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Microbiota human health

Katherine R Amato
Research examining the gut microbiota is currently exploding, and results are providing new perspectives on human biology. Factors such as host diet and physiology influence the composition and function of the gut microbiota, which in turn affects human nutrition, health, and behavior via interactions with metabolism, the immune system, and the brain. These findings represent an exciting new twist on familiar topics, and as a result, gut microbiome research is likely to provide insight into unresolved biological mechanisms driving human health...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Yushu Yin, Georgia Papavasiliou, Olga Y Zaborina, John C Alverdy, Fouad Teymour
The human gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of colonization of multidrug resistant pathogens and the major source of life-threatening complications in critically ill and immunocompromised patients. Eradication measures using antibiotics carry further risk of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, antibiotic treatment can adversely shift the intestinal microbiome toward domination by resistant pathogens. Therefore, approaches directed to prevent replacement of health promoting microbiota with resistant pathogens should be developed...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Awa Diop, Saber Khelaifia, Nicholas Armstrong, Noémie Labas, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Didier Raoult, Matthieu Million
BACKGROUND: Microbial culturomics represents an ongoing revolution in the characterization of environmental and human microbiome. METHODS: By using three media containing high salt concentration (100, 150, and 200 g/L), the halophilic microbial culturome of a commercial table salt was determined. RESULTS: Eighteen species belonging to the Terrabacteria group were isolated including eight moderate halophilic and 10 halotolerant bacteria. Gracilibacillus massiliensis sp...
2016: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Feng Chen, Jun Jiang, Dan-Dan Tian, Qi Wen, Yong-Hui Li, Jun-Qing Zhang, Chen Cheng, Tengfei Wang
Cardiovascular disease still remains the primary cause of death worldwide and the obesity is becoming recognized as one of the most critical contributing risk factors. The increased prevalence of obesity casts a cloud over the global health and the whole societies will still be burdened in the future. Therefore, prevention and therapy of obesity is a beneficial strategy for the prevention of chronic cardiovascular disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota takes part in human health and disease including obesity...
October 14, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Angélica Thomaz Vieira, Claudio Fukumori, Caroline Marcantonio Ferreira
The interaction between the gut microbiota and the host immune system is very important for balancing and resolving inflammation. The human microbiota begins to form during childbirth; the complex interaction between bacteria and host cells becomes critical for the formation of a healthy or a disease-promoting microbiota. C-section delivery, formula feeding, a high-sugar diet, a high-fat diet and excess hygiene negatively affect the health of the microbiota. Considering that the majority of the global population has experienced at least one of these factors that can lead to inflammatory disease, it is important to understand strategies to modulate the gut microbiota...
June 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
Evgeny Vinogradov, Irina Sadovskaya, Thierry Grard, Marie-Pierre Chapot-Chartier
Lactobacillus casei is a Gram positive lactic acid bacterium used in dairy fermentations and present in the normal human gut microbiota. Certain strains are recognized as probiotics with beneficial effects on human and animal health. L. casei BL23 is a potential probiotic strain endowed with anti-inflammatory properties and a model strain widely used in genetic, physiological and biochemical studies. A number of bacterial cell surface polysaccharides have been shown to play a role in the immune modulation activities observed for probiotic lactic acid bacteria...
October 8, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
GwangPyo Ko
Recently, there were dramatically increased interests on human microbiome research worldwide. Human microbiome has been considered as the second genome in addition to our own genome and played very crucial roles in maintaining human health. Human microbiota typically reside on the surface of epithelial cells and play various biological roles ranging from metabolism, immune development, mental health, and to organ development. Since 2008, we have determined the diversity of Korean microbiome and determined the genes and pathways of gut microbiome using Korean Twin Cohort...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Chun Chen, Qiang Huang, Xiong Fu, Rui Hai Liu
This study investigated the in vitro fermentation of polysaccharides from Morus alba L., the contribution of its carbohydrates to the fermentation, and the effect on the composition of gut microbiota. Over 48 h of fermentation, the pH value in the fecal culture decreased from 7.12 to 6.14, and the total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and acetic, propionic, and butyric acids all significantly increased. After 48 h of fermentation, 45.36 ± 1.36% of the total carbohydrates in the polysaccharide, including 35...
