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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128195/-what-support-of-young-presenting-a-first-psychotic-episode-when-schooling-is-being-challenged
#1
M-N Vacheron, H Veyrat-Masson, E Wehbe
Psychiatric disorders (more specifically mood disorders and psychosis) represent the 1st cause of disability among young people. Unemployment rate between 75 to 95% for the person with schizophrenia. It is correlated to poor social integration and bad economic status, worse symptomatology loss of autonomy as well as global bad functioning. It is responsible of more than half of the overall cost of psychosis. The onset of most of psychiatric disorders occur between the age of 25 and 35 years old, a critical time in young adult life when they should build their professional as well as social future...
November 8, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977687/professional-structural-and-organisational-interventions-in-primary-care-for-reducing-medication-errors
#2
REVIEW
Hanan Khalil, Brian Bell, Helen Chambers, Aziz Sheikh, Anthony J Avery
BACKGROUND: Medication-related adverse events in primary care represent an important cause of hospital admissions and mortality. Adverse events could result from people experiencing adverse drug reactions (not usually preventable) or could be due to medication errors (usually preventable). OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of professional, organisational and structural interventions compared to standard care to reduce preventable medication errors by primary healthcare professionals that lead to hospital admissions, emergency department visits, and mortality in adults...
October 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845341/building-a-national-culture-of-health-background-action-framework-measures-and-next-steps
#3
Anita Chandra, Joie Acosta, Katherine Grace Carman, Tamara Dubowitz, Laura Leviton, Laurie T Martin, Carolyn Miller, Christopher Nelson, Tracy Orleans, Margaret Tait, Matthew Trujillo, Vivian Towe, Douglas Yeung, Alonzo L Plough
Because health is a function of more than medical care, solutions to U.S. health problems must encompass more than reforms to health care systems. But those working to improve health, well-being, and equity still too often find themselves traveling on parallel paths that rarely intersect. In 2013, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) embarked on a pioneering effort to advance a Culture of Health initiative. A Culture of Health places well-being at the center of every aspect of life, with the goal of enabling everyone in our diverse society to lead healthier lives, now and for generations to come...