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Jorge Castro
This paper reviews the main modeling techniques for stone columns, both ordinary stone columns and geosynthetic-encased stone columns. The paper tries to encompass the more recent advances and recommendations in the topic. Regarding the geometrical model, the main options are the "unit cell", longitudinal gravel trenches in plane strain conditions, cylindrical rings of gravel in axial symmetry conditions, equivalent homogeneous soil with improved properties and three-dimensional models, either a full three-dimensional model or just a three-dimensional row or slice of columns...
July 11, 2017: Materials
P T Saheli, R K Rowe, E J Petersen, D M O'Carroll
The new applications for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in various fields and consequently their greater production volume have increased their potential release to the environment. Landfills are one of the major locations where carbon nanotubes are expected to be disposed and it is important to ensure that they can limit the release of CNTs. Diffusion of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) dispersed in an aqueous media through a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane (as a part of the landfill barrier system) was examined...
May 2017: Geosynth Int
Barbara Vé Wiewel, Marja Lamoree
Geosynthetics is the umbrella term for thin, flexible material sheets applied in civil and environmental engineering, of which geotextiles form the largest group. Most geotextiles consist of a polymer from the polyolefin, polyester or polyamide family, and additives to improve their stability. The polymer may degrade into microplastic particles over time and under various conditions and can cause adverse effects, as species may ingest these particles or encounter adverse effects due to the interference of the particles with e...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Mohamad Jamali Moghadam, Hossein Moayedi, Masoud Mirmohamad Sadeghi, Alborz Hajiannia
Anthropogenic activities contaminate many lands and underground waters with dangerous materials. Although polluted soils occupy small parts of the land, the risk they pose to plants, animals, humans, and groundwater is too high. Remediation technologies have been used for many years in order to mitigate pollution or remove pollutants from soils. However, there are some deficiencies in the remediation in complex site conditions such as low permeability and complex composition of some clays or heterogeneous subsurface conditions...
December 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Haijian Xie, Yuansheng Jiang, Chunhua Zhang, Shijin Feng, Zhanhong Qiu
One-dimensional mathematical models were developed for organic contaminant transport through landfill composite liners consisting of a geomembrane (GM) and a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) or a GM and a compacted clay liner (CCL). The combined effect of leakage through GM defects, diffusion in GM and the underlying soil liners, and degradation in soil liners were considered. Steady state analytical solutions were provided for the proposed mathematical models, which consider the different combinations of advection, diffusion, and degradation...
August 2015: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Haijian Xie, Yuansheng Jiang, Chunhua Zhang, Shijin Feng
An analytical model for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) transport through a composite liner consisting of a geomembrane (GM), a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), and a soil liner (SL) was developed for the assessment of the performance of this triple liner system. Both advection through the defects of GM and diffusion in the intact GM were considered in the model, and dimensionless analytical solution was obtained. The soil concentration profiles obtained by the proposed analytical solution have a good agreement with those obtained by the finite-layer-based software POLLUTE v7...
February 2015: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kang Fei
The inclusion of geosynthetic reinforcement in the piled embankment can help transfer loads to the piles and reduce total and differential settlements. In order to select the appropriate reinforcement material, the reasonable calculation of the deflection and tension is very important. Current design methods usually do not represent the true three-dimensional (3D) nature of the displacements, strains, and stresses of the geosynthetics, and the resulting error may be large and cannot be neglected in some cases...
2014: TheScientificWorldJournal
Hamid Sarabadani, Mohammad T Rayhani
Geosynthetic clay liners are used as part of composite liner systems in municipal solid waste landfills and other applications to restrict the escape of contaminants into the surrounding environment. This is attainable provided that the geosynthetic clay liner panels continuously cover the subsoil. Previous case histories, however, have shown that some geosynthetic clay liner panels are prone to significant shrinkage and separation when an overlying geomembrane is exposed to solar radiation. Experimental models were initiated to evaluate the potential shrinkage of different geosynthetic clay liner products placed over sand and clay subsoils, subjected to simulated daily thermal cycles (60°C for 8 hours and 22°C for 16 hours) modelling field conditions in which the liner is exposed to solar radiation...
June 2014: Waste Management & Research
Ping Wang, Zhenqi Hu, Peijun Wang
In the subsided areas backfilled with coal gangue, an issue of continuing environmental concern is the migration of hazardous metals to the subsurface soil and groundwater. As an effective isolation material, geosynthetics have been scarcely applied into mining areas reclamation of China. This paper describes research aimed at characterizing the behaviours of different geosynthetics in the leaching columns filled with coal gangues. Four types of geosynthetics were selected: fibres needle-punched nonwoven geotextiles, high-density polyethylene, needle-punched Na-bentonite geosynthetic clay liner (GCL-NP) and Na-bentonite geosynthetic-overbited film...
September 2013: Environmental Technology
Sina Mirzapour Mounes, Mohamed Rehan Karim, Ali Khodaii, Mohammad Hadi Almasi
A pavement structure consists of several layers for the primary purpose of transmitting and distributing traffic loads to the subgrade. Rutting is one form of pavement distresses that may influence the performance of road pavements. Geosynthetics is one type of synthetic materials utilized for improving the performance of pavements against rutting. Various studies have been conducted on using different geosynthetic materials in pavement structures by different researchers. One of the practices is a reinforcing material in asphalt pavements...
