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Integrated Disease Surveillance

Santosh Vijaykumar, Aravind Sesagiri Raamkumar
India's approach to disseminating information about the first three cases of the Zika virus was criticised nationally and internationally after the issue came to light in May 2017 through a World Health Organization news release. We analyse the incident from a risk communication perspective. This commentary recaps the events and synthesises key arguments put forth by the news media and public health stakeholders. We use Peter Sandman's risk = hazard + outrage framework - also adopted by India's risk communication planners - to analyse India's risk communication response and contextualise it against the mandate of the National Risk Communication Plan and Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme...
April 12, 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Makeda Semret, Momar Ndao, Jan Jacobs, Cedric P Yansouni
BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need for integrated diagnosis of febrile syndromes, able to account for multiple pathogens and inform decisions for clinical care and public health. AIMS: To reflect on the evolving roles of laboratory-based testing for non-malarial febrile illnesses (NMFI) in low-resource settings (LRS), and to consider how advances in diagnostics, in connectivity and transport, and in quality-systems implementation may substantially enhance the capacity of reference laboratories to bridge the current gap between remote passive surveillance and clinically meaningful integrated fever diagnosis...
April 9, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Paolo Carrer, Peder Wolkoff
There is an increasing concern about indoor air quality (IAQ) and its impact on health, comfort, and work-performance in office-like environments and their workers, which account for most of the labor force. The Scientific Committee on Indoor Air Quality and Health of the ICOH (Int. Comm. Occup. Health) has discussed the assessment and management of IAQ problems and proposed a stepwise approach to be conducted by a multidisciplinary team. It is recommended to integrate the building assessment, inspection by walk-through of the office workplace, questionnaire survey, and environmental measurements, in that order...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
X Y Bao, W J Huang, K Zhang, M Jin, Y Li, C Z Niu
OBJECTIVE: There is a huge amount of diagnostic or treatment information in electronic medical record (EMR), which is a concrete manifestation of clinicians actual diagnosis and treatment details. Plenty of episodes in EMRs, such as complaints, present illness, past history, differential diagnosis, diagnostic imaging, surgical records, reflecting details of diagnosis and treatment in clinical process, adopt Chinese description of natural language. How to extract effective information from these Chinese narrative text data, and organize it into a form of tabular for analysis of medical research, for the practical utilization of clinical data in the real world, is a difficult problem in Chinese medical data processing...
April 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Liguo Wang, Zhenqing Ye, Haidong Dong, Ying Li, Tao Ma, Haojie Huang, Hon S Leong, Jeanette E Eckel-Passow, Jean-Pierre Kocher, Han Liang
PURPOSE: Homozygous deletions play important roles in carcinogenesis. The genome-wide screening for homozygously deleted genes in many different cancer types with a large number of patient specimens representing the tumor heterogeneity has not been done. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed integrative analyses of the copy number profiles of 10,759 patients across 31 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas project. RESULTS: We found that the Type-I interferon, α- and β-defensin genes were homozygously deleted in 19 cancer types with high frequencies (7%-31%, median = 12%; interquartile range = 10-16...
April 4, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Kevin H Wang, Brian H Song, Jason E Gilde, Jeanne A Darbinian, Miranda L Ritterman Weintraub, Tara J Wu, Eleanor L Yang, James W Salazar, Deepak Gurushanthaiah
CONTEXT: Survival for patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) has remained relatively stagnant despite advances in treatment. Few studies have examined why advanced-stage disease is diagnosed in 40% of patients with OCSCC nationally. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the diagnostic pathway of OCSCC in an integrated health care system. DESIGN: Retrospective study of patients with OCSCC (2007-2010). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Referral patterns and demographic, clinical, and tumor characteristics associated with time to diagnosis (diagnostic interval)...
March 30, 2018: Permanente Journal
Marina Morganti, Luca Bolzoni, Erika Scaltriti, Gabriele Casadei, Elena Carra, Laura Rossi, Paola Gherardi, Fabio Faccini, Norma Arrigoni, Anna Rita Sacchi, Marco Delledonne, Stefano Pongolini
Background and aimEpidemiology of human non-typhoid salmonellosis is characterised by recurrent emergence of new clones of the pathogen over time. Some clonal lines of Salmonella have shaped epidemiology of the disease at global level, as happened for serotype Enteritidis or, more recently, for Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:-, a monophasic variant of serotype Typhimurium. The same clonal behaviour is recognisable at sub-serotype level where single outbreaks or more generalised epidemics are attributable to defined clones...
