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cognition cholesterol depression dementia

J Skov Neergaard, K Dragsbæk, C Christiansen, M Asser Karsdal, S Brix, K Henriksen
BACKGROUND: Identification of subjects with a progressive disease phenotype is an urgent need in the pharmaceutical industry where most of the recent clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease have failed. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to identify subgroups of individuals with objective cognitive impairment (OCI), who were most likely to progress to dementia and to identify the risk factors associated with progression. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study...
2017: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
Satyajeet Roy, Joshua Louis Weinstock, Allyse Sachiko Ishino, Jefferson Felix Benites, Samantha Rachel Pop, Christopher David Perez, Edvard Adrian Gumbs, Jennifer Ann Rosenbaum, Mary Kate Roccato, Hely Shah, Gabriela Contino, Krystal Hunter
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the United States. A reduction in cholesterol with 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statin) significantly reduces mortality and morbidity. Statins may be associated with cognitive impairment or dementia. Our aim was to study the association of cognitive impairment or dementia in patients who were on a statin. METHODS: Electronic medical records of 3,500 adult patients in our suburban internal medicine office were reviewed...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Chaoran Ma, Zhaoxue Yin, Pengfei Zhu, Jiesi Luo, Xiaoming Shi, Xiang Gao
BACKGROUND: Previous studies regarding the lipid-cognition relation in older adults are limited and have generated mixed results. We thus examined whether higher blood cholesterol concentrations were associated with faster cognitive decline in a community-based longitudinal study of Chinese elderly. METHODS: The study included 1,159 Chinese adults aged over 60 years (women: 48.7%, mean age: 79.4 years), who were free of dementia, Parkinson disease and stroke at the baseline...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Nozomi Hishikawa, Yusuke Fukui, Kota Sato, Toru Yamashita, Yasuyuki Ohta, Koji Abe
AIM: The number of people with dementia is rapidly increasing as populations around the world age. It is important to grasp the characteristic features of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) for early detection and prevention of dementia. METHODS: We examined 408 individuals recruited from a health checkup for metabolic syndrome, which comprised three groups: normal (n = 325), MCI (n = 55) and apparent cognitive decline (ACD; n = 28). We compared cognitive/affective functions and exercise/hobby habits with assessments of vascular risk factors and results from computerized touch-panel tests...
May 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
N P Catoira, F Tapajóz, R F Allegri, J Lajfer, M J Rodríguez Cámara, M L Iturry, G O Castaño
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity, as well as evidence about this pathology as a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia in the elderly, is increasing worldwide. Executive functions have been found to be compromised in most studies, although the specific results are dissimilar. Obese young women constitute an interesting study and intervention group, having been found to be unaffected by age and hormonal negative effects on cognition and considering that their health problems affect not only themselves but their families and offspring...
April 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Vanda Ho, Nur Hani Zainal, Linda Lim, Aloysius Ng, Eveline Silva, Nagaendran Kandiah
BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia are reaching epidemic proportions in Asia. Lack of awareness and late presentation are major obstacles to early diagnosis and timely intervention. Cognitive screening may be an effective method for early detection of dementia in Asia. The purpose of this work was to study the characteristics of subjects volunteering for cognitive screening in an Asian setting and to determine the prevalence of MCI. METHODS: Retrospective and cross-sectional data from community subjects attending a screening program from 2008 to 2013 were analyzed...
2015: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Carrington R Wendell, Shari R Waldstein, Alan B Zonderman
OBJECTIVE: Prior literature has identified inconsistent longitudinal associations between total cholesterol and cognitive decline. The authors examined prospective nonlinear relations of coincident trajectories of total cholesterol and cognitive function among persons free of stroke, dementia, and other neurological disease. METHOD: Up to 1,601 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (aged 19-93, 51% male, 75% White) underwent fasting cholesterol measurement and neuropsychological assessment on up to 12 occasions (M = 3...
January 2014: Neuropsychology
Murali Doraiswamy, Ranga Krishnan, James Ritchie, Larry Tupler, William McDonald, Santovica Marcovina, David Knight, Charles Nemeroff
An increased frequency of apolipoprotein E4 has been reported in both late-onset Alzheimer's disease and multi-infarct dementia. It has also been suggested that the Apo E4 allele may increase plasma cholesterol. Late-onset depression (LOD) is frequently associated with cerebrovascular changes as well as cognitive impairment. In this study, Apo E4 phenotyping was performed using isoelectric focussing in 23 patients with LOD and 8 with early onset depression. None had SDAT at time of evaluation. Nine LOD patients and none of EOD patients had E4/3 alleles (p<0...
December 1994: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Patsri Srisuwan
BACKGROUND: Dementia will inevitably increase in the aging world. Moreover there is no cure for dementia. Therefore, primary prevention is very important. There are several factors possibly and/or certainly influencing dementia risk including non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors. There are evidences that the risk of developing dementia may be reduced by modifiable risk factors. LIFESTYLE FACTORS: The strategies are to encourage regular physical and mental exercise in midlife and in late-life...
February 2013: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Gwenn S Smith
Neuroplasticity can be defined as a final common pathway of neurobiological processes, including structural, functional or molecular mechanisms, that result in stability or compensation for age- or disease-related changes. The papers in this issue address the aging process, as well as depression, dementia, and stroke and a range of interventions, including manipulations in behavior (physical and cognitive activity/exercise), physiological factors (caloric restriction, cholesterol), pharmacologic treatments (AMPA receptors) and manipulation of brain magnetic fields and electrical activity (transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetic seizure therapy, and deep brain stimulation)...
