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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922070/deep-sequencing-of-the-16s-ribosomal-rna-of-the-neonatal-oral-microbiome-a-comparison-of-breast-fed-and-formula-fed-infants
#1
S S Al-Shehri, E L Sweeney, D M Cowley, H G Liley, P D Ranasinghe, B G Charles, P N Shaw, D Vagenas, J A Duley, C L Knox
In utero and upon delivery, neonates are exposed to a wide array of microorganisms from various sources, including maternal bacteria. Prior studies have proposed that the mode of feeding shapes the gut microbiota and, subsequently the child's health. However, the effect of the mode of feeding and its influence on the development of the neonatal oral microbiota in early infancy has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to compare the oral microbiota of healthy infants that were exclusively breast-fed or formula-fed using 16S-rRNA gene sequencing...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920774/effects-of-tween-80-on-growth-and-biofilm-formation-in-laboratory-media
#2
Christina K Nielsen, Jørgen Kjems, Tina Mygind, Torben Snabe, Rikke L Meyer
Tween 80 is a widely used non-ionic emulsifier that is added to cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and foods. Because of its widespread use we need to understand how it affects bacteria on our skin, in our gut, and in food products. The aim of this study is to investigate how Tween 80 affects the growth and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Pseudomonas fluorescens, which are common causes of spoilage and foodborne illnesses. Addition of 0.1% Tween 80 to laboratory growth media increased the growth rate of planktonic S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916707/rethinking-diet-to-aid-human-microbe-symbiosis
#3
REVIEW
Muriel Derrien, Patrick Veiga
The spread of the Western lifestyle has been accompanied by microbial changes thought to underlie the emergence of chronic, nontransmissible, immune-related diseases. The past decade has seen the unprecedented development of therapies for 'replenishing' the microbiota of sick individuals. However, functional and ecological solutions helping the host and the gut microbiota to cope with the ecological stressors of modern life are still lacking. In this review, we discuss how recent advances in gut microbiome science are leading to the identification of microbe-derived and health-relevant metabolites...
October 26, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914804/nutrition-and-chronic-inflammatory-rheumatic-disease
#4
Luca Semerano, Chantal Julia, Ouidade Aitisha, Marie-Christophe Boissier
Nutrition is a major environmental influence on human health. Epidemiological and interventional studies suggest a pathophysiological or therapeutic role, respectively, for nutrition in inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRDs). Nevertheless, the associations between nutrition and IRDs are often weak and inconsistent, and the available clinical trials on nutrition are methodologically flawed. Experimental evidence is accumulating that micronutrients in the diet may influence intestinal and systemic immune responses via complex interactions involving the gut microbiota...
November 30, 2016: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912759/intestinal-dysbiosis-and-allogeneic-hematopoietic-progenitor-cell-transplantation
#5
REVIEW
Vikram M Raghunathan, Iris Sheng, Seah H Lim
The intestinal microbiota is a diverse and dynamic ecosystem that is increasingly understood to play a vital role in human health. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients undergo prolonged exposure to antimicrobials, chemotherapeutic agents, and immunosuppressants, resulting in profound shifts in the gut microbiome. A growing body of research has revealed the ways in which these microbiologic shifts shape immune modulation, affecting susceptibility to infections and graft-versus-host disease, the two major post-transplant complications in this population...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909744/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-the-probiotic-attributes-of-lactobacillus-kefiranofaciens-xl10-isolated-from-tibetan-kefir-grain
#6
Zhuqing Xing, Wei Tang, Weitao Geng, Yongna Zheng, Yanping Wang
Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens XL10, with a high yield of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), is isolated from Tibetan kefir grain and benefits the health of human beings and has been considered to exhibit probiotic potential in vitro and in vivo. The probiotic function of the strain was studied extensively, viz., acid and bile salt tolerances, cell surface hydrophobicity and autoaggregation, the modulation of gut microbiota, and the distribution and colonization of XL10 in the mouse intestinal tract after oral administration...