March 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Marie C E Hanin, Kevin Queenan, Sara Savic, Esron Karimuribo, Simon R Rüegg, Barbara Häsler
Rooted in the recognition that emerging infectious diseases occur at the interface of human, animal, and ecosystem health, the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) initiative aims to promote a trans-sectoral approach to address better infectious disease risk management in five countries of the Southern African Development Community. Nine years after SACIDS' inception, this study aimed to evaluate the program by applying a One Health (OH) evaluation framework developed by the Network for Evaluation of One Health (NEOH)...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Eniola Michael Abe, Wei Guan, Yun-Hai Guo, Kokouvi Kassegne, Zhi-Qiang Qin, Jing Xu, Jun-Hu Chen, Uwem Friday Ekpo, Shi-Zhu Li, Xiao-Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Snail intermediate hosts play active roles in the transmission of snail-borne trematode infections in Africa. A good knowledge of snail-borne diseases epidemiology particularly snail intermediate host populations would provide the necessary impetus to complementing existing control strategy. MAIN BODY: This review highlights the importance of molecular approaches in differentiating snail hosts population structure and the need to provide adequate information on snail host populations by updating snail hosts genome database for Africa, in order to equip different stakeholders with adequate information on the ecology of snail intermediate hosts and their roles in the transmission of different diseases...
March 26, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Edouard K Swana, Thierry I Yav, Leonard M Ngwej, Betty N Mupemba, Suprianto, Clarence K Mukeng, Izak Hattingh, Oscar N Luboya, Jean-Baptiste S Kakoma, Michael J Bangs
BACKGROUND: In southern Democratic Republic of the Congo, malaria transmission is stable with seasonal fluctuations. Different measurements can be used to monitor disease burden and estimate the performance of control programmes. Repeated school-based malaria prevalence surveys (SMPS) were conducted from 2007 to 2014 to generate up-to-date surveillance data and evaluate the impact of an integrated vector control programme. METHODS: Biannual SMPS used a stratified, randomized and proportional sampling method...
April 3, 2018: Malaria Journal
Rakesh Mandal, Shreekant Kesari, Vijay Kumar, Pradeep Das
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Bihar State (India) continues to be endemic, despite the existence of effective treatment and a vector control program to control disease morbidity. A clear understanding of spatio-temporal distribution of VL may improve surveillance and control implementation. This study explored the trends in spatio-temporal dynamics of VL endemicity at a meso-scale level in Vaishali District, based on geographical information systems (GIS) tools and spatial statistical analysis...
April 2, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Oswaldo Santos Baquero, Lidia Maria Reis Santana, Francisco Chiaravalloti-Neto
Globally, the number of dengue cases has been on the increase since 1990 and this trend has also been found in Brazil and its most populated city-São Paulo. Surveillance systems based on predictions allow for timely decision making processes, and in turn, timely and efficient interventions to reduce the burden of the disease. We conducted a comparative study of dengue predictions in São Paulo city to test the performance of trained seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models, generalized additive models and artificial neural networks...
2018: PloS One
Petra Dickmann, Andrew Kitua, Franklin Apfel, Nigel Lightfoot
OVERVIEW: International activities to respond to the Ebola crisis in West Africa were mainly developed and focussed around the biomedical paradigm of Western health systems. This approach was often insensitive to societal perception, attitude, and behavioural determinants and clashed with community-based health traditions, narratives, and roles, e.g., of community health workers. In this peer-led capacity-building initiative, these deficiencies were identified and analysed. Innovative, more locally focussed, community-based solutions were articulated...
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Marion Roussel, Dominique Pontier, Jean-Marie Cohen, Bruno Lina, David Fouchet
Background: Evaluating the factors favoring the onset of influenza epidemics is a critical public health issue for surveillance, prevention and control. While past outbreaks provide important insights for understanding epidemic onsets, their statistical analysis is challenging since the impact of a factor can be viewed at different scales. Indeed, the same factor can explain why epidemics are more likely to begin (i) during particular weeks of the year (global scale); (ii) earlier in particular regions (spatial scale) or years (annual scale) than others and (iii) earlier in some years than others within a region (spatiotemporal scale)...
