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Microbiota human health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220800/exposure-to-traffic-related-air-pollution-and-the-composition-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-overweight-and-obese-adolescents
#1
Tanya L Alderete, Roshonda B Jones, Zhanghua Chen, Jeniffer S Kim, Rima Habre, Frederick Lurmann, Frank D Gilliland, Michael I Goran
BACKGROUND: Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure has been linked to type 2 diabetes and metabolic dysfunction in humans. Animal studies suggest that air pollutants may alter the composition of the gut microbiota, which may negatively impact metabolic health through changes in the composition and/or function of the gut microbiome. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to determine whether elevated TRAP exposure was correlated with gut bacterial taxa in overweight and obese adolescents from the Meta-AIR (Metabolic and Asthma Incidence Research) study...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220570/neuromicrobiology-how-microbes-influence-the-brain
#2
Cesar de la Fuente-Nunez, Beatriz Torres Meneguetti, Octávio Luiz Franco, Timothy K Lu
We review here recent discoveries in the exciting new field of neuromicrobiology. This field encompasses the interactions between the microbiome and the central nervous system. The microbiome has a tremendous impact on human health. In particular, the gut microbiota may play a key role in many essential processes in health and disease via the activity of the gut-brain axis, possibly contributing to autism spectrum disorders, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, and anxiety disorder. Gut microbes may also be involved in nociception, complex host behaviors, and brain development...
December 8, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218032/surface-proteins-of-lactococcus-lactis-bacterial-resources-for-muco-adhesion-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#3
REVIEW
Muriel Mercier-Bonin, Marie-Pierre Chapot-Chartier
Food and probiotic bacteria, in particular lactic acid bacteria, are ingested in large amounts by humans and are part of the transient microbiota which is increasingly considered to be able to impact the resident microbiota and thus possibly the host health. The lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis is extensively used in starter cultures to produce dairy fermented food. Also because of a generally recognized as safe status, L. lactis has been considered as a possible vehicle to deliver in vivo therapeutic molecules with anti-inflammatory properties in the gastrointestinal tract...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214770/disruption-of-the-gut-ecosystem-by-antibiotics
#4
REVIEW
Mi Young Yoon, Sang Sun Yoon
The intestinal microbiota is a complex ecosystem consisting of various microorganisms that expands human genetic repertoire and therefore affects human health and disease. The metabolic processes and signal transduction pathways of the host and intestinal microorganisms are intimately linked, and abnormal progression of each process leads to changes in the intestinal environment. Alterations in microbial communities lead to changes in functional structures based on the metabolites produced in the gut, and these environmental changes result in various bacterial infections and chronic enteric inflammatory diseases...
January 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213996/gut-microbiota-epigenetic-modification-and-colorectal-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Sama Rezasoltani, Hamid Asadzadeh-Aghdaei, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini-Mojarad, Hossein Dabiri, Reza Ghanbari, Mohammad Reza Zali
Micro-organisms contain 90% of cells in human body and trillions foreign genes versus less than 30 thousand of their own. The human colon host various species of microorganisms, appraised at more than 1014 microbiota and contained of over a thousand species. Although each one's profile is separable, the relative abundance and distribution of bacterial species is the same between healthy ones, causing conservation of each person's overall health. Germline DNA mutations have been attributed to the less than 5% of CRC occurrence while more than 90% is associated with the epigenetic regulation...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209275/lipid-uptake-metabolism-and-transport-in-the-larval-zebrafish
#6
REVIEW
Vanessa H Quinlivan, Steven A Farber
The developing zebrafish is a well-established model system for studies of energy metabolism, and is amenable to genetic, physiological, and biochemical approaches. For the first 5 days of life, nutrients are absorbed from its endogenous maternally deposited yolk. At 5 days post-fertilization, the yolk is exhausted and the larva has a functional digestive system including intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and intestinal microbiota. The transparency of the larval zebrafish, and the genetic and physiological similarity of its digestive system to that of mammals make it a promising system in which to address questions of energy homeostasis relevant to human health...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209019/correlations-between-gut-microbiota-community-structures-of-tibetans-and-geography
#7
Daoliang Lan, Wenhui Ji, Baoshan Lin, Yabing Chen, Cai Huang, Xianrong Xiong, Mei Fu, Tserang Donko Mipam, Yi Ai, Bo Zeng, Yin Li, Zhixin Cai, Jiangjiang Zhu, Dawei Zhang, Jian Li
Microbial communities of human gut directly influence health and bear adaptive potential to different geography environment and lifestyles. However, knowledge about the influences of altitude and geography on the gut microbiota of Tibetans is currently limited. In this study, fecal microbiota from 208 Tibetans across six different locations were analyzed by MiSeq sequencing; these locations included Gannan, Gangcha, Tianzhu, Hongyuan, Lhasa and Nagqu, with altitudes above sea level ranging from 2800 m to 4500 m across the Tibetan plateau...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208770/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-the-effects-of-maternal-obesity-during-pregnancy-on-offspring-metabolism
#8
Liyuan Zhou, Xinhua Xiao
Obesity is considered a global epidemic. Specifically, obesity during pregnancy programs an increased risk of the offspring developing metabolic disorders in addition to the adverse effects on the mother per se. Large numbers of human and animal studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in obesity and metabolic diseases. Similarly, maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with alterations in the composition and diversity of the intestine microbial community. Recently, the microbiota in the placenta, amniotic fluid, and meconium in healthy gestations has been investigated, and the results supported the "in utero colonization hypothesis" and challenged the traditional "sterile womb" that has been acknowledged worldwide for more than a century...
