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Integrated Disease Surveillance

Rania F El Naggar, Mohammed A Rohaim, AbdelHamid H Bazid, Kawkab A Ahmed, Hussein A Hussein, Muhammad Munir
Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the type member of the species Avian avulavirus 1 (formerly known as avian paramyxovirus serotype 1), causes a highly contagious and economically important disease in a myriad of avian species around the globe. While extensive vaccination programs have been implemented in ND-endemic countries, the disease is continuously spreading in commercial, backyard, and wild captive poultry. In order to investigate the evolution of the virus and assess the efficiency of the vaccine regimens that are currently being applied in commercial poultry, four wild-bird-origin NDV strains were characterized biologically, based on mean death time and intracerebral pathogenicity index, and genetically, based on the cleavage motif (112 RRQKRF117 ) in the fusion (F) protein...
June 19, 2018: Archives of Virology
Olubunmi G Fasanmi, Olugbenga O Kehinde, Agnes T Laleye, Bassey Ekong, Syed S U Ahmed, Folorunso O Fasina
We conducted benefit-cost analysis of outbreak and surveillance costs for HPAI H5N1in poultry in Nigeria. Poultry's death directly cost US$ 939,734.0 due to outbreaks. The integrated disease surveillance and response originally created for comprehensive surveillance and laboratory investigation of human diseases was adapted for HPAI H5N1 in poultry. Input data were obtained from the field, government documents and repositories and peer-reviewed publications. Actual/forecasted bird numbers lost were integrated into a financial model and estimates of losses were calculated...
June 13, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Nicoletta Sias, Elisabetta Cellura, Virginia Mortara, Flavio Giacinti, Antonella Rulfi, Giustina Elena Soru, Attilio Businelli
OBJECTIVES: The operating model of health and safety protection in the workplace is a complex system made up of multiple integrated layers of intervention, achieved by various parties, organizations and institutions. The objective in this study was to verify the congruity and appropriateness of these specific interventions in the Genoa area, starting from a sample of reports of musculoskeletal diseases pursuant to Art. 139 TU 1124/1965 and to Art. 365 CP received in ASL3 between years 2004 and 2014...
November 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Anna Ruggieri, Elisabetta Straface, Eugenio Sorrentino
OBJECTIVES: Gender medicine is a multi-faceted field of investigation integrating various aspects of psycho-social and biological sciences but it mainly deals with the impact of the gender on human physiology, pathophysiology, and clinical features of diseases. In Italy, the Decree Law 81/2008 recently introduced the gender issue in the risk assessment at the workplaces. METHODS: This review briefly describes our current knowledge on gender medicine and on the Italian legislation in risk management...
November 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Kimberly M Fornace, Henry Surendra, Tommy Rowel Abidin, Ralph Reyes, Maria L M Macalinao, Gillian Stresman, Jennifer Luchavez, Riris A Ahmad, Supargiyono Supargiyono, Fe Espino, Chris J Drakeley, Jackie Cook
BACKGROUND: Identifying fine-scale spatial patterns of disease is essential for effective disease control and elimination programmes. In low resource areas without formal addresses, novel strategies are needed to locate residences of individuals attending health facilities in order to efficiently map disease patterns. We aimed to assess the use of Android tablet-based applications containing high resolution maps to geolocate individual residences, whilst comparing the functionality, usability and cost of three software packages designed to collect spatial information...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Benjamin F Arnold, Heather M Scobie, Jeffrey W Priest, Patrick J Lammie
Antibodies are unique among biomarkers in their ability to identify persons with protective immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases and to measure past exposure to diverse pathogens. Most infectious disease surveillance maintains a single-disease focus, but broader testing of existing serologic surveys with multiplex antibody assays would create new opportunities for integrated surveillance. In this perspective, we highlight multiple areas for potential synergy where integrated surveillance could add more value to public health efforts than the current trend of independent disease monitoring through vertical programs...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ridgely Fisk Green, Mary Ari, Katherine Kolor, W David Dotson, Scott Bowen, Nancy Habarta, Juan L Rodriguez, Lisa C Richardson, Muin J Khoury
Public health plays an important role in ensuring access to interventions that can prevent disease, including the implementation of evidence-based genomic recommendations. We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Science Impact Framework to trace the impact of public health activities and partnerships on the implementation of the 2009 Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention (EGAPP) Lynch Syndrome screening recommendation and the 2005 and 2013 United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing recommendations...
