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Integrated Disease Surveillance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054268/saliva-exosomics-in-cancer-molecular-characterization-of-cancer-derived-exosomes-in-saliva
#1
Taichiro Nonaka, David T W Wong
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are secreted by most cells and detected in saliva. Pathophysiological roles for salivary exosomes are beginning to be recognized in diseases including cancer, highlighting potential biomarkers and biological functions. Since early detection of cancer is vital for successful treatment, salivary exosomes would be advantageous in achieving a better survival rate due to their ready availability and noninvasiveness. The use of salivary exosomes may therefore be promising in the accurate detection of premalignant lesions and early-stage cancers, also for better our understanding of the molecular basis of tumorigenesis...
2017: Enzymes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051571/a-new-cellular-type-in-invertebrates-first-evidence-of-telocytes-in-leech-hirudo-medicinalis
#2
Laura Pulze, Nicolò Baranzini, Rossana Girardello, Annalisa Grimaldi, Lidia Ibba-Manneschi, Enzo Ottaviani, Marcella Reguzzoni, Gianluca Tettamanti, Magda de Eguileor
Telocytes, a peculiar cell type, were recently found in vertebrates. Hence this cell system has been reported as ubiquitous in the bodies of mammals and interpreted as an important player in innate immunity and tissue regeneration, it is reasonable to look for it also in invertebrates, that rely their integrity solely by innate immunity. Here we describe, at morphological and functional level, invertebrate telocytes from the body of leech Hirudo medicinalis (Annelida), suggesting how these cells, forming a resident stromal 3D network, can influence or participate in different events...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045944/prevalence-estimates-of-rare-congenital-anomalies-by-integrating-two-population-based-registries-in-tuscany-italy
#3
Alessio Coi, Michele Santoro, Anna Pierini, Sonia Marrucci, Federica Pieroni, Fabrizio Bianchi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Population-based registries play a key role in the epidemiological surveillance of congenital anomalies (CAs). This study is aimed at improving the epidemiological surveillance and providing prevalence estimates of rare CAs using the Registry of Rare Diseases as an added data source to the Registry of Congenital Anomalies. METHODS: Cases of diagnosed rare CAs (2006-2013) were extracted from the Tuscany Registry of Rare Diseases and the Tuscany Registry of Congenital Anomalies in order to set up an integrated dataset...
September 19, 2017: Public Health Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027355/a-descriptive-analysis-of-rabies-post-exposure-prophylaxis-data-2013-ontario-canada
#4
D Middleton, J J Edwin, K O Johnson, B F Warshawsky
By 2013, the number of confirmed rabid animals in Ontario had decreased to unprecedented low numbers, yet the expected decrease in the number of courses of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (RPEP) administered did not occur consistent with the decrease in animal rabies cases (Figure ). This prompted a review of the reasons that RPEP was administered in Ontario. This study provides a descriptive analysis of the exposure incidents resulting in RPEP administration in Ontario during 2013 using data obtained from the integrated Public Health Information System, a Web-based disease surveillance system...
October 13, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026651/snvphyl-a-single-nucleotide-variant-phylogenomics-pipeline-for-microbial-genomic-epidemiology
#5
Aaron Petkau, Philip Mabon, Cameron Sieffert, Natalie C Knox, Jennifer Cabral, Mariam Iskander, Mark Iskander, Kelly Weedmark, Rahat Zaheer, Lee S Katz, Celine Nadon, Aleisha Reimer, Eduardo Taboada, Robert G Beiko, William Hsiao, Fiona Brinkman, Morag Graham, Gary Van Domselaar
The recent widespread application of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for microbial disease investigations has spurred the development of new bioinformatics tools, including a notable proliferation of phylogenomics pipelines designed for infectious disease surveillance and outbreak investigation. Transitioning the use of WGS data out of the research laboratory and into the front lines of surveillance and outbreak response requires user-friendly, reproducible and scalable pipelines that have been well validated...
June 30, 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026457/applications-of-information-and-communications-technologies-to-public-health-a-scoping-review-using-the-mesh-term-public-health-informatics
#6
Arjun Kumar Bhattarai, Aein Zarrin, Joon Lee
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the public health domains, key informatics concepts, and information and communications technologies (ICTs) applied in articles that are tagged with the MeSH term "public health informatics" and primarily focus on applying ICTs to public health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MeSH term "public health informatics" was searched on MEDLINE-PubMed. The results of the search were then screened in two steps in order to only include articles about applying ICTs to public health problems...
2017: Online Journal of Public Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023740/surveillance-and-monitoring-of-oral-health-in-elderly-people
#7
Hideo Miyazaki, Judith A Jones, Eugenio D Beltrán-Aguilar
Continued ageing of the global population is expected to pose significant challenges to maintaining optimum lifelong health in individuals and populations. Oral health is an essential element of general health and quality of life throughout an individual's life course, yet it is often neglected in integrated approaches to general health promotion. Surveillance and monitoring systems are essential for developing oral health policy and strategy at both national and community levels. As major oral diseases, dental caries and periodontal diseases are core indicators for surveillance at every stage of life...