2014: TheScientificWorldJournal
C Guan, H J Xie, Y Z Wang, Y M Chen, Y S Jiang, X W Tang
An analytical model for solute advection and dispersion in a two-layered liner consisting of a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) and a soil liner (SL) considering the effect of biodegradation was proposed. The analytical solution was derived by Laplace transformation and was validated over a range of parameters using the finite-layer method based software Pollute v7.0. Results show that if the half-life of the solute in GCL is larger than 1 year, the degradation in GCL can be neglected for solute transport in GCL/SL...
January 1, 2014: Science of the Total Environment
Qian Zhao, Susan E Burns
Organoclays are highly sorptive engineered materials that can be used as amendments in barrier systems or geosynthetic liners. The performance of confining and isolating the nonpolar organic contaminants by those barrier/lining systems is essentially controlled by the process of organic contaminant mass transport in nanopores of organoclays. In this article, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the sorption and diffusion of organic sorbates in interlayers of sodium montmorillonite and hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA(+))-modified montmorillonite clays...
March 19, 2013: Environmental Science & Technology
Arden Barclay, Mohammad T Rayhani
Geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) have gained popularity as a barrier system in modern landfill construction. As such, it is depended upon to provide a level of impermeability to prevent the escape of contaminants into the surrounding soil and groundwater. It has been proven that a GCL's hydraulic conductivity is closely related to its moisture content. GCLs are known to absorb moisture from the underlying soil after installation. In a landfill, temperatures near the liner can reach upwards of 55ºC. The effect of these elevated temperatures on the hydration process of the GCL was determined for two types of GCL over two types of subsoil: sand and clay...
March 2013: Waste Management & Research
Tahmineh Sarabian, Mohammad T Rayhani
Use of Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCLs) in landfill barrier design has been the focus of recent studies investigating their ability to prevent contaminant transport to groundwater. In this paper, the hydration of two GCL products placed in contact with clay subsoils at different initial moisture contents is described under both isothermal conditions at room temperature, and daily thermal cycles. The rate of hydration of the GCL and its final equilibrium moisture content were significantly influenced by the amount of moisture made available to it through the subsoil...
January 2013: Waste Management
Edwin Safari, Mahdi Jalili Ghazizade, Mohammad Ali Abdoli
Compacted clay liners (CCLs) when feasible, are preferred to composite geosynthetic liners. The thickness of CCLs is typically prescribed by each country's environmental protection regulations. However, considering the fact that construction of CCLs represents a significant portion of overall landfill construction costs; a performance based design of liner thickness would be preferable to 'one size fits all' prescriptive standards. In this study researchers analyzed the hydraulic behaviour of a compacted clayey soil in three laboratory pilot scale columns exposed to high strength leachate under simulated landfill conditions...
September 2012: Waste Management & Research
L Yu, F Batlle
Limited space for accommodating the ever increasing mounds of municipal solid waste (MSW) demands the capacity of MSW landfill be maximized by building landfills to greater heights with steeper slopes. This situation has raised concerns regarding the stability of high MSW landfills. A hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis based on the finite element stress analysis was applied in a case study at a MSW landfill in north-east Spain. Potential slides can be assumed to be located within the waste mass due to the lack of weak foundation soils and geosynthetic membranes at the landfill base...
December 2011: Waste Management
Wolf-Ulrich Henken-Mellies, Andreas Schweizer
A comprehensive study was conducted to examine the performance and possible changes in the effectiveness of landfill surface covers. Three different profiles of mineral landfill caps were examined. The results of precipitation and flow measurements show distinct seasonal differences which are typical for middle-European climatic conditions. In the case of the simple landfill cap design consisting of a thick layer of loamy sand, approximately 100-200 L m(-2) of annual seepage into the landfill body occurs during winter season...
January 2011: Waste Management & Research
E Gomez-Ullate, J R Bayon, S Coupe, D Castro-Fresno
Pervious pavements are drainage techniques that improve urban water management in a sustainable manner. An experimental pervious pavement parking area has been constructed in the north of Spain (Santander), with the aim of harvesting good quality rainwater. Forty-five pervious pavement structures have been designed and constructed to measure stored water quantity and quality simultaneously. Ten of these structures are specifically constructed with different geotextile layers for improving water storage within the pavements...
2010: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Gary J Foose
New adaptations of analytical equations for predicting the impact of solute transport through composite landfill liners on groundwater quality for steady-state conditions are presented. Analytical equations are developed for evaluating average concentration and mass flow rate in an underlying aquifer resulting from diffusion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) through intact composite liners and transport of inorganic constituents through defects in composite liners. The equations are applied to evaluate the effectiveness and equivalency of composite liners having either a 0...
August 2010: Waste Management
Haijian Xie, Yunmin Chen, Han Ke, Xiaowu Tang, Renpeng Chen
The equivalence between multilayered barriers regarding diffusion and adsorption was studied. The bottom boundary of the liner system is defined by assuming concentration continuous and flux continuous conditions of the contaminant between the bottom liner layer and the underlying soil. Five different liner systems were compared in terms of solute breakthrough time. The results of the analysis showed that breakthrough time of the hydrophobic organic compounds for a 2-meter-thick compacted clay liner (CCL) could be 3-4 orders of magnitude is greater than the breakthrough time for a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) composite liner...
2009: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
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