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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727425/the-database-and-bioinformatics-studies-of-probiotics
#1
Lin Tao, Bohua Wang, Yafen Zhong, Siok Hoon Pow, Xian Zeng, Chu Qin, Peng Zhang, Shangying Chen, Weidong He, Ying Tan, Hongxia Liu, Yuyang Jiang, Weiping Chen, Yu Zong Chen
Probiotics have been widely explored for health benefits, animal cares, and agricultural applications. Recent advances in microbiome, microbiota and microbial dark matter research have fueled greater interests in and paved ways for the study of the mechanisms of probiotics and the discovery of new probiotics from uncharacterized microbial sources. A probiotics database named PROBIO was developed to facilitate these efforts and the need for the information of the known probiotics, which provides the comprehensive information about the probiotic functions of 448 marketed, 167 clinical trial/field trial and 382 research probiotics for use or being studied for use in humans, animals, and plants...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727115/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-as-a-key-regulator-of-neural-function-and-the-stress-response-implications-for-human-and-animal-health
#2
N C Wiley, T G Dinan, R P Ross, C Stanton, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The brain-gut-microbiota axis comprises an extensive communication network between the brain, the gut, and the microbiota residing there. Development of a diverse gut microbiota is vital for multiple features of behavior and physiology, as well as many fundamental aspects of brain structure and function. Appropriate early-life assembly of the gut microbiota is also believed to play a role in subsequent emotional and cognitive development. If the composition, diversity, or assembly of the gut microbiota is impaired, this impairment can have a negative impact on host health and lead to disorders such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and even potentially neuropsychiatric illnesses, including anxiety and depression...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723981/intestinal-microbiota-in-digestive-diseases
#3
Maria do Carmo Friche Passos, Joaquim Prado Moraes-Filho
BACKGROUND: In recent years, especially after the development of sophisticated metagenomic studies, research on the intestinal microbiota has increased, radically transforming our knowledge about the microbiome and its association with health maintenance and disease development in humans. Increasing evidence has shown that a permanent alteration in microbiota composition or function (dysbiosis) can alter immune responses, metabolism, intestinal permeability, and digestive motility, thereby promoting a proinflammatory state...
July 6, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721546/health-benefits-observed-after-probiotic-lactobacillus-fermentum-ccm-7421-application-in-dogs
#4
REVIEW
Viola Strompfová, Ivana Kubašová, Andrea Lauková
The importance of the intestinal microbiota has attracted much interest in recent years particularly with respect to ways in which the microbiota can be manipulated in order to improve health. Improving gut health through the use of probiotic microorganisms has become an area of research activity in both human and animal nutrition. However, the amount of research using companion animals is insufficient. The present review evaluates and compares the effects achieved after application of canine-derived probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7421 to healthy dogs as well as to dogs suffering from gastrointestinal disorders...
July 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720731/an-in-vitro-chicken-gut-model-demonstrates-transfer-of-a-multidrug-resistance-plasmid-from-salmonella-to-commensal-escherichia-coli
#5
Roderick M Card, Shaun A Cawthraw, Javier Nunez-Garcia, Richard J Ellis, Gemma Kay, Mark J Pallen, Martin J Woodward, Muna F Anjum
The chicken gastrointestinal tract is richly populated by commensal bacteria that fulfill various beneficial roles for the host, including helping to resist colonization by pathogens. It can also facilitate the conjugative transfer of multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids between commensal and pathogenic bacteria which is a significant public and animal health concern as it may affect our ability to treat bacterial infections. We used an in vitro chemostat system to approximate the chicken cecal microbiota, simulate colonization by an MDR Salmonella pathogen, and examine the dynamics of transfer of its MDR plasmid harboring several genes, including the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase blaCTX-M1 We also evaluated the impact of cefotaxime administration on plasmid transfer and microbial diversity...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720679/potential-for-monitoring-gut-microbiota-for-diagnosing-infections-and-graft-versus-host-disease-in-cancer-and-stem-cell-transplant-patients
#6
Andrew Y Koh
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota, the collective community of microorganisms inhabiting the intestine, have been shown to provide many beneficial functions for the host. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing and advanced molecular biology approaches have allowed researchers to identify gut microbiota signatures associated with disease processes and, in some cases, establish causality and elucidate underlying mechanisms. CONTENT: This report reviews 3 commonly used methods for studying the gut microbiota and microbiome (the collective genomes of the gut microorganisms): 16S rRNA gene sequencing, bacterial group or species-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS)...
July 18, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719406/toward-a-biopsychosocial-ecology-of-the-human-microbiome-brain-gut-axis-and-health
#7
Karl J Maier, Mustafa al'Absi
OBJECTIVE: Rapidly expanding insights to the human microbiome and health suggest that Western medicine is poised for significant evolution, or perhaps revolution - this while the field continues on a trajectory from reductionism to a biopsychosocial (BPS) paradigm recognizing biological, psychological, and social influences on health. The apparent sensitivity of the microbiota to perturbations across BPS domains suggests that a broad and inclusive framework is needed to develop applicable knowledge in this area...