October 17, 2016: Food & Function
Ana Claudia Sánchez-Ortiz, Carlos Angulo, Antonio Luna-González, Píndaro Álvarez-Ruiz, José Manuel Mazón-Suástegui, Ángel Isidro Campa-Córdova
The widespread overuse of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistance shrimp pathogens, the negative impact on shrimp gut microbiota, and the presence of antimicrobial residues in aquaculture products, with negative consequences on human health. Alternatively, probiotics have positive effects on immunological responses and productive performance of aquatic animals. In this study, three probiotic bacteria, (Bacillus licheniformis MAt32, B. subtilis MAt43 and B. subtilis subsp...
October 12, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Massimo Marzorati, Tom Van de Wiele
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) hosts the most complex microbial community in the human body. Given the extensive metabolic potential which is present in this community, this additional organ is of key importance to maintain a healthy status and several diseases are frequently correlated with an alteration of the composition/functionality of the gut microbiota. Consequently, there is a great interest in identifying potential approaches that could modulate the microbiota and its metabolism to bring about a positive health effect...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Muriel Mercier-Bonin, Bernard Despax, Patrice Raynaud, Eric Houdeau, Muriel Thomas
Given the growing use of nanotechnology in many common consumer products, including foods, evaluation of the consequences of chronic exposure to nanoparticles in humans has become a major public health issue. The oral route of exposure has been poorly explored, despite the presence of a fraction of nano-sized particles in certain food additives/supplements and the incorporation of such particles into packaging in contact with foods. After their ingestion, these nanoparticles pass through the digestive tract, where they may undergo physicochemical transformations, with consequences for the luminal environment, before crossing the epithelial barrier to reach the systemic compartment...
October 14, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
D Ayoub, L R Lopetuso, F Chamseddine, A Dajani, K Lahiri, H Mahmoud, M S Miqdady, G Zirizzotti, M A Sultan, F Franceschi, A Gasbarrini
OBJECTIVE: Gastroenteritis represents with respiratory tract infection the most common infectious disease syndrome of humans in developing countries. Gut microbiota regional variation and dysbiosis play a crucial role in triggering and worsening this devastating GI disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With this manuscript, we want to explore and emphasize the critical aspect of acute gastroenteritis in Middle-East Countries and its correlation with the clinical aspect of gut microbiota modification and intestinal homeostasis...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Daniela Numberger, Daniel P R Herlemann, Klaus Jürgens, Guido Dehnhardt, Heide Schulz-Vogt
The gut microbiota has many beneficial effects on host metabolism and health, and its composition is determined by numerous factors. It is also assumed that there was a co-evolution of mammals and the bacteria inhabiting their gut. Current knowledge of the mammalian gut microbiota mainly derives from studies on humans and terrestrial animals, whereas those on marine mammals are sparse. However, they could provide additional information on influencing factors, such as the role of diet and co-evolution with the host...
October 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Mu-Ya Chen, Felipe Lira, Hua-Qing Liang, Rui-Ting Wu, Jia-Hong Duan, Xiao-Ping Liao, José L Martínez, Ya-Hong Liu, Jian Sun
In this study we isolated 109 Enterococcus faecalis from chicken faecal samples in 6 provinces of China to investigate the prevalence and transmission mechanism of the bacitracin resistance locus bcrABDR in E. faecalis. Thirty-seven bcrABDR-positive E. faecalis were detected with 26 different PFGE clusters. The MLST of 14 positive strains belonged to ST16 and we also detected three new sequence types. S1-PFGE analysis indicated that the locus was located on plasmids presenting different sizes, with the most prevalent size being ~50 kb (13/37)...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Stefania Boccia, Ida Torre, Lidia Santarpia, Carmela Iervolino, Concetta Del Piano, Anna Puggina, Roberta Pastorino, Miroslav Dragic, Rosarita Amore, Tonia Borriello, Raffaele Palladino, Francesca Pennino, Franco Contaldo, Fabrizio Pasanisi
INTRODUCTION: Intestinal bacterial flora plays a central role in human intestinal health and disease. Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS), a clinical condition deriving from extensive bowel resections, influence intestinal microbiota (IM) composition in order to reach a new metabolic balance. Little is known about IM in adult patients after wide intestinal resections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fecal samples from 12 SBS patients and 16 controls were analyzed in their microbial profile by using both culture-dependent method and quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Anna Heintz-Buschart, Patrick May, Cédric C Laczny, Laura A Lebrun, Camille Bellora, Abhimanyu Krishna, Linda Wampach, Jochen G Schneider, Angela Hogan, Carine de Beaufort, Paul Wilmes
The gastrointestinal microbiome is a complex ecosystem with functions that shape human health. Studying the relationship between taxonomic alterations and functional repercussions linked to disease remains challenging. Here, we present an integrative approach to resolve the taxonomic and functional attributes of gastrointestinal microbiota at the metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and metaproteomic levels. We apply our methods to samples from four families with multiple cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)...