June 15, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Mohammad Sadnan Al Manir, Jon Haël Brenas, Christopher Jo Baker, Arash Shaban-Nejad
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, malaria surveillance is weakest in countries and regions with the highest malaria burden. A core obstacle is that the data required to perform malaria surveillance are fragmented in multiple data silos distributed across geographic regions. Furthermore, consistent integrated malaria data sources are few, and a low degree of interoperability exists between them. As a result, it is difficult to identify disease trends and to plan for effective interventions...
June 15, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Logan C Brooks, David C Farrow, Sangwon Hyun, Ryan J Tibshirani, Roni Rosenfeld
Accurate and reliable forecasts of seasonal epidemics of infectious disease can assist in the design of countermeasures and increase public awareness and preparedness. This article describes two main contributions we made recently toward this goal: a novel approach to probabilistic modeling of surveillance time series based on "delta densities", and an optimization scheme for combining output from multiple forecasting methods into an adaptively weighted ensemble. Delta densities describe the probability distribution of the change between one observation and the next, conditioned on available data; chaining together nonparametric estimates of these distributions yields a model for an entire trajectory...
June 15, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Abdulgafoor M Bachani, Nino Paichadze, Jacob A Bentley, Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye, David Bishai, Lynn Atuyambe, Stephen Wegener, David Guwatudde, Olive C Kobusingye, Adnan A Hyder
Problem: The burden of trauma and injuries in Uganda is substantial and growing. Two important gaps that need addressing are the shortage of trained people and a lack of national data on noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors in Uganda. Approach: We developed and implemented a new track within an existing master of public health programme, aimed at developing graduate-level capacity and promoting research on key national priorities for trauma and injuries...
June 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Lorenzo D Botto, Pierpaolo Mastroiacovo
Better outcomes are a priority for all those who care about birth defects and rare diseases. Public health surveillance and epidemiologic data tracking historically have provided good data on disease occurrence but at most uncertain value in promoting better outcomes, be these in terms of supporting primary prevention or better care. We propose three enhancements to improve the value of surveillance. First, merge: eliminate the largely artificial separation between birth defects and rare diseases in surveillance...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Kathryn G Curran, Emma Wells, Samuel J Crowe, Rupa Narra, Jared Oremo, Waqo Boru, Jane Githuku, Mark Obonyo, Kevin M De Cock, Joel M Montgomery, Lyndah Makayotto, Daniel Langat, Sara A Lowther, Ciara O'Reilly, Zeinab Gura, Jackson Kioko
BACKGROUND: From December 2014 to September 2016, a cholera outbreak in Kenya, the largest since 2010, caused 16,840 reported cases and 256 deaths. The outbreak affected 30 of Kenya's 47 counties and occurred shortly after the decentralization of many healthcare services to the county level. This mixed-methods study, conducted June-July 2015, assessed cholera preparedness in Homa Bay, Nairobi, and Mombasa counties and explored clinic- and community-based health care workers' (HCW) experiences during outbreak response...
June 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
Vivienne C Bachelet
OBJECTIVE: To characterise work-related fatal events that occurred in Chile in 2014 and 2015 in workers covered by the Occupational Accidents and Professional Disease No 16.744 Act. DESIGN: Cross-sectional on registries of the Chilean Worker's Health and Safety National Information System, specifically focusing on the Fatal Work Accidents Registry of the Social Security Superintendence. STUDY POPULATION: Secondary data analysis on all 815 cases of occupational injury-related deaths registered in 2014 and 2015 in Chile and that were accredited by the Social Security Superintendence up to March 2016...
June 9, 2018: BMJ Open
Nicole M Bhave, Christoph A Nienaber, Rachel E Clough, Kim A Eagle
In diagnosing and following patients with acute aortic syndromes and thoracic aortic aneurysms, high-quality imaging of the thoracic aorta is indispensable. Mainstay modalities for thoracic aortic imaging are echocardiography, computed tomographic angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography. For any given clinical scenario, the imaging modality and protocol chosen will have a significant impact on sensitivity and specificity for the aortic diagnosis of concern. Imaging can also provide important ancillary information regarding myocardial performance, aortic valve morphology and function, and end-organ perfusion...