July 18, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718724/black-raspberries-and-their-anthocyanin-and-fiber-fractions-alter-the-composition-and-diversity-of-gut-microbiota-in-f-344-rats
#8
Pan Pan, Vy Lam, Nita Salzman, Yi-Wen Huang, Jianhua Yu, Jianying Zhang, Li-Shu Wang
Natural compounds can alter the diversity and composition of the gut microbiome, potentially benefiting our health. We previously demonstrated chemopreventive effects of black raspberries (BRBs) in colorectal cancer, which is associated with gut dysbiosis. To investigate the effects of whole BRBs and their fractions on gut microbiota, we fed F-344 rats a control diet, 5% BRBs, the BRB anthocyanin fraction, or the BRB residue fraction for 6 weeks. Feces were collected at baseline and at weeks 3 and 6, and bacterial sequence counts were analyzed...
July 18, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717845/proteomics-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-approach-using-animal-models
#9
REVIEW
Fadi H Mourad, Yunki Yau, Valerie C Wasinger, Rupert W Leong
Recently, proteomics studies have provided important information on the role of proteins in health and disease. In the domain of inflammatory bowel disease, proteomics has shed important light on the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of inflammation and has contributed to the discovery of some putative clinical biomarkers of disease activity. By being able to obtain a large number of specimens from multiple sites and control for confounding environmental, genetic, and metabolic factors, proteomics studies using animal models of colitis offered an alternative approach to human studies...
July 17, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715646/l-form-bacteria-cohabitants-in-human-blood-significance-for-health-and-diseases
#10
Nadya D Markova
From a historical perspective, intriguing assumptions about unknown "live units" in human blood have attracted the attention of researchers, reflecting their desire to define a new class of microorganisms. Thus, the concept of "blood microbiota" brings about many questions about the nature, origin, and biological significance of the "unusual microbial cohabitants" in human blood. In contrast to current views that bloodstream in healthy humans is sterile, the hypothesis about the existence of microbes as L-forms (cell wall deficient bacteria) in human blood has evolved on the basis of known facts about their unique biology, as observed in our studies and those of other authors...
May 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713788/microorganisms-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-of-oncorhynchus-mykiss-produce-antagonistic-substances-against-bacteria-contaminating-food-and-causing-disease-in-humans
#11
Olga Lobos, Andrea Barrera, Carlos Padilla
The objective was to analyse the antibacterial ability of members of the intestinal microbiota of Oncorhynchus mykiss specimens on several bacterial target strains that contaminate food and cause disease in humans. Bacterial colonies from an intestinal portion of the 20 specimens of O. mykiss were obtained in different culture media. Several of the colonies showed antibacterial action on different target strains. The bacterial species with the highest antagonistic capacity were Hafnia alvei and Lactococcus lactis and the more susceptible target strains were Aeromonas hydrophila, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli...
April 13, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713353/functional-characterization-of-novel-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-strains-isolated-from-healthy-volunteers-a-step-forward-in-the-use-of-f-prausnitzii-as-a-next-generation-probiotic
#12
Rebeca Martín, Sylvie Miquel, Leandro Benevides, Chantal Bridonneau, Véronique Robert, Sylvie Hudault, Florian Chain, Olivier Berteau, Vasco Azevedo, Jean M Chatel, Harry Sokol, Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán, Muriel Thomas, Philippe Langella
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a major member of the Firmicutes phylum and one of the most abundant bacteria in the healthy human microbiota. F. prausnitzii depletion has been reported in several intestinal disorders, and more consistently in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. Despite its importance in human health, only few microbiological studies have been performed to isolate novel F. prausnitzii strains in order to better understand the biodiversity and physiological diversity of this beneficial commensal species...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712163/molecular-characterization-of-fecal-microbiota-of-healthy-chinese-tobacco-smoker-subjects-in-shaanxi-province-xi-an-china
#13
Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq, Muhammad Shahzad, Xiaokang Wu, Chaofeng Ma, Jiru Xu
BACKGROUND: Tobacco Smoking, most commonly, can cause the diseases affecting the lungs and heart. Human gut microbiota plays a key role to decide the health status of the host. Current study aimed to characterize the gut microbiota of healthy Chinese tobacco smokers and to study the alteration in diversity and similarity of gut microbiota, with comparison of healthy non-smokers. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from fourteen healthy tobacco smokers and six from healthy non-smoker individuals...
January 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711782/the-human-microbiome
#14
REVIEW
Hubert E Blum
Until recently, human microbiology was based on the identification of single microbes, such as bacteria, fungi and viruses, frequently isolated from patients with acute or chronic infections. Novel culture-independent molecular biochemical analyses (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) allow today to detect and classify the diverse microorganisms in a given ecosystem (microbiota), such as the gastrointestinal tract, the skin, the airway system, the urogenital tract and others, and to assess all genomes in these ecosystems (microbiome) as well as their gene products...
