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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527509/impact-of-qi-invigorating-traditional-chinese-medicines-on-intestinal-flora-a-basis-for-rational-choice-of-prebiotics
#1
REVIEW
Xiao-Meng Wang, Xiao-Bo Li, Ying Peng
According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Qi (vital energy) is regarded as a driving force of biological activities in human body, including both nutrient substances and organ functions. Qi-invigorating TCMs are widely used to treat various symptoms and disorders, such as fatigue, obesity, immunosuppression, intestinal flora imbalance, and gastrointestinal diseases, in which Qi is considered to be reduced or depleted. Interestingly, abundant clinical evidences suggest that these disorders are associated with the alternation of intestinal flora, which directly affects disease status...
April 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526852/health-benefit-of-vegetable-fruit-juice-based-diet-role-of-microbiome
#2
Susanne M Henning, Jieping Yang, Paul Shao, Ru-Po Lee, Jianjun Huang, Austin Ly, Mark Hsu, Qing-Yi Lu, Gail Thames, David Heber, Zhaoping Li
The gut microbiota is an important contributor to human health. Vegetable/fruit juices provide polyphenols, oligosaccharides, fiber and nitrate (beet juice), which may induce a prebiotic-like effect. Juice-based diets are becoming popular. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence of their health benefits. It was our hypothesis that changes in the intestinal microbiota induced by a juice-based diet play an important role in their health benefits. Twenty healthy adults consumed only vegetable/fruit juices for 3 days followed by 14 days of customary diet...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521687/diet-and-contaminants-driving-the-rise-to-obesity-epidemics
#3
Agostino Di Ciaula, Piero Portincasa
The obesity epidemic is spreading worldwide without reversal trend and despite specific policies oriented to dietary habits and lifestyle, which seem to have modest effects. Genetic factors only partly explain the rise, whereas environmental factors seem to play a key role, mainly by gene-environment interactions through epigenetic mechanisms. A number of animal and human studies point to maternal diet, intestinal microbiota and chemicals introduced as contaminants with food, all factors able to increase the risk of obesity...
May 17, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521318/breastfeeding-childhood-asthma-and-allergic-disease
#4
Wendy H Oddy
The worldwide prevalence of childhood asthma has been increasing considerably, and the protection afforded by breastfeeding in its development has been the subject of controversy for more than 80 years. Previous systematic reviews have generally found a protective effect of breastfeeding on allergic outcomes, although many studies have methodological limitations. Although breastfeeding is protective against lower respiratory tract infection during infancy, such protection has not been demonstrated for asthma in all studies...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512250/introduction-to-the-human-gut-microbiota
#5
REVIEW
Elizabeth Thursby, Nathalie Juge
The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbours a complex and dynamic population of microorganisms, the gut microbiota, which exert a marked influence on the host during homeostasis and disease. Multiple factors contribute to the establishment of the human gut microbiota during infancy. Diet is considered as one of the main drivers in shaping the gut microbiota across the life time. Intestinal bacteria play a crucial role in maintaining immune and metabolic homeostasis and protecting against pathogens. Altered gut bacterial composition (dysbiosis) has been associated with the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases and infections...
May 16, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511646/emergence-of-microbial-diversity-due-to-cross-feeding-interactions-in-a-spatial-model-of-gut-microbial-metabolism
#6
Milan J A van Hoek, Roeland M H Merks
BACKGROUND: The human gut contains approximately 10(14) bacteria, belonging to hundreds of different species. Together, these microbial species form a complex food web that can break down nutrient sources that our own digestive enzymes cannot handle, including complex polysaccharides, producing short chain fatty acids and additional metabolites, e.g., vitamin K. Microbial diversity is important for colonic health: Changes in the composition of the microbiota have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, obesity and Crohn's disease, and make the microbiota more vulnerable to infestation by harmful species, e...
May 16, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506730/-the-human-gut-microbiota-interactions-with-the-host-and-dysfunctions
#7
P Lepage
The human intestinal microbiota is composed of approximately 100,000 billion microorganisms with the average total number of different commensal bacterial species estimated at over 500 per individual. The human intestinal microbiota can be considered as an organ within another, which co-evolved with its host to achieve a symbiotic relationship leading to physiological homeostasis. The host provides an environment enriched in nutrients and the microbiota provides essential functions. Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota (changes in bacterial composition) has been associated with local dysfunctions of the gastrointestinal tract, such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome but also with obesity and metabolic diseases...