2018: PeerJ
Rajeshwari Sinha, Sanghamitra Pati
The growing epidemic of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) has impacted the national health systems, policies, and socioeconomic developments, thereby leading to increasing country level disparities. Despite substantial improvements in health indicators made in the past decade, the Indian health-care system continues to contribute disproportionately to the global disease burden, wherein NCDs holds significant prominence. Against this background, the present review analyzes the current NCD landscape from the perspective of India's health system preparedness toward meeting this growing challenge...
October 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Christopher J Fonnesbeck, Katriona Shea, Spencer Carran, Jose Cassio de Moraes, Christopher Gregory, James L Goodson, Matthew J Ferrari
Resurgent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases that have previously been controlled or eliminated have been observed in many settings. Reactive vaccination campaigns may successfully control outbreaks but must necessarily be implemented in the face of considerable uncertainty. Real-time surveillance may provide critical information about at-risk population and optimal vaccination targets, but may itself be limited by the specificity of disease confirmation. We propose an integrated modelling approach that synthesizes historical demographic and vaccination data with real-time outbreak surveillance via a dynamic transmission model and an age-specific disease confirmation model...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
C Melissa Miner, Jennifer L Burnaford, Richard F Ambrose, Liam Antrim, Heath Bohlmann, Carol A Blanchette, John M Engle, Steven C Fradkin, Rani Gaddam, Christopher D G Harley, Benjamin G Miner, Steven N Murray, Jayson R Smith, Stephen G Whitaker, Peter T Raimondi
Disease outbreaks can have substantial impacts on wild populations, but the often patchy or anecdotal evidence of these impacts impedes our ability to understand outbreak dynamics. Recently however, a severe disease outbreak occurred in a group of very well-studied organisms-sea stars along the west coast of North America. We analyzed nearly two decades of data from a coordinated monitoring effort at 88 sites ranging from southern British Columbia to San Diego, California along with 2 sites near Sitka, Alaska to better understand the effects of sea star wasting disease (SSWD) on the keystone intertidal predator, Pisaster ochraceus...
2018: PloS One
J Hansen, L Zhang, A Eaton, R Baxter, C A Robertson, M D Decker, D P Greenberg, E Bassily, N P Klein
BACKGROUND: Menactra® vaccine (MenACWY-D) was licensed in the United States in 2005 for persons 11-55 years of age, in 2007 for children 2-10 years of age, and in 2011 for infants/toddlers 9-23 months of age. We conducted two studies at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), an integrated health care organization, to assess the safety of MenACWY-D in 2-10-year-olds and 9-23-month-olds receiving the vaccine during routine clinical care. METHODS: We conducted observational, retrospective studies of MenACWY-D in 2-10-year-olds (October 2007-October 2010) and in 9-23-month-olds (June 2011-June 2014)...
March 14, 2018: Vaccine
Emanuele Strano, Matheus P Viana, Alessandro Sorichetta, Andrew J Tatem
Human mobility is increasing in its volume, speed and reach, leading to the movement and introduction of pathogens through infected travelers. An understanding of how areas are connected, the strength of these connections and how this translates into disease spread is valuable for planning surveillance and designing control and elimination strategies. While analyses have been undertaken to identify and map connectivity in global air, shipping and migration networks, such analyses have yet to be undertaken on the road networks that carry the vast majority of travellers in low and middle income settings...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniel Barros de Castro, Vanderson Souza Sampaio, Bernardino Cláudio de Albuquerque, Rosemary Costa Pinto, Megumi Sadahiro, Ricardo Augusto Dos Passos, Cristiano Fernandes da Costa, José Ueleres Braga
BACKGROUND: Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease affecting humans. The frequency and magnitude of dengue epidemic have significantly increased over recent decades. This study aimed to identify dengue epidemic types and risk factors for the extensive epidemics that occurred in 2010-2011, across the municipalities of Amazonas state, Brazil. METHODS: Using an ecological approach, secondary data were obtained from the dengue fever surveillance system. Epidemic waves were classified according to three indices: duration, intensity, and coverage...
March 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
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