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ARI AND polyol

Ajmer Singh Grewal, Shashikant Bhardwaj, Deepti Pandita, Viney Lather, Bhupinder Singh Sekhon
Diabetes mellitus occurrence has been associated to the modification of the physiological levels of glucose and is often accompanied by several long-term complications, namely neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, cataract, and cardiovascular. Aldose reductase (AR) is an enzyme of aldoketo reductase super-family that catalyzes the conversion of glucose to sorbitol in the polyol pathway of glucose metabolism. In this context, aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) have received much attention worldwide. Decreased sorbitol flux through polyol pathway by ARIs could be an emerging target for the management of major complications of diabetes...
2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Saumya Pandey
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Targeting autophagic cell death is emerging as a novel strategy in cancer chemotherapy. Aldose reductase (AR) catalyzes the rate limiting step of the polyol pathway of glucose metabolism; besides reducing glucose to sorbitol, AR reduces lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes and their glutathione conjugates. A complex interplay between autophagic cell death and/or survival may in turn govern tumor metastasis...
2015: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Changhe Zhang, Changjun Huang, Yuan Tian, Xiangcheng Li
BACKGROUND: The polyol pathway, a bypass pathway of glucose metabolism initiated by aldose reductase (AR), has been shown to play an important role in mediating tissue ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) impairment recently. Here, we investigated how and why this pathway might affect the fatty liver following I/R. METHODS: Two opposite models were created: mice with high-fat-diet-induced liver steatosis were treated with aldose reductase inhibition (ARI) and subsequent I/R; and AR-overexpressing L02 hepatocytes were sequentially subjected to steatosis and hypoxia/reoxygenation...
2014: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Xin Hu, Shengbing Li, Gangyi Yang, Hua Liu, Guenther Boden, Ling Li
BACKGROUND: Aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) can block the metabolism of the polyol pathway, and have been used to slow or reverse the progression of diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (DCAN). The purpose of this study was to review the effectiveness and safety of ARIs in the treatment of DCAN as determined by five cardiac autonomic neuropathy function tests. METHODS: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus databases (inception to May 2012) were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized controlled trials (non-RCTs) investigating ARIs for the treatment of DCAN with an English-language restriction...
2014: PloS One
Peng Zhang, Zifeng Zhang, Peter F Kador
PURPOSE: Recent studies report that growth factor and signaling changes in rat lenses do not directly result from the presence of diabetes or sorbitol/galactitol (polyol) formation/accumulation, but from secondary osmotic changes associated with the aldose reductase (AR) catalyzed polyol formation. AR is also present in rat retinal pericyte and endothelial cells; however, significant polyol formation only occurs in pericytes and this does not appear to be linked to osmotic changes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether polyol formation and AR activity are similarly linked to growth factor and signaling changes in the rat capillary cells despite the apparent absence of osmotic stress...
February 2014: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Ciddi Veeresham, Ajmeera Rama Rao, Kaleab Asres
Diabetic complications are attributed to hyperglycaemic condition which is in turn associated with the polyol pathway and advanced glycation end products. Aldose reductase (AR) is the principal enzyme of polyol pathway which plays a vital role in the development of diabetic complications. AR inhibitory activity can be screened by both in vitro and in vivo methods. In vitro assays for AR enzyme are further classified on the basis of the source of enzyme such as rat lens, rat kidney, cataracted human eye lens, bovine eyes and human recombinant AR enzymes, whereas the in vivo model is based on the determination of lens galactitol levels...
March 2014: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Peng Zhang, Kuiyi Xing, James Randazzo, Karen Blessing, Marjorie F Lou, Peter F Kador
In sugar cataract formation in rats, aldose reductase (AR) activity is not only linked to lenticular sorbitol (diabetic) or galactitol (galactosemic) formation but also to signal transduction changes, cytotoxic signals and activation of apoptosis. Using both in vitro and in vivo techniques, the interrelationship between AR activity, polyol (sorbitol and galactitol) formation, osmotic stress, growth factor induction, and cell signaling changes have been investigated. For in vitro studies, lenses from Sprague Dawley rats were cultured for up to 48 h in TC-199-bicarbonate media containing either 30 mM fructose (control), or 30 mM glucose or galactose with/without the aldose reductase inhibitors AL1576 or tolrestat, the sorbitol dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDI) CP-470,711, or 15 mM mannitol (osmotic-compensated media)...