May 12, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506638/ionic-liquid-based-reagents-improve-the-stability-of-midterm-fecal-sample-storage
#8
Lilan Hao, Zhongkui Xia, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Mo Han
Fecal samples are widely used in metagenomic research, which aims to elucidate the relationship between human health and the intestinal microbiota. However, the best conditions for stable and reliable storage and transport of these samples at room temperature are still unknown, and whether samples stored at room temperature for several days will maintain their microbiota composition is still unknown. Here, we established and tested a preservation method using reagents containing imidazolium- or pyridinium-based ionic liquids...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505492/comprehensive-evaluation-of-scfa-production-in-the-intestinal-bacteria-regulated-by-berberine-using-gas-chromatography-combined-with-polymerase-chain-reaction
#9
Lu-Lu Wang, Hui-Hui Guo, Shuai Huang, Chen-Lin Feng, Yan-Xing Han, Jian-Dong Jiang
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) of intestine microbial have caught accumulating attention for their beneficial effects on human health. Botanic compounds with low bioavailability such as berberine (BBR) and resveratrol might interact with intestinal microbial ecosystem and promote gut bacteria to produce SCFA, which contribute to their biological effects. In the present study, a comprehensive assay system was built to detect SCFAs production in intestinal bacteria, in which stringent anaerobic culture was applied for in vitro bacterial fermentation, followed by direct-injection GC detection (chemical detection) in combination with real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, biological detection)...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504576/is-the-role-of-human-female-reproductive-tract-microbiota-underestimated
#10
D Kamińska, M Gajecka
An issue that is currently undergoing extensive study is the influence of human vaginal microbiota (VMB) on the health status of women and their neonates. Healthy women are mainly colonised with lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus iners; however, other bacteria may be elements of the VMB, particularly in women with bacterial vaginosis. The implementation of culture-independent molecular methods in VMB characterisation, especially next-generation sequencing, have provided new information regarding bacterial diversity in the vagina, revealing a large number of novel, fastidious, and/or uncultivated bacterial species...
May 15, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497760/the-intestinal-microbiome-and-paediatric-liver-disease
#11
REVIEW
Daniel H Leung, Dean Yimlamai
The intestinal microbiome has been the intense focus of recent study, but how the microbiota affects connected organs, such as the liver, has not been fully elucidated. The microbiome regulates intestinal permeability and helps to metabolise the human diet into small molecules, thus directly affecting liver health. Several studies have linked intestinal dysbiosis to the severity and progression of liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, total parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease, and cystic fibrosis-associated liver disease...
June 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497122/the-microbiome-mitochondrion-connection-common-ancestries-common-mechanisms-common-goals
#12
Alfredo Franco-Obregón, Jack A Gilbert
Lynn Margulis in the 1960s elegantly proposed a shared phylogenetic history between bacteria and mitochondria; this relationship has since become a cornerstone of modern cellular biology. Yet, an interesting facet of the interaction between the microbiome and mitochondria has been mostly ignored, that of the systems biology relationship that underpins host health and longevity. The mitochondria are descendants of primordial aerobic pleomorphic bacteria (likely genus Rickettsia) that entered (literally and functionally) into a mutualistic partnership with ancient anaerobic microbes (likely Archaea)...
May 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488210/food-additives-contaminants-and-other-minor-components-effects-on-human-gut-microbiota-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Paula Roca-Saavedra, Veronica Mendez-Vilabrille, Jose Manuel Miranda, Carolina Nebot, Alejandra Cardelle-Cobas, Carlos M Franco, Alberto Cepeda
Gut bacteria play an important role in several metabolic processes and human diseases, such as obesity and accompanying co-morbidities, such as fatty liver disease, insulin resistance/diabetes, and cardiovascular events. Among other factors, dietary patterns, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and non-dietary factors, such as stress, age, exercise, and climatic conditions, can dramatically impact the human gut microbiota equilibrium and diversity. However, the effect of minor food constituents, including food additives and trace contaminants, on human gut microbiota has received less attention...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486162/the-impact-of-nutrition-on-intestinal-bacterial-communities
#14
REVIEW
Harry J Flint, Sylvia H Duncan, Petra Louis
What we eat influences the species composition of our gut microbiota. This is not only because diet composition determines the supply of substrates for microbial growth (in the form of dietary residue, mainly fibre, that reaches the large intestine) but also because of impacts on gut transit and the gut environment. In turn the metabolic activities of the gut microbiota, which have important health consequences, are influenced by diet and diet-driven changes in microbiota composition. Better understanding of the metabolic capabilities and host-interactions of dominant members of the gut microbiota will aid our ability to improve human health through diet...
