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Arne O Melleby, Mari E Strand, Andreas Romaine, Kate M Herum, Biljana Skrbic, Christen P Dahl, Ivar Sjaastad, Arnt E Fiane, Jorge Filmus, Geir Christensen, Ida G Lunde
Pressure overload is a frequent cause of heart failure. Heart failure affects millions of patients worldwide and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Cell surface proteoglycans are emerging as molecular players in cardiac remodeling, and increased knowledge about their regulation and function is needed for improved understanding of cardiac pathogenesis. Here we investigated glypicans (GPC1-6), a family of evolutionary conserved heparan sulfate proteoglycans anchored to the extracellular leaflet of the cell membrane, in experimental and clinical heart failure, and explored the function of glypican-6 in cardiac cells in vitro...
2016: PloS One
Angelico Mendy, Edgar R Vieira, Ahmed N Albatineh, Janvier Gasana
To examine the association of colonization by Staphylococcus aureus and general population mortality, we followed 10,598 adults for 8.5 years on average. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus colonization was not associated with death. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage predicted death in a crude analysis but not after adjustment for socioeconomic status and co-morbidities.
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Sanket Newale, Deepak S Bachani
AIM: The study was conducted to understand the demographics, prevalence of co-morbid conditions and treatment modalities of depression. METHODS: A cross-sectional, nationwide observational study was conducted to understand the management pattern of depression in India. Depression was majorly diagnosed with DSM-IV TR criteria. RESULTS: The data of 2276 Indian patients across 18 states were collected through 135 mental health professionals. The study population was predominantly from urban (81...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
M E Pennant, R Mehta, P Moody, G Hackett, A Prentice, S J Sharp, R Lakshman
BACKGROUND: Endometrial biopsies are undertaken in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding but the risk of endometrial cancer or atypical hyperplasia is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic literature review to establish the risk of endometrial cancer and atypical hyperplasia in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding. SEARCH STRATEGY: Search of PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library from database inception to August 2015...
October 20, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Samina Ismail, Aliya Ahmed, Muhammad Qamarul Hoda, Muhammad Sohaib, Zia-Ur-Rehman
All laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) patients in our hospital setting are admitted overnight. This article assesses the contribution of factors like postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), postoperative pain and surgical complications to overnight stay after elective LC. This 1-year observational study included patients having normal liver functions undergoing elective LC before 1400 h. The collected data included patient demographics, co-morbidities, PONV, pain scores, complications, surgical time, anesthesia technique, use of prophylactic antiemetics, analgesics, patient satisfaction and desire to have this surgery as day case or in-patient procedure...
October 20, 2016: Updates in Surgery
Takayuki Koga, Pei-Li Yao, Maryam Goudarzi, Iain A Murray, Gayathri Balandaram, Frank J Gonzalez, Gary H Perdew, Albert J Fornace, Jeffrey M Peters
Alcoholic liver disease is a pathological condition caused by over-consumption of alcohol. Due to the high morbidity and mortality associated with this disease, there remains a need to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying its etiology and to develop new treatments. Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) modulates ethanol-induced hepatic effects, the present study examined alterations in gene expression that may contribute to this disease. Chronic ethanol treatment causes increased hepatic CYP2B10 expression in Pparβ/δ+/+ mice, but not in Pparβ/δ-/- mice...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Sunil Sirohi, Arriel Van Cleef, Jon F Davis
Binge eating and binge alcohol intake are behavioral manifestations of pathological feeding and alcohol use disorder (AUD), respectively. Binge-feeding and AUD have high comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders such as depression, which could have important implications for the management of these conditions. Importantly, these behaviors share many common features suggesting a singular etiology. However, the nature by which binge-feeding affects the development or maintenance of AUD is unclear. The present study examined the impact of a binge-feeding from a nutritionally complete high-fat diet (HFD) on initiation and maintenance of alcohol intake, anxiolytic behavior and central genetic changes in brain regions that control alcohol-reinforced behaviors...
October 17, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Emilie Venables, Jeffrey K Edwards, Saar Baert, William Etienne, Kelly Khabala, Helen Bygrave
INTRODUCTION: The number of people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the long-term management of HIV in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is continuing to increase, along with the prevalence of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). The need to provide large volumes of HIV patients with ART has led to significant adaptations in how medication is delivered, but access to NCD care remains limited in many contexts. Medication Adherence Clubs (MACs) were established in Kibera, Kenya to address the large numbers of patients requiring chronic HIV and/or NCD care...
2016: PloS One
Lisa M Schneper, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Daniel A Notterman, Stephen J Suomi
OBJECTIVE: Child-rearing environments have been associated with morbidity in adult rhesus monkeys. We examine whether such links are also seen with leukocyte telomere length. METHODS: To determine telomere length in leukocytes, blood was collected from 11 adult female monkeys aged 7 to 10 years who had been exposed to different rearing environments between birth and 7 months. Four had been reared with their mothers in typical social groups composed of other female monkeys, their offspring, and 1 to 2 adult male monkeys...
October 19, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Nicholas Arlas, Harry Jergesen
Factors endemic in safety-net hospitals may breed poor outcomes in hip and knee arthroplasty. This review highlights these challenges and discusses strategies to reduce operative risk and promote better surgical outcomes. Sub-optimally managed medical co-morbidities, poverty, and substance abuse are examples of challenges common in safety-net hospital populations and are associated with poor surgical outcomes. Patient management strategies that positively affect surgical outcomes may be nonexistent, underfunded, or underused...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Mariana Moreira Coutinho Arroja, Emma Reid, Christopher McCabe
The renin angiotensin system (RAS) consists of the systemic hormone system, critically involved in regulation and homeostasis of normal physiological functions [i.e. blood pressure (BP), blood volume regulation], and an independent brain RAS, which is involved in the regulation of many functions such as memory, central control of BP and metabolic functions. In general terms, the RAS consists of two opposing axes; the 'classical axis' mediated primarily by Angiotensin II (Ang II), and the 'alternative axis' mediated mainly by Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7))...