March 2013: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Perminder S Sachdev, Darren M Lipnicki, John Crawford, Simone Reppermund, Nicole A Kochan, Julian N Trollor, Brian Draper, Melissa J Slavin, Kristan Kang, Ora Lux, Karen A Mather, Henry Brodaty
OBJECTIVES: To compare the risk profiles of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes in a population-based elderly sample. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: The population-based Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. PARTICIPANTS: Seven hundred fifty-seven English-speaking, community-dwelling individuals without dementia aged 70 to 90. MEASUREMENTS: Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments were used to diagnose MCI and its subtypes, categorized as amnestic (aMCI) or nonamnestic (naMCI) and as single- (sdMCI) or multiple- (mdMCI) domain...
January 2012: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Carol Dillon, Gerardo Machnicki, Cecilia M Serrano, Galeno Rojas, Gustavo Vazquez, Ricardo F Allegri
BACKGROUND: As the older population increases so does the number of older psychiatric patients. Elderly psychiatric patients manifest certain specific and unique characteristics. Different subtypes of depressive syndromes exist in late-life depression, and many of these are associated with cognitive impairment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 109 depressive patients and 30 normal subjects matched by age and educational level were evaluated using a neuropsychiatric interview and an extensive neuropsychological battery...
November 2011: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jae-Min Kim, Robert Stewart, Seon-Young Kim, Kyung-Yeol Bae, Su-Jin Yang, Sung-Wan Kim, Il-Seon Shin, Jin-Sang Yoon
OBJECTIVE: Associations of thyroid dysfunction with cognitive impairment and depression in late-life have been described but remain controversial. This study aimed to investigate the associations of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels with cognitive impairment and depression after controlling for potential confounding factors. METHODS: The sample consisted of 495 community residents aged 65 or over in whom serum TSH had been assayed. Cognitive impairment was defined using the Community Screening Interview for Dementia, and depression was diagnosed using the Geriatric Mental State schedule...
December 2010: Psychiatry Investigation
Juliín Benito-León, Elan D Louis, Saturio Vega, Félix Bermejo-Pareja
In a 2009 Cochrane review, the authors concluded that there is good evidence that statins, given in late life to people at risk of vascular disease, have no effect in preventing Alzheimer's disease or dementia. A related issue, which remains unclear, is whether statins improve cognitive function. While some studies have shown a beneficial effect of statins on cognitive function, others have observed mild detrimental effects on cognition. Our aim was to assess cognitive function in community-dwelling elderly participants treated with statins compared with their untreated counterparts (i...
2010: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Carol Dillon, Ricardo F Allegri, Cecilia M Serrano, Mónica Iturry, Pablo Salgado, Frank B Glaser, Fernando E Taragano
OBJECTIVE: To contrast early-onset (<60 years) and late-onset (>60 years) depression in geriatric patients by evaluating differences in cognition, vascular comorbidity and sociological risk factors. Both patient groups were compared with normal subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 76 patients with depressive symptoms (37 late onset and 39 early onset) and 17 normal controls matched by age and educational level. All subjects were assessed using a semistructured neuropsychiatric interview and an extensive neuropsychological battery...
2009: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Carrington Rice Wendell, Alan B Zonderman, E Jeffrey Metter, Samer S Najjar, Shari R Waldstein
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Though clinical cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are established risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia, less is known about the relations between vascular health and cognition among individuals without these diseases. Carotid intimal medial thickness (IMT), a measure of subclinical vascular disease, is associated with concurrent decrements in cognitive function, but relatively little research has examined longitudinal relations between carotid IMT and prospective cognitive decline...
October 2009: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Anikó Egerházi
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder in which the novel drugs can slow down the progression in the early phase. Our purpose was to find biological markers, which would detect neuropathology in the prodromal and early phase of Alzheimer's disease. Beside the routine diagnostic methods, neuropsychological test, auditory event related potential and special laboratory tests were performed among subjects with Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, mild cognitive impairment and major depression compared to a healthy control group...
December 21, 2008: Orvosi Hetilap
Michelle M Mielke, Qian-Li Xue, Jing Zhou, Paulo H M Chaves, Linda P Fried, Michelle C Carlson
BACKGROUND: Although several studies have investigated the association between cholesterol and dementia, few have examined cholesterol and decline across cognitive domains. We examined serum total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, total-to-HDL ratio, and trajectories across cognitive domains. METHODS: Participants were 436 community-residing women (70-79 years old) in the Women's Health and Aging Study II; they were screened to be physically high-functioning and cognitively intact at baseline...
June 2008: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Antonio Cherubini, Cristina Andres-Lacueva, Antonio Martin, Fulvio Lauretani, Angelo Di Iorio, Benedetta Bartali, Annamaria Corsi, Stefania Bandinelli, Mark P Mattson, Luigi Ferrucci
BACKGROUND: N-3 fatty acids (FA) have an important role in brain development and function. However, there is conflicting evidence concerning the relationship between n-3 FA and dementia in older persons. METHODS: In the Invecchiare in Chianti (InCHIANTI) study, we measured plasma FA by gas chromatography in 935 community-dwelling older persons randomly extracted from the population of two towns near Florence, Italy. Cognitive impairment was measured using the Mini-Mental Status Examination...
October 2007: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Olfa Chehab, Mohamed Ouertani, Kamel Chaieb, Faouzi Haouala, Kacem Mahdouani
Adrenal function and aging have been the object of intense interest recently, especially as regards dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), which is of major importance, since it is distinct from cortisol and aldosterone in declining with age. In a group of healthy old Tunisians, we investigated the association between cortisol and DHEA-S, on the one hand, and age, sex, lifestyle, physical health, including the body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and smoking indicators, on the other hand. We observed that cortisol concentrations did not change with aging, while DHEA-S concentrations decrease with age in both sexes...
October 2007: Comptes Rendus Biologies
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