August 2012: Experimental Eye Research
Ciddi Veeresham, Ettireddy Swetha, Ajmeera Rama Rao, Kaleab Asres
Aldose reductase is the first enzyme in the polyol pathway and catalyzes the reduction of glucose to sorbitol by coupling with the oxidation of NADPH to NADP(+) . This sorbitol accumulation leads to various diabetic complications, including neuropathy, nephropathy, cataracts, and retinopathy. In the present study, aldose reductase inhibitory (ARI) activity of the methanolic as well as standardized extracts of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees (Acanthaceae) and its chief constituent, andrographolide, were studied using in vitro and in vivo methods...
March 2013: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Liping Zou, Wenjuan Wang, Zude Xu, Nong Zhang, Tao Jiang
Aldose reductase (AR), the first and the rate-limiting enzyme of the polyol pathway, has been implicated in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced proliferation of rat mesangial cells (MsCs). It is well known that AR plays an important role in various chronic diabetic complications, for example, diabetic nephropathy. Moreover, our previous studies have demonstrated that an AR inhibitor (ARI) significantly reduced the proliferation of rat MsCs induced by PDGF, however, the mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms through which AR regulates PDGF-induced rat MsC proliferation...
August 2012: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Hyun Ah Jung, Hye Eun Moon, Sang Ho Oh, Byung-Woo Kim, Hee Sook Sohn, Jae Sue Choi
Aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) suppressing the hyperglycemia-induced polyol pathway have been provided as potential therapeutic candidates in the treatment and prevention of diabetic complications. Based upon structure-activity relationships of desmethylanhydroicaritin (1) and sophoflavescenol (2) as promising ARIs, 3,4'-dihydroxy flavonols with a prenyl or lavandulyl group at the C-8 position and a hydroxyl or methoxy group at the C-5 position are important for aldose reductase (AR) inhibition. In order to prove the above results, a combination of computational prediction and enzyme kinetics has begun to emerge as an effective screening technique for the potential...
May 30, 2012: Chemico-biological Interactions
Jagdish C Patra, Boon H Chua
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease involving the failure to regulate glucose blood levels in the body and has been linked with numerous detrimental complications. Studies have shown that these complications can be linked to the activities of aldose reductase (AR), an enzyme of the polyol pathway. Flavonoids have been identified as good AR inhibitors (ARIs) and are also strong antioxidants with radical scavenging (RS) activity. As such, flavonoids show potential to become a better class of ARIs because they are able to concurrently address the oxidative stress issue...
March 2011: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Soroku Yagihashi, Hiroki Mizukami, Saori Ogasawara, Shin-Ichiro Yamagishi, Hitoshi Nukada, Noriaki Kato, Chihiro Hibi, Sookja Chung, Stephen Chung
The polyol pathway, a collateral glycolytic process, previously considered to be active in high glucose milieu, has recently been proposed to play a crucial role in ischaemia/reperfusion tissue injury. In this study, we explored the role of the polyol pathway in acute kidney injury (AKI), a life-threatening condition, caused by hindlimb ischaemia, and determined if inhibition of the polyol pathway by aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor is beneficial for this serious disorder. Mice 8 weeks of age rendered hindlimb ischaemic for 3 h by the clipping of major supporting arteries revealed marked muscle necrosis with accumulation of sorbitol and fructose in ischaemic muscles...
April 2010: Journal of Pathology
Wai Ho Tang, Gennadi M Kravtsov, Martina Sauert, Xiao Yong Tong, Xiu Yun Hou, Tak Ming Wong, Sookja K Chung, Stephen Sum Man Chung
A number of studies have shown that the polyol pathway, consisting of aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), contributes to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced myocardial infarction due to depletion of ATP. In this report we show that the polyol pathway in I/R heart also contributes to the impairment of sacro/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) and ryanodine receptor (RyR), two key players in Ca(2+) signaling that regulate cardiac contraction. Rat hearts were isolated and retrogradely perfused with either Krebs' buffer containing 1 microM AR inhibitor, zopolrestat, or 200 nM SDH inhibitor, CP-170,711, and challenged by 30 min of regional ischemia and 45 min of reperfusion...
