risk-for-down-syndrome-an-association-study-in-a-population-with-folate-homocysteine-metabolic-impairment
#13
S K Jaiswal, K K Sukla, A Chauhan, A R Lakhotia, A Kumar, A K Rai
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Choline is an essential nutrient involved in one-carbon metabolism, but its role in mechanisms underlying meiotic non-disjunction is poorly known. The relationship between folate-homocysteine metabolic pathway gene polymorphism and Down syndrome (DS) risk has been widely analyzed, but there are limited reports on its correlation with choline metabolism. In the present case-control association study, we investigated the relationship of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) rs12325817, choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) rs12676 and homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) rs3733890) of choline metabolism with risk for DS...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651671/rumen-protected-choline-a-significance-effect-on-dairy-cattle-nutrition
#14
REVIEW
G Jayaprakash, M Sathiyabarathi, M Arokia Robert, T Tamilmani
Choline is a vitamin-like substance it has multi-function in animal production, reproduction, and health. The transition period is most crucial stage in lactation cycle of dairy cows due to its association with negative hormonal and energy balances. Unfortunately, unprotected choline easily degrades in the rumen; therefore, choline added to the diet in a rumen-protected form. The use of rumen-protected choline (RPC) is a preventive measurement for the fatty liver syndrome and ketosis; may improve milk production as well as milk composition and reproduction parameters...
August 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650928/impact-of-early-postnatal-nutrition-on-the-nmr-urinary-metabolic-profile-of-infant
#15
Flaminia Cesare Marincola, Sara Corbu, Milena Lussu, Antonio Noto, Angelica Dessì, Stefania Longo, Elisa Civardi, Francesca Garofoli, Beatrice Grenci, Elisa Mongini, Andrea Budelli, Alessia Grinzato, Francesca Fasano, Vassilios Fanos, Mauro Stronati
NMR-based metabolomics was used to compare the metabolic urinary profiles of exclusively breast-fed term infants (n = 11) with those of a double-blinded controlled trial with 49 formula-fed term newborns randomized to receive either an infant formula enriched by functional ingredients (n = 24) or a standard formula (n = 25). Anthropometric measurements and urine samples were taken at enrollment (within the first month of life), at around 60 days of life, and at the end of study period (average age of 130 days)...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636007/autofluorescence-discrimination-of-metabolic-fingerprint-in-nutritional-and-genetic-fatty-liver-models
#16
Anna C Croce, Andrea Ferrigno, Laura G Di Pasqua, Clarissa Berardo, Valeria Maria Piccolini, Vittorio Bertone, Giovanni Bottiroli, Mariapia Vairetti
Liver tissue autofluorescence (AF) has been characterized in two models with a different potential to undergo disease progression to steatohepatitis: Wistar rats, administered with a methionine, choline deficient diet (MCD), and Zucker (fa/fa) rats, homozygous for a spontaneous mutation of leptin receptor. AF spectra were recorded from liver tissue cryostatic sections by microspectrofluorometry, under 366nm excitation. Curve fitting analysis was used to estimate the contribution of different endogenous fluorophores (EFs) to the overall AF emission: i) fluorescing fatty acids, a fraction of liver lipids up to now poorly considered and complicated to detect by conventional procedures; ii) lipofuscin-like lipopigments, biomarkers of oxidizing events; iii) NAD(P)H and flavins, biomarkers of energy metabolism and tissue redox state...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592438/rumen-protected-methionine-compared-with-rumen-protected-choline-improves-immunometabolic-status-in-dairy-cows-during-the-peripartal-period
#17
Z Zhou, O Bulgari, M Vailati-Riboni, E Trevisi, M A Ballou, F C Cardoso, D N Luchini, J J Loor
The immunometabolic status of peripartal cows is altered due to changes in liver function, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Nutritional management during this physiological state can affect the biological components of immunometabolism. The objectives of this study were to measure concentrations of biomarkers in plasma, liver tissue, and milk, and also polymorphonuclear leukocyte function to assess the immunometabolic status of cows supplemented with rumen-protected methionine (MET) or choline (CHOL). Forty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a randomized complete block design with 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of MET (Smartamine M, Adisseo NA) and CHOL (ReaShure, Balchem Inc...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530130/dietary-methyl-donor-depletion-suppresses-intestinal-adenoma-development
#18
Matthew P Hanley, Krishna Kadaveru, Christine Perret, Charles Giardina, Daniel W Rosenberg
The role of folate one-carbon metabolism in colorectal cancer development is controversial, with nutritional intervention studies producing conflicting results. It has been reported that Apc(Min/+) mice maintained on a diet deficient in the methyl donors folic acid, methionine, choline, and vitamin B12, and supplemented with homocysteine, show a greater than 95% reduction in intestinal tumor development. The present study extends these findings and shows that tumor protection afforded by dietary methyl donor deficiency (MDD) is long-lasting...
October 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509522/maternal-methyl-group-donor-intake-and-global-dna-hydroxy-methylation-before-and-during-pregnancy
#19
Sara Pauwels, Radu Corneliu Duca, Roland Devlieger, Kathleen Freson, Dany Straetmans, Erik Van Herck, Inge Huybrechts, Gurdun Koppen, Lode Godderis
It is still unclear to which extent methyl-group intake during pregnancy can affect maternal global DNA (hydroxyl)methylation. Pregnancy methylation profiling and its link with methyl-group intake in a healthy population could enhance our understanding of the development of pregnancy related disorders. One hundred forty-eight women were enrolled in the MANOE (MAternal Nutrition and Offspring's Epigenome) study. Thiry-four women were enrolled before pregnancy and 116 during the first trimester of pregnancy. Global DNA (hydroxy)methylation in blood using LC-MS/MS and dietary methyl-group intake (methionine, folate, betaine, and choline) using a food-frequency questionnaire were estimated pre-pregnancy, during each trimester, and at delivery...
2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501393/regulation-of-nutritional-metabolism-in-transition-dairy-cows-energy-homeostasis-and-health-in-response-to-post-ruminal-choline-and-methionine
#20
Feifei Sun, Yangchun Cao, Chuanjiang Cai, Shengxiang Li, Chao Yu, Junhu Yao
This study investigated the effects of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) and rumen-protected choline (RPC) on energy balance, postpartum lactation performance, antioxidant capacity and immune response in transition dairy cows. Forty-eight multiparous transition cows were matched and divided into four groups: control, 15 g/d RPC, 15 g/d RPM or 15 g/d RPC + 15 g/d RPM. Diet samples were collected daily before feeding, and blood samples were collected weekly from the jugular vein before morning feeding from 21 days prepartum to 21 days postpartum...
2016: PloS One
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