2016: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine
Sanjiv M Baxi, Rebecca Scherzer, Vasantha Jotwani, Michelle M Estrella, Alison G Abraham, Chirag R Parikh, Michael R Bennett, Mardge H Cohen, Marek J Nowicki, Deborah R Gustafson, Anjali Sharma, Mary A Young, Michael G Shlipak
BACKGROUND: Urine biomarkers have helped identify persons at risk for progressing to kidney disease in the setting of HIV infection. We explored factors associated with changes in three urine biomarkers over 10 years among women living with HIV. METHODS: Prospective cohort of 294 HIV-infected women from the multicenter Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Predictors included HIV viral and immunological parameters, co-morbid conditions and health-related behaviors...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Surendra Kumar
BACKROUND: The outbreak of H1N1 virus had previously reported in India during 2009 flu pandemic. In 2015, the outbreak became widespread throughout India. The states of Gujarat and Rajasthan are severely elected. We studied an outbreak of H1N1 Virus in north-west zone of Rajasthan 2015. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the current epidemiological scenario of swine flu (H1N1) in north-west zone of Rajasthan with different demographic factors. METHODS: We screened total 6390 patients...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Rajkumar Bharatia, Manoj Chitale, Ganesh Narain Saxena, Raman Ganesh Kumar, Chikkalingaiah, Abhijit Trailokya, Kalpesh Dalvi, Suhas Talele
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension (HTN), being a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), is an important issue of medical and public health. High blood pressure (BP) is ranked as the third most important risk factor for attributable burden of disease in south Asia (2010). Hypertension (HTN) exerts a substantial public health burden on cardiovascular health status and healthcare systems in India. Uncontrolled hypertension among adults with hypertension is associated with increased mortality...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Wei Yee Wan, Ahsan Mughal, Kelly Ward
Psoas abscess is commonly regarded as an unusual cause for back pains and usually associated with significant risk factors or co-morbidities. We describe the clinical presentation and findings of a young male Caucasian with bilateral psoas abscesses caused by an unusual organism, Janibacter terrae (an environmental organism) not previously described in literature and the challenges faced in managing this infection. There are very few case reports of this organism causing opportunistic infections, all reported bacteraemia mainly in patients with significant co-morbidities...
October 19, 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
Carlos Menéndez Villalva, Xosé Luís López Alvarez-Muiño, Trinidad Gamarra Mondelo, Alfonso Alonso Fachado, Joaquín Cubiella Fernández
The lack of adherence to treatment in hypertension affects approximately 30 % of patients. The elderly, those with several co-morbidities, social isolation, low incomes or depressive symptoms are the most vulnerable to this problem. There is no ideal method to quantify the adherence to the treatment. Indirect methods are recommended in clinical practice. Any intervention strategy should not blame the patient and try a collaborative approach. It is recommended to involve the patient in decision-making. The clinical interview style must be patient-centered including motivational techniques...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Rohit Kedia, Supriya Kulkarni, Meredith Ross, Vijay Shivaswamy
The dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and public health care costs worldwide. The need for new, effective, and long-lasting drugs is urgent. Recent research has focused on the role of the inhibitors of sodium- glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2). Clinical trials have shown that SGLT-2 inhibitors have glycemic efficacy and weight-lowering potential. Dual drug therapy is a recommended therapy for patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes who need significant glycemic control...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
Edward J Wing
With the wider availability of antiretrovirals, the world's HIV population is aging. More than 10% of the 34.5 million HIV+ individuals worldwide are over the age of 50 and the average age continues to increase. In the US more than 50% of the 1.3 million people with HIV are over 50 and by the year 2030 it is estimated that 70% will be over the age of 50. Although the life expectancy of HIV+ people has increased dramatically, it still lags behind HIV- individuals. There is controversy about whether HIV itself accelerates the aging process...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Harm Wienbergen, Otmar Pfister, Matthias Hochadel, Stephan Michel, Oliver Bruder, Björn Andrew Remppis, Micha Tobias Maeder, Ruth Strasser, Wolfgang von Scheidt, Matthias Pauschinger, Jochen Senges, Rainer Hambrecht
Iron deficiency (ID) has been identified as an important co-morbidity in patients with heart failure (HF). Intravenous iron therapy reduced symptoms and rehospitalizations of iron-deficient patients with HF in randomized trials. The present multicenter study investigated the "real-world" management of iron status in patients with HF. Consecutive patients with HF and ejection fraction ≤40% were recruited and analyzed from December 2010 to October 2015 by 11 centers in Germany and Switzerland. Of 1,484 patients with HF, iron status was determined in only 923 patients (62...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
T Thomsen, M Aadahl, N Beyer, M L Hetland, K Løppenthin, J Midtgaard, R Christensen, B A Esbensen
BACKGROUND: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) spend a high proportion of their waking time in sedentary behaviour (SB) and have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Reduction of SB and increase in light intensity physical activity has been suggested as a means of improvement of health in patients with mobility problems. Short-term intervention studies have demonstrated that SB can be reduced by behavioural interventions in sedentary populations. To evaluate descriptively the feasibility of recruitment, randomisation, outcome assessments, retention and the acceptability of an individually tailored, theory-based behavioural intervention targeting reduction in daily sitting time in patients with RA...
October 18, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
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