September 2017: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023448/structural-host-microbiota-interaction-networks
#8
REVIEW
Emine Guven-Maiorov, Chung-Jung Tsai, Ruth Nussinov
Hundreds of different species colonize multicellular organisms making them "metaorganisms". A growing body of data supports the role of microbiota in health and in disease. Grasping the principles of host-microbiota interactions (HMIs) at the molecular level is important since it may provide insights into the mechanisms of infections. The crosstalk between the host and the microbiota may help resolve puzzling questions such as how a microorganism can contribute to both health and disease. Integrated superorganism networks that consider host and microbiota as a whole-may uncover their code, clarifying perhaps the most fundamental question: how they modulate immune surveillance...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022517/do-contamination-of-and-exposure-to-chicken-meat-and-water-drive-the-temporal-dynamics-of-campylobacter-cases
#9
J M David, F Pollari, K D M Pintar, A Nesbitt, A J Butler, A Ravel
Campylobacteriosis, the most frequent bacterial enteric disease, shows a clear yet unexplained seasonality. The study purpose was to explore the influence of seasonal fluctuation in the contamination of and in the behaviour exposures to two important sources of Campylobacter on the seasonality of campylobacteriosis. Time series analyses were applied to data collected through an integrated surveillance system in Canada in 2005-2010. Data included sporadic, domestically-acquired cases of Campylobacter jejuni infection, contamination of retail chicken meat and of surface water by C...
October 12, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017856/planning-an-innovation-marathon-at-an-infectious-disease-conference-with-results-from-the-imed-2016-hackathon
#10
John W Ramatowski, Christopher Xiang Lee, Aikaterini Mantzavino, João Ribas, Winter Guerra, Nicholas D Preston, Eva Schernhammer, Lawrence C Madoff, Britta Lassmann
A hackathon is best described as an "innovation marathon." Derived from the words "hacking" and "marathon," it brings together multi-disciplinary teams to collaborate intensely over a short period of time to define a problem, devise a solution, and design a working prototype. International scientific meetings are conducive to successful hackathons, providing an audience of expert professionals who describe challenges and ensure the proposed solutions address end-user needs. Collaborations with local organizations and academic centers are crucial to attracting complementary specialties such as IT advisors, engineers, and entrepreneurs to develop sustainable projects...
October 7, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992912/voluntary-monitoring-systems-for-pig-health-and-welfare-in-the-uk-comparative-analysis-of-prevalence-and-temporal-patterns-of-selected-non-respiratory-post-mortem-conditions
#11
C Correia-Gomes, J I Eze, J Borobia-Belsué, A W Tucker, D Sparrow, D Strachan, G J Gunn
Collection of abattoir data related to public health is common worldwide. Standardised on-going programmes that collect information from abattoirs that inform producers about the presence and frequency of disease that are important to them rather than public health hazards are less common. The three voluntary pig health schemes, implemented in the United Kingdom, are integrated systems which capture information on different macroscopic disease conditions detected in slaughtered pigs. Many of these conditions have been associated with a reduction in performance traits and consequent increases in production costs...
October 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992440/coping-with-protein-quality-control-failure
#12
Esther Pilla, Kim Schneider, Anne Bertolotti
Cells and organisms have evolved numerous mechanisms to cope with and to adapt to unexpected challenges and harsh conditions. Proteins are essential to perform the vast majority of cellular and organismal functions. To maintain a healthy proteome, cells rely on a network of factors and pathways collectively known as protein quality control (PQC) systems, which not only ensure that newly synthesized proteins reach a functional conformation but also are essential for surveillance, prevention, and rescue of protein defects...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991904/epidemiological-consequences-of-immune-sensitisation-by-pre-exposure-to-vector-saliva
#13
Tsukushi Kamiya, Megan A Greischar, Nicole Mideo
Blood-feeding arthropods-like mosquitoes, sand flies, and ticks-transmit many diseases that impose serious public health and economic burdens. When a blood-feeding arthropod bites a mammal, it injects saliva containing immunogenic compounds that facilitate feeding. Evidence from Leishmania, Plasmodium and arboviral infections suggests that the immune responses elicited by pre-exposure to arthropod saliva can alter disease progression if the host later becomes infected. Such pre-sensitisation of host immunity has been reported to both exacerbate and limit infection symptoms, depending on the system in question, with potential implications for recovery...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988169/predicting-the-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-incidence-using-search-engine-query-data-and-climate-variables-an-ecological-study-in-guangdong-china
#14
Zhicheng Du, Lin Xu, Wangjian Zhang, Dingmei Zhang, Shicheng Yu, Yuantao Hao
OBJECTIVES: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has caused a substantial burden in China, especially in Guangdong Province. Based on the enhanced surveillance system, we aimed to explore whether the addition of temperate and search engine query data improves the risk prediction of HFMD. DESIGN: Ecological study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Information on the confirmed cases of HFMD, climate parameters and search engine query logs was collected...