May 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483461/the-gut-microbiota-a-key-factor-in-the-therapeutic-effects-of-poly-phenols
#15
REVIEW
Juan Carlos Espín, Antonio González-Sarrías, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán
(Poly)phenols (PPs) constitute a large family of phytochemicals with high chemical diversity that are known to be active principles of plant-derived nutraceuticals and herbal medicinal products. Their pharmacological activity, however, is difficult to demonstrate due to their mild physiological effects, and to the large inter-individual variability observed. Many PPs have little bioavailability and reach the colon almost unaltered. There they encounter the gut microbes resulting in a two-way interaction in which PPs modulate the gut microbiota composition, and the intestinal microbes catabolize the ingested PPs to release metabolites that are often more active and better absorbed than the native phenolic compounds...
May 6, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480939/fingerprinting-microbiomes-towards-screening-for-microbial-antibiotic-resistance
#16
REVIEW
Naifu Jin, Dayi Zhang, Francis L Martin
There is an increasing need to investigate microbiomes in their entirety in a variety of contexts ranging from environmental to human health scenarios. This requirement is becoming increasingly important with the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In general, more conventional approaches are too expensive and/or time-consuming and often predicated on prior knowledge of the microorganisms one wishes to study. Herein, we propose the use of biospectroscopy tools as relatively high-throughput, non-destructive approaches to profile microbiomes under study...
May 22, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479120/what-fertility-specialists-should-know-about-the-vaginal-microbiome-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Juan Antonio García-Velasco, Marco Menabrito, Isidoro Bruna Catalán
Our understanding of the composition of the microbial communities that inhabit the human body, known as the 'microbiome', is aided by the development of non-culture-dependent DNA sequencing. It is increasingly apparent that the balance of microbial species greatly affects the health of the host. Disturbances in the composition of bacterial communities have been shown to contribute to various disease states, and there is a growing body of evidence that the vaginal microbiota, which is unique to each woman, plays an important role in determining many facets of reproductive health...
April 19, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478822/animal-nutrition-and-breeding-conditions-modify-the-physiology-of-isolated-primary-cells
#18
Irina Milisav, Blaž Banič, Dušan Šuput
Animal primary cell cultures are widely used in biomedical research to investigate cell metabolism, diseases and to devise novel treatments. Modern animal breeding techniques are developed to unify, control and reduce the amount of microorganisms that the animals are being exposed to. Furthermore, health monitoring and strict caging and handling protocols allow animals to be exposed only to a selected spectrum of microbes. We are starting to appreciate that nutrition can influence composition of gut microbiota that can impact hosting organism's physiology and can even result in development of pathological changes...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472674/saccharin-induced-liver-inflammation-in-mice-by-altering-the-gut-microbiota-and-its-metabolic-functions
#19
Xiaoming Bian, Pengcheng Tu, Liang Chi, Bei Gao, Hongyu Ru, Kun Lu
Maintaining the balance of the gut microbiota and its metabolic functions is vital for human health, however, this balance can be disrupted by various external factors including food additives. A range of food and beverages are sweetened by saccharin, which is generally considered to be safe despite controversial debates. However, recent studies indicated that saccharin perturbed the gut microbiota. Inflammation is frequently associated with disruptions of the gut microbiota. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between host inflammation and perturbed gut microbiome by saccharin...
May 1, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466983/review-of-mechanisms-of-deoxynivalenol-induced-anorexia-the-role-of-gut-microbiota
#20
REVIEW
Zhao Peng, Liangkai Chen, Jie Xiao, Xiaoqi Zhou, Andreas K Nüssler, Liegang Liu, Jinping Liu, Wei Yang
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most important mycotoxins in cereal-based foods or other food productions, produced by Fusarium species. Because of the high occurrence of DON in food combined with vast consumption of cereals and grain worldwide, the DON-contaminated food is a very harmful factor for human and animal health. DON has been reported to induce anorexia at lower or chronic doses in animal models. However, further researches for DON-induced anorexia are limited. Previous publications demonstrated a close link between Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, two kinds of gut microbiota, with weight loss and the effect of low administration of DON on neurotransmitters in the frontal cortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, hippocampus and pons/medulla...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
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