December 5, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207239/the-human-microbiota-infectious-disease-and-global-health-challenges-and-opportunities
#9
Abraham J Waldman, Emily P Balskus
Despite significant advances in treating infectious diseases worldwide, morbidity and mortality associated with these pathogens remains extraordinarily high and represents a critical scientific and global health challenge. Current strategies to combat these infectious agents include a combination of vaccines, small molecule drugs, increased hygiene standards, and disease-specific interventions. While these approaches have helped to drastically reduce the incidence and number of deaths associated with infection, continued investment in current strategies and the development of novel therapeutic approaches will be required to address these global health threats...
December 5, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207222/urea-and-impairment-of-the-gut-kidney-axis-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#10
REVIEW
Biagio Raffaele Di Iorio, Stefania Marzocco, Luca Nardone, Marilisa Sirico, Emanuele De Simone, Gabriella Di Natale, Lucia Di Micco
Gut microbiota can be considered a real organ coordinating health and wellness of our body. It is made of more than 100 trillions of microorganisms, thus about 3 times higher than the number of human body cells and more than 150 times than human genes containing 1000 different microbe species. It has been described a symbiotic relationship between gut and kidney, confirmed by several observations. This is a bi-directional relation with a mutual influence, even when kidney disease occurs, and consequent alterations of intestinal microbiota and production of uremic toxins, that in turn worsens kidney disease and its progression...
December 5, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203054/on-the-search-to-elucidate-the-role-of-the-microbiota-in-the-genesis-of-cancer-the-cases-of-gastrointestinal-and-cervical-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Francisco Avilés-Jiménez, Yu Guogin, Kirvis Torres-Poveda, Vicente Madrid-Marina, Javier Torres
The microbiota that inhabits the human body plays an important role in health and disease, by their fundamental role in food digestion, training of the immune system or protection against pathogen colonization. However, when the equilibrium with its host is altered, some diseases like cancer might be promoted. In this review we describe the information collected in recent studies between the microbiota and its association with cancer. We conducted the review of the relation of microbiome and cancer etiology focusing on the gastrointestinal and cervical cancer...
December 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192904/specific-substrate-driven-changes-in-human-faecal-microbiota-composition-contrast-with-functional-redundancy-in-short-chain-fatty-acid-production
#12
Nicole Reichardt, Maren Vollmer, Grietje Holtrop, Freda M Farquharson, Daniel Wefers, Mirko Bunzel, Sylvia H Duncan, Janice E Drew, Lynda M Williams, Graeme Milligan, Thomas Preston, Douglas Morrison, Harry J Flint, Petra Louis
The diet provides carbohydrates that are non-digestible in the upper gut and are major carbon and energy sources for the microbial community in the lower intestine, supporting a complex metabolic network. Fermentation produces the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate, which have health-promoting effects for the human host. Here we investigated microbial community changes and SCFA production during in vitro batch incubations of 15 different non-digestible carbohydrates, at two initial pH values with faecal microbiota from three different human donors...
December 1, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190368/interindividual-variability-in-gut-microbiota-and-host-response-to-dietary-interventions
#13
Genelle R Healey, Rinki Murphy, Louise Brough, Christine A Butts, Jane Coad
Dysbiosis is linked to human disease; therefore, gut microbiota modulation strategies provide an attractive means of correcting microbial imbalance to enhance human health. Because diet has a major influence on the composition, diversity, and metabolic capacity of the gut microbiota, numerous dietary intervention studies have been conducted to manipulate the gut microbiota to improve host outcomes and reduce disease risk. Emerging evidence suggests that interindividual variability in gut microbiota and host responsiveness exists, making it difficult to predict gut microbiota and host response to a given dietary intervention...
November 28, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188341/a-review-of-metabolic-potential-of-human-gut-microbiome-in-human-nutrition
#14
REVIEW
Monika Yadav, Manoj Kumar Verma, Nar Singh Chauhan
The human gut contains a plethora of microbes, providing a platform for metabolic interaction between the host and microbiota. Metabolites produced by the gut microbiota act as a link between gut microbiota and its host. These metabolites act as messengers having the capacity to alter the gut microbiota. Recent advances in the characterization of the gut microbiota and its symbiotic relationship with the host have provided a platform to decode metabolic interactions. The human gut microbiota, a crucial component for dietary metabolism, is shaped by the genetic, epigenetic and dietary factors...