October 10, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Jun Wang, Louise B Thingholm, Jurgita Skiecevičienė, Philipp Rausch, Martin Kummen, Johannes R Hov, Frauke Degenhardt, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Malte C Rühlemann, Silke Szymczak, Kristian Holm, Tönu Esko, Jun Sun, Mihaela Pricop-Jeckstadt, Samer Al-Dury, Pavol Bohov, Jörn Bethune, Felix Sommer, David Ellinghaus, Rolf K Berge, Matthias Hübenthal, Manja Koch, Karin Schwarz, Gerald Rimbach, Patricia Hübbe, Wei-Hung Pan, Raheleh Sheibani-Tezerji, Robert Häsler, Philipp Rosenstiel, Mauro D'Amato, Katja Cloppenborg-Schmidt, Sven Künzel, Matthias Laudes, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Wolfgang Lieb, Ute Nöthlings, Tom H Karlsen, John F Baines, Andre Franke
Human gut microbiota is an important determinant for health and disease, and recent studies emphasize the numerous factors shaping its diversity. Here we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the gut microbiota using two cohorts from northern Germany totaling 1,812 individuals. Comprehensively controlling for diet and non-genetic parameters, we identify genome-wide significant associations for overall microbial variation and individual taxa at multiple genetic loci, including the VDR gene (encoding vitamin D receptor)...
October 10, 2016: Nature Genetics
Min-Hsiung Pan, Yen-Chen Tung, Guliang Yang, Shiming Li, Chi-Tang Ho
Obesity is a serious health problem in adults and children worldwide. However, the basic strategies for the management of obesity (diet, exercise, drugs and surgery) have limitations and side effects. Therefore, many researchers have sought to identify bioactive components in food. Tea and coffee are the most frequently consumed beverages in the whole world. Their health benefits have been studied for decades, especially those of green tea. The anti-obesity effect of tea and coffee has been studied for at least ten years...
October 10, 2016: Food & Function
Christian Carlucci, Elaine O Petrof, Emma Allen-Vercoe
The human gut microbiome is a complex ecosystem of fundamental importance to human health. Our increased understanding of gut microbial composition and functional interactions in health and disease states has spurred research efforts examining the gut microbiome as a valuable target for therapeutic intervention. This review provides updated insight into the state of the gut microbiome in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), ulcerative colitis (UC), and obesity while addressing the rationale for the modulation of the gut microbiome using fecal microbiota transplant (FMT)-based therapies...
October 1, 2016: EBioMedicine
Emma Elison, Louise K Vigsnaes, Laura Rindom Krogsgaard, Julie Rasmussen, Nikolaj Sørensen, Bruce McConnell, Thierry Hennet, Morten O A Sommer, Peter Bytzer
The gut microbiota has been established as an important player influencing many aspects of human physiology. Breast milk, the first diet for an infant, contains human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) that shape the infant's gut microbiota by selectively stimulating the growth of specific bacteria, especially bifidobacteria. In addition to their bifidogenic activity, the ability of HMO to modulate immune function and the gut barrier makes them prime candidates to restore a beneficial microbiota in dysbiotic adults and provide health benefits...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
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