December 1, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908847/homeostasis-of-the-gut-barrier-and-potential-biomarkers
#7
Jerry M Wells, Robert J Brummer, Muriel Derrien, Thomas T MacDonald, Freddy Troost, Patrice D Cani, Vassilia Theodorou, Jan Dekker, Agnes Méheust, Willem M de Vos, Annick Mercenier, Arjen Nauta, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
The gut barrier plays a crucial role by spatially compartmentalizing bacteria to the lumen through the production of secreted mucus and is fortified by the production of sIgA and antimicrobial peptides and proteins. With exception of sIgA the expression of these protective barrier factors is largely controlled by innate immune recognition of microbial molecular ligands. Several specialized adaptations and checkpoints are operating in the mucosa to scale the immune response according to the threat and prevent overreaction to the trillions of symbionts inhabiting the human intestine...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902422/microbiota-dysbiosis-a-new-piece-in-the-understanding-of-carcinogenesis-puzzle
#8
Valeria García-Castillo, Enrique Sanhueza, Eileen McNerney, Sergio A Onate, Apolinaria García
Cancer is defined as an uncontrolled proliferation of malignant cells in a host and it is one of the main causes of death worldwide. Genetic and environmental factors play an important role in its development and the involvement of microbial communities has also recently been recognized. The close relationship that characterizes the colonization of human commensal communities involves health risks particularly when the homeostasis is disturbed. It has been hypothesized that this process may lead to cancer by modulating the inflammatory response of the host, by the production of carcinogenic metabolic products or by the production of toxins which disrupt the cell cycle...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898740/kluyveromyces-marxianus-and-saccharomyces-boulardii-induce-distinct-levels-of-dendritic-cell-cytokine-secretion-and-significantly-different-t-cell-responses-in-vitro
#9
Ida M Smith, Adam Baker, Jeffrey E Christensen, Teun Boekhout, Hanne Frøkiær, Nils Arneborg, Lene Jespersen
Interactions between members of the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune system can significantly impact human health, and in this context, fungi and food-related yeasts are known to influence intestinal inflammation through direct interactions with specialized immune cells in vivo. The aim of the present study was to characterize the immune modulating properties of the food-related yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus in terms of adaptive immune responses indicating inflammation versus tolerance and to explore the mechanisms behind the observed responses...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898455/clinical-implications-of-the-microbiome-in-urinary-tract-diseases
#10
Andreas Hiergeist, André Gessner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to outline and evaluate the most recent literature on the role of the microbiome in urinary tract diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: High throughput molecular DNA sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes enabled the analysis of complex microbial communities inhabiting the human urinary tract. Several recent studies have identified bacterial taxa of the urinary microbiome to impact urinary tract diseases including interstitial cystitis, urgency urinary incontinence or calcium oxalate stone formation...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895265/gut-homeostasis-microbial-dysbiosis-and-opioids
#11
Fuyuan Wang, Sabita Roy
Gut homeostasis plays an important role in maintaining animal and human health. The disruption of gut homeostasis has been shown to be associated with multiple diseases. The mutually beneficial relationship between the gut microbiota and the host has been demonstrated to maintain homeostasis of the mucosal immunity and preserve the integrity of the gut epithelial barrier. Currently, rapid progress in the understanding of the host-microbial interaction has redefined toxicological pathology of opioids and their pharmacokinetics...
November 28, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893703/generation-of-genome-scale-metabolic-reconstructions-for-773-members-of-the-human-gut-microbiota
#12
Stefanía Magnúsdóttir, Almut Heinken, Laura Kutt, Dmitry A Ravcheev, Eugen Bauer, Alberto Noronha, Kacy Greenhalgh, Christian Jäger, Joanna Baginska, Paul Wilmes, Ronan M T Fleming, Ines Thiele
Genome-scale metabolic models derived from human gut metagenomic data can be used as a framework to elucidate how microbial communities modulate human metabolism and health. We present AGORA (assembly of gut organisms through reconstruction and analysis), a resource of genome-scale metabolic reconstructions semi-automatically generated for 773 human gut bacteria. Using this resource, we identified a defined growth medium for Bacteroides caccae ATCC 34185. We also showed that interactions among modeled species depend on both the metabolic potential of each species and the nutrients available...
November 28, 2016: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888152/an-improved-methodology-to-overcome-key-issues-in-human-fecal-metagenomic-dna-extraction
#13
Jitendra Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Shashank Gupta, Vasim Ahmed, Manu Bhambi, Rajesh Pandey, Nar Singh Chauhan
Microbes are ubiquitously distributed in nature, and recent culture-independent studies have highlighted the significance of gut microbiota in human health and disease. Fecal DNA is the primary source for the majority of human gut microbiome studies. However, further improvement is needed to obtain fecal metagenomic DNA with sufficient amount and good quality but low host genomic DNA contamination. In the current study, we demonstrate a quick, robust, unbiased, and cost-effective method for the isolation of high molecular weight (> 23 kb) metagenomic DNA (260/280 ratio > 1...
November 22, 2016: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883906/infant-food-applications-of-complex-carbohydrates-structure-synthesis-and-function
#14
Dorothy L Ackerman, Kelly M Craft, Steven D Townsend
Professional health bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) recommend breast milk as the sole source of food during the first year of life. This position recognizes human milk as being uniquely suited for infant nutrition. Nonetheless, most neonates in the West are fed alternatives by 6 months of age. Although inferior to human milk in most aspects, infant formulas are able to promote effective growth and development...