June 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Sandra Franco-Iborra, Miquel Vila, Celine Perier
In recent years, several important advances have been made in our understanding of the pathways that lead to cell dysfunction and death in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). Despite distinct clinical and pathological features, these two neurodegenerative diseases share critical processes, such as the presence of misfolded and/or aggregated proteins, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial anomalies. Even though the mitochondria are commonly regarded as the "powerhouses" of the cell, they are involved in a multitude of cellular events such as heme metabolism, calcium homeostasis, and apoptosis...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Saro H Armenian, Gregory T Armstrong, Gregory Aune, Eric J Chow, Matthew J Ehrhardt, Bonnie Ky, Javid Moslehi, Daniel A Mulrooney, Paul C Nathan, Thomas D Ryan, Helena J van der Pal, Elvira C van Dalen, Leontien C M Kremer
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes cardiomyopathy/heart failure, coronary artery disease, stroke, pericardial disease, arrhythmias, and valvular and vascular dysfunction, is a major concern for long-term survivors of childhood cancer. There is clear evidence of increased risk of CVD largely attributable to treatment exposures at a young age, most notably anthracycline chemotherapy and chest-directed radiation therapy, and compounded by traditional cardiovascular risk factors accrued during decades after treatment exposure...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Jessica Clymer, Mark W Kieran
Dramatic advances in the molecular analysis of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma have occurred over the last decade and resulted in the identification of potential therapeutic targets. In spite of these advances, no significant improvement in the outcome has been achieved and median survival remains approximately 10 months. An understanding of the approaches that have been taken to date, why they failed, and how that information can lead the field forward is critical if we are to change the status quo . In this review, we will discuss the clinical trial landscape in North America with an overview of historical approaches that failed and what might account for this failure...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Wei-Ting Lai, Chien-Hsiun Chen, Hsin Hung, Ray-Bing Chen, Sanjay Shete, Chih-Chieh Wu
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is the most common arboviral infection in humans, with viral transmissions occurring in more than 100 countries in tropical regions. A global strategy for dengue prevention and control was established more than 10 years ago. However, the factors that drive the transmission of the dengue virus and subsequent viral infection continue unabated. The largest dengue outbreaks in Taiwan since World War II occurred in two recent successive years: 2014 and 2015. METHODS: We performed a systematic analysis to detect and recognize spatial and temporal clustering patterns of dengue incidence in geographical areas of Taiwan, using the map-based pattern recognition procedure and scan test...
June 4, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo, Mariângela Carneiro, Alberto Novaes Ramos, Jorg Heukelbach, Antonio Luiz Pinho Ribeiro, Guilherme Loureiro Werneck
BACKGROUND: Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are important causes of morbidity, disability, and mortality among poor and vulnerable populations in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. We present the burden of NTDs in Brazil from 1990 to 2016 based on findings from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016). METHODOLOGY: We extracted data from GBD 2016 to assess years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for NTDs by sex, age group, causes, and Brazilian states, from 1990 to 2016...
June 4, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Holly B Bratcher, Carina Brehony, Sigrid Heuberger, Despo Pieridou-Bagatzouni, Pavla Křížová, Steen Hoffmann, Maija Toropainen, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Heike Claus, Georgina Tzanakaki, Tímea Erdôsi, Jelena Galajeva, Arie van der Ende, Anna Skoczyńska, Marina Pana, Alena Vaculíková, Metka Paragi, Martin Cj Maiden, Dominique A Caugant
Invasive meningococcal disease surveillance in Europe combines isolate characterisation and epidemiological data to support public health intervention. A representative European Meningococcal Strain Collection (EMSC) of IMD isolates was obtained, and whole genome sequenced to characterise 799 EMSC isolates from the epidemiological year July 2011-June 2012. To establish a genome library (GL), the isolate information was deposited in the database. Genomes were curated and annotated at 2,429 meningococcal loci, including those defining clonal complex, capsule, antigens, and antimicrobial resistance...
May 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
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