October 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983394/status-of-surveillance-and-routine-immunization-performances-in-amhara-region-ethiopia-findings-from-in-depth-peer-review
#15
Gebre Asmamaw Lakew, Eshetu Wassie, Ayesheshem Ademe, Ayalneh Fenta, Solomon Wube, Mihret Werede, Achenef Kidane, Leulseged Mekonnen, Teklehaimanot Gebre Hiwot, Kathleen Gallagher
INTRODUCTION: Trend analyses of non-polio AFP and stool adequacy rates in Amhara Region showed optimal performance over the years. However, sub regional gaps continue to persist in certain zones where the reasons for low performance were not well documented. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of the disease surveillance and immunization system in Amhara Region, Ethiopia with emphasis on low performing woredas and zones. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2-10, 2015 to assess the structure, core and support surveillance functions in five zones and two town administrations that were purposively sampled based on differing performances, geographic location, and history of vaccine preventable disease outbreaks among others...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974512/impact-of-the-commercialization-of-three-generic-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers-on-adverse-events-in-quebec-canada-a-population-based-time-series-analysis
#16
Jacinthe Leclerc, Claudia Blais, Louis Rochette, Denis Hamel, Line Guénette, Paul Poirier
BACKGROUND: Once the patent of a brand-name drug expires, generic drugs are commercialized, and substitution from brand-name to generics may occur. Generic drug equivalence is evaluated through comparative bioavailability studies. Few studies have assessed outcomes after generic drug commercialization at a population level. We evaluated the impact of 3 generic angiotensin II receptor blockers commercialization on adverse events: hospitalizations or emergency room consultations. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is an interrupted time series analysis using the Quebec Integrated Chronic Disease Surveillance System...
October 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973011/zika-beyond-the-americas-travelers-as-sentinels-of-zika-virus-transmission-a-geosentinel-analysis-2012-to-2016
#17
Karin Leder, Martin P Grobusch, Philippe Gautret, Lin H Chen, Susan Kuhn, Poh Lian Lim, Johnnie Yates, Anne E McCarthy, Camilla Rothe, Yasuyuki Kato, Emmanuel Bottieau, Kristina Huber, Eli Schwartz, William Stauffer, Denis Malvy, Marc T M Shaw, Christophe Rapp, Lucille Blumberg, Mogens Jensenius, Perry J J van Genderen, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) was first isolated in Africa; decades later, caused large outbreaks in the Pacific, and is considered endemic in Asia. We aim to describe ZIKV disease epidemiology outside the Americas, the importance of travelers as sentinels of disease transmission, and discrepancies in travel advisories from major international health organizations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This descriptive analysis using GeoSentinel Surveillance Network records involves sixty-four travel and tropical medicine clinics in 29 countries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968745/evaluation-of-bifenthrin-and-deltamethrin-barrier-sprays-for-mosquito-control-in-eastern-north-carolina
#18
Stephanie L Richards, Josh K Volkan, Jo Anne G Balanay, Kurt Vandock
Mosquitoes are a nuisance and potentially transmit pathogens causing numerous diseases worldwide. Homeowners and others may hire private companies to alleviate mosquito-related issues. Here, two pyrethroids (Suspend Polyzone [deltamethrin] and Bifen Insecticide/Termiticide [bifenthrin]) were evaluated on properties in North Carolina for 23 wk from 18 May through 19 October 2015. Properties were treated using backpack mist blowers every 21 d. At 17 fixed sampling locations, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention carbon dioxide-baited traps were deployed overnight once/week for the duration of the experiment...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965490/study-roadmap-for-high-throughput-development-of-easy-to-use-and-affordable-biomarkers-as-diagnostics-for-tropical-diseases-a-focus-on-malaria-and-schistosomiasis
#19
Kokouvi Kassegne, Ting Zhang, Shen-Bo Chen, Bin Xu, Zhi-Sheng Dang, Wang-Ping Deng, Eniola Michael Abe, Hai-Mo Shen, Wei Hu, Takele Geressu Guyo, Solomon Nwaka, Jun-Hu Chen, Xiao-Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Interventions are currently being used against 'infectious diseases of poverty', which remain highly debilitating and deadly in most endemic countries, especially malaria, schistosomiasis, echinococcosis and African sleeping sickness. However, major limitations of current 'traditional' methods for diagnosis are neither simple nor convenient for population surveillance, and showed low sensitivity and specificity. Access to novel technologies for the development of adequate and reliable tools are expressly needed...
October 2, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963161/tuberculosis-of-the-spine-with-severe-angular-kyphosis-mean-34-year-post-operative-follow-up-shows-that-prevention-is-better-than-salvage
#20
Y W Wong, D Samartzis, K M C Cheung, K Luk
AIMS: To address the natural history of severe post-tuberculous (TB) kyphosis, with focus upon the long-term neurological outcome, occurrence of restrictive lung disease, and the effect on life expectancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective clinical review of prospectively collected imaging data based at a single institute. A total of 24 patients of Southern Chinese origin who presented with spinal TB with a mean of 113° of kyphosis (65° to 159°) who fulfilled inclusion criteria were reviewed...
October 2017: Bone & Joint Journal
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