November 11, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864179/prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-among-human-gut-derived-bifidobacteria
#15
Sabrina Duranti, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Leonardo Mancabelli, Francesca Turroni, Christian Milani, Marta Mangifesta, Chiara Ferrario, Rosaria Anzalone, Alice Viappiani, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
: The microbiota of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) may regularly be exposed to antibiotics, which are used to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi. Bacterial communities of the gut retain a reservoir of antibiotic resistance (AR) genes, and antibiotic therapy thus positively selects for those microorganisms that harbor such genetic features, causing microbiota modulation. During the first months following birth, bifidobacteria represent one of the most dominant components of the human gut microbiota, though little is known about their AR gene complement (or resistome)...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863247/a-dietary-fiber-deprived-gut-microbiota-degrades-the-colonic-mucus-barrier-and-enhances-pathogen-susceptibility
#16
Mahesh S Desai, Anna M Seekatz, Nicole M Koropatkin, Nobuhiko Kamada, Christina A Hickey, Mathis Wolter, Nicholas A Pudlo, Sho Kitamoto, Nicolas Terrapon, Arnaud Muller, Vincent B Young, Bernard Henrissat, Paul Wilmes, Thaddeus S Stappenbeck, Gabriel Núñez, Eric C Martens
Despite the accepted health benefits of consuming dietary fiber, little is known about the mechanisms by which fiber deprivation impacts the gut microbiota and alters disease risk. Using a gnotobiotic mouse model, in which animals were colonized with a synthetic human gut microbiota composed of fully sequenced commensal bacteria, we elucidated the functional interactions between dietary fiber, the gut microbiota, and the colonic mucus barrier, which serves as a primary defense against enteric pathogens. We show that during chronic or intermittent dietary fiber deficiency, the gut microbiota resorts to host-secreted mucus glycoproteins as a nutrient source, leading to erosion of the colonic mucus barrier...
November 17, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861983/genomic-and-metagenomic-technologies-to-explore-the-antibiotic-resistance-mobilome
#17
José L Martínez, Teresa M Coque, Val F Lanza, Fernando de la Cruz, Fernando Baquero
Antibiotic resistance is a relevant problem for human health that requires global approaches to establish a deep understanding of the processes of acquisition, stabilization, and spread of resistance among human bacterial pathogens. Since natural (nonclinical) ecosystems are reservoirs of resistance genes, a health-integrated study of the epidemiology of antibiotic resistance requires the exploration of such ecosystems with the aim of determining the role they may play in the selection, evolution, and spread of antibiotic resistance genes, involving the so-called resistance mobilome...
November 10, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858930/environmental-spread-of-microbes-impacts-the-development-of-metabolic-phenotypes-in-mice-transplanted-with-microbial-communities-from-humans
#18
Li Zhang, Martin Iain Bahl, Henrik Munch Roager, Cilius Esmann Fonvig, Lars I Hellgren, Henrik Lauritz Frandsen, Oluf Pedersen, Jens-Christian Holm, Torben Hansen, Tine Rask Licht
Microbiota transplantation to germ-free animals is a powerful method to study involvement of gut microbes in the aetiology of metabolic syndrome. Owing to large interpersonal variability in gut microbiota, studies with broad coverage of donors are needed to elucidate the establishment of human-derived microbiotas in mice, factors affecting this process and resulting impact on metabolic health. We thus transplanted faecal microbiotas from humans (16 obese and 16 controls) separately into 64 germ-free Swiss Webster mice caged in pairs within four isolators, with two isolators assigned to each phenotype, thereby allowing us to explore the extent of microbial spread between cages in a well-controlled environment...
November 18, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854317/modulating-the-gut-micro-environment-in-the-treatment-of-intestinal-parasites
#19
REVIEW
Luis Vitetta, Emma Tali Saltzman, Tessa Nikov, Isabelle Ibrahim, Sean Hall
The interactions of micro-organisms cohabitating with Homo sapiens spans millennia, with microbial communities living in a symbiotic relationship with the host. Interacting to regulate and maintain physiological functions and immunological tolerance, the microbial community is able to exert an influence on host health. An example of micro-organisms contributing to an intestinal disease state is exhibited by a biodiverse range of protozoan and bacterial species that damage the intestinal epithelia and are therefore implicated in the symptoms of diarrhea...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848951/genetic-deletion-of-the-bacterial-sensor-nod2-improves-murine-crohn-s-disease-like-ileitis-independent-of-functional-dysbiosis
#20
D Corridoni, A Rodriguez-Palacios, G Di Stefano, L Di Martino, D A Antonopoulos, E B Chang, K O Arseneau, T T Pizarro, F Cominelli
Although genetic polymorphisms in NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing 2) have been associated with the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD), little is known regarding the role of wild-type (WT) NOD2 in the gut. To date, most murine studies addressing the role of WT Nod2 have been conducted using healthy (ileitis/colitis-free) mouse strains. Here, we evaluated the effects of Nod2 deletion in a murine model of spontaneous ileitis, i.e., the SAMP1Yit/Fc (SAMP) strain, which closely resembles CD...
November 16, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
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