November 29, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186529/protection-of-the-human-gut-microbiome-from-antibiotics
#15
Jean de Gunzburg, Amine Ghozlane, Annie Ducher, Emmanuelle Le Chatelier, Xavier Duval, Etienne Ruppé, Laurence Armand-Lefevre, Frédérique Sablier-Gallis, Charles Burdet, Loubna Alavoine, Elisabeth Chachaty, Violaine Augustin, Marina Varastet, Florence Levenez, Sean Kennedy, Nicolas Pons, France Mentré, Antoine Andremont
Background: Antibiotics are life-saving drugs but severely affect the gut microbiome with short term consequences including diarrhoea and selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Long-term links to allergy and obesity are also suggested. We devised a product, DAV132, and previously showed its ability to deliver a powerful adsorbent, activated charcoal, in the late ileum of human volunteers. Methods: We performed a randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02176005) in 28 human volunteers treated with a 5-day clinical regimen of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic moxifloxacin in two parallel groups, with or without DAV132 co-administration...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186315/resources-and-tools-for-the-high-throughput-multi-omic-study-of-intestinal-microbiota
#16
Aitor Blanco-Míguez, Florentino Fdez-Riverola, Borja Sánchez, Anália Lourenço
The human gut microbiome impacts several aspects of human health and disease, including digestion, drug metabolism and the propensity to develop various inflammatory, autoimmune and metabolic diseases. Many of the molecular processes that play a role in the activity and dynamics of the microbiota go beyond species and genic composition and thus, their understanding requires advanced bioinformatics support. This article aims to provide an up-to-date view of the resources and software tools that are being developed and used in human gut microbiome research, in particular data integration and systems-level analysis efforts...
November 27, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184019/gut-symbiont-bacteroides-fragilis-secretes-a-eukaryotic-like-ubiquitin-protein-that-mediates-intraspecies-antagonism
#17
Maria Chatzidaki-Livanis, Michael J Coyne, Kevin G Roelofs, Rahul R Gentyala, Jarreth M Caldwell, Laurie E Comstock
Human gut Bacteroides species produce different types of toxins that antagonize closely related members of the gut microbiota. Some are toxic effectors delivered by type VI secretion systems, and others are non-contact-dependent secreted antimicrobial proteins. Many strains of Bacteroides fragilis secrete antimicrobial molecules, but only one of these toxins has been described to date (Bacteroidales secreted antimicrobial protein 1 [BSAP-1]). In this study, we describe a novel secreted protein produced by B...
November 28, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176866/quercetin-metabolism-by-fecal-microbiota-from-healthy-elderly-human-subjects
#18
Motoi Tamura, Chigusa Hoshi, Masuko Kobori, Shunsuke Takahashi, Junko Tomita, Mie Nishimura, Jun Nishihira
Quercetin is a polyphenol found in food that has numerous health benefits. This study investigated the relationship between quercetin metabolism, gut microbiota composition, and dietary intake in elderly Japanese subjects. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake during the week prior to stool sample collection. Fecal suspensions from 56 subjects were anaerobically incubated with quercetin and fecal microbiota composition was analyzed by next-generation sequencing. Inter-individual variations in quercetin concentration and fecal microbiota composition at family level suggested differences in microbial quercetin metabolism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174401/the-gut-microbiota-facilitates-drifts-in-the-genetic-diversity-and-infectivity-of-bacterial-viruses
#19
Luisa De Sordi, Varun Khanna, Laurent Debarbieux
The intestinal microbiota and human health are intimately linked, but interactions between bacteria and bacteriophages in the context of the mammalian intestine remain largely unexplored. We used comparative population genomics to study a tripartite network consisting of a virulent bacteriophage, its bacterial host, and a phage-insensitive bacterial strain both in vitro and within the murine gut. The bacteriophage adapted to infect the insensitive strain when the three partners co-existed in the gut of conventional mice, but not in dixenic mice or in planktonic cultures...
November 16, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173517/complementary-and-alternative-medicine-strategies-for-therapeutic-gut-microbiota-modulation-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-their-next-generation-approaches
#20
REVIEW
Abigail R Basson, Minh Lam, Fabio Cominelli
The human gut microbiome exerts a major impact on human health and disease, and therapeutic gut microbiota modulation is now a well-advocated strategy in the management of many diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Scientific and clinical evidence in support of complementary and alternative medicine, in targeting intestinal dysbiosis among patients with IBD, or other disorders, has increased dramatically over the past years. Delivery of "artificial" stool replacements for fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) could provide an effective, safer alternative to that of human donor stool...
December 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
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