July 13, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710395/alterations-of-microbiota-structure-in-the-larynx-relevant-to-laryngeal-carcinoma
#15
Hongli Gong, Yi Shi, Xiyan Xiao, Pengyu Cao, Chunping Wu, Lei Tao, Dongsheng Hou, Yuezhu Wang, Liang Zhou
The microbial communities that inhabit the laryngeal mucosa build stable microenvironments and have the potential to influence the health of the human throat. However, the associations between the microbiota structure and laryngeal carcinoma remain uncertain. Here, we explored this question by comparing the laryngeal microbiota structure in laryngeal cancer patients with that in control subjects with vocal cord polyps through high-throughput pyrosequencing. Overall, the genera Streptococcus, Fusobacterium, and Prevotella were prevalent bacterial populations in the laryngeal niche...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705228/cleanliness-in-context-reconciling-hygiene-with-a-modern-microbial-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Roo Vandegrift, Ashley C Bateman, Kyla N Siemens, May Nguyen, Hannah E Wilson, Jessica L Green, Kevin G Van Den Wymelenberg, Roxana J Hickey
The concept of hygiene is rooted in the relationship between cleanliness and the maintenance of good health. Since the widespread acceptance of the germ theory of disease, hygiene has become increasingly conflated with sterilization. In reviewing studies across the hygiene literature (most often hand hygiene), we found that nearly all studies of hand hygiene utilize bulk reduction in bacterial load as a proxy for reduced transmission of pathogenic organisms. This treatment of hygiene may be insufficient in light of recent microbial ecology research, which has demonstrated that humans have intimate and evolutionarily significant relationships with a diverse assemblage of microorganisms (our microbiota)...
July 14, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705224/more-than-just-a-gut-feeling-constraint-based-genome-scale-metabolic-models-for-predicting-functions-of-human-intestinal-microbes
#17
REVIEW
Kees C H van der Ark, Ruben G A van Heck, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Clara Belzer, Willem M de Vos
The human gut is colonized with a myriad of microbes, with substantial interpersonal variation. This complex ecosystem is an integral part of the gastrointestinal tract and plays a major role in the maintenance of homeostasis. Its dysfunction has been correlated to a wide array of diseases, but the understanding of causal mechanisms is hampered by the limited amount of cultured microbes, poor understanding of phenotypes, and the limited knowledge about interspecies interactions. Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) have been used in many different fields, ranging from metabolic engineering to the prediction of interspecies interactions...
July 14, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701081/gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-associated-with-glucose-metabolism-disorders-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-older-adults
#18
K Lippert, L Kedenko, L Antonielli, I Kedenko, C Gemeier, M Leitner, A Kautzky-Willer, B Paulweber, E Hackl
Obesity and associated metabolic disorders have become highly prevalent diseases worldwide, and the human gut microbiota, due to its influence on host energy metabolism, has been attributed an important role therein. This pilot study explores host-microbiota relationships in men and women affected by various types of glucose metabolism disorder. Among 20 individuals aged 58 to 71 years with either normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, or type 2 diabetes mellitus the gut bacterial communities were compared based on barcoded 454 sequencing of 16S rRNA genes amplified from stool samples...
July 13, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700747/the-association-between-ethnicity-and-vaginal-microbiota-composition-in-amsterdam-the-netherlands
#19
Hanneke Borgdorff, Charlotte van der Veer, Robin van Houdt, Catharina J Alberts, Henry J de Vries, Sylvia M Bruisten, Marieke B Snijder, Maria Prins, Suzanne E Geerlings, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff, Janneke H H M van de Wijgert
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether ethnicity is independently associated with vaginal microbiota (VMB) composition in women living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, as has been shown for American women. METHODS: Women (18-34 years, non-pregnant, N = 610) representing the six largest ethnic groups (Dutch, African Surinamese, South-Asian Surinamese, Turkish, Moroccan, and Ghanaian) were sampled from the population-based HELIUS study. Sampling was performed irrespective of health status or healthcare seeking behavior...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700218/response-of-soil-microbial-communities-to-elevated-antimony-and-arsenic-contamination-indicates-the-relationship-between-the-innate-microbiota-and-contaminant-fractions
#20
Weimin Sun, Enzong Xiao, Tangfu Xiao, Valdis Krumins, Qi Wang, Max M Haggblom, Yiran Dong, Song Tang, Min Hu, Baoqin Li, Bingqing Xia, Wei Liu
Mining of sulfide ore deposits containing metalloids, such as antimony and arsenic, has introduced serious soil contamination around the world, posing severe threats to food safety and human health. Hence, it is important to understand the behavior and composition of the microbial communities that control the mobilization or sequestration of these metal(loid)s. Here, we selected two sites in Southwest China with different levels of Sb and As contamination to study interactions among various Sb and As fractions and the soil microbiota, with a focus on the microbial response to metalloid contamination...
July 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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