July 2010: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Takeshi Tomomatsu, Yoshihiro Takamura, Eri Kubo, Yoshio Akagi
AIMS: We investigated the preventive effect of aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) on the adhesion of SV40-transformed human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) exposed to high glucose, and the underlying mechanism focusing on the role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-10. METHODS: HCECs were cultured in medium containing a normal (5.5 mM) or high (31.2 mM) concentration of D-glucose in the presence or absence of ARI, fidarestat. Cell attachment ability was evaluated by short-term adhesion assay...
October 2009: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Erif E M Setyawan, Trevor G Cooper, Dyah A Widiasih, Aris Junaidi, Ching-Hei Yeung
The hypothesis that addition and removal of cryoprotectants to and from spermatozoa would initiate regulatory volume decrease, and lead to osmolyte loss and reduced sperm function, was tested. Common cryoprotectants, in the absence of freezing and thawing, affected bovine ejaculated spermatozoa by lowering their total and progressive motility in medium, reducing their migration through surrogate cervical mucus, damaging sperm head membranes and inducing sperm tail coiling. Sperm function was slightly better maintained after cryoprotectants were added and removed in multiple small steps rather than in a single step...
September 2009: Asian Journal of Andrology
Polyxeni Alexiou, Kyriaki Pegklidou, Maria Chatzopoulou, Ioannis Nicolaou, Vassilis J Demopoulos
Aldose reductase enzyme (ALR2) of the polyol metabolic pathway, apart from its role as detoxifying enzyme towards toxic aldehydes, osmoregulator in the kidney and regulator of sperm maturation, was first found to be implicated in the etiology of the long term diabetic complications. However, to date, emerging reports have suggested that under normal glucose concentration, ALR2 may be up-regulated by factors other than hyperglycemia and therefore be involved also in other pathological processes that have become major threats to human health in the 21(st) century...
2009: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Hirotaka Nambu, Eri Kubo, Yoshihiro Takamura, Shosai Tsuzuki, Miyuki Tamura, Yoshio Akagi
AIMS: A major contributory factor to diabetic cataract formation is increased aldose reductase (AR) activity in the polyol pathway. We investigated the effects of aldose reductase inhibition by RNA interference (RNAi) of the aldose reductase gene and administration of an aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) on the changes induced by high glucose levels in rat lens epithelial cells (RLECs). METHODS: Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were designed to target the coding sequence of rat AR-siRNA...
October 2008: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Yoshihiro Takamura, Takeshi Tomomatsu, Eri Kubo, Syousai Tsuzuki, Yoshio Akagi
PURPOSE: The selective degeneration of pericytes and the proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs) appear to be associated with microaneurysm formation, an initial deficit in the early stage of diabetic retinopathy. The preventive effect of aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor (ARI) for high glucose-induced pericyte loss and EC growth was investigated. METHODS: The effect of high glucose (30 mM) exposure in the presence or absence of ARI for the cell growth of porcine pericytes and ECs was examined with the use of an in vitro coculture system to mimic the interaction between pericytes and ECs...
July 2008: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Peter J Oates
Aldose reductase (AR) enzymatically transforms cytosolic glucose into sorbitol, a molecule that poorly penetrates cell membranes and is sometimes slowly metabolized. Hyperglycemia can cause intracellular accumulation of sorbitol and its metabolite, fructose, which can create osmotic swelling and cell dysfunction. Driven by this simple paradigm, the "Osmotic Hypothesis," and armed with positive pre-clinical results on prototype AR inhibitors (ARIs), researchers worldwide have targeted diabetic neuropathy with ARIs for four decades...
January 2008: Current Drug Targets
Holger Steuber, Paul Czodrowski, Christoph A Sotriffer, Gerhard Klebe
To prevent diabetic complications derived from enhanced glucose flux via the polyol pathway the development of aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) has been established as a promising therapeutic concept. Here, we study the binding process of inhibitors to aldose reductase (ALR2) with respect to changes of the protonation inventory upon complex formation. Knowledge of such processes is a prerequisite to factorize the binding free energy into enthalpic and entropic contributions on an absolute scale. Our isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurements suggest a proton uptake upon complex formation with carboxylate-type inhibitors...
November 9, 2007: Journal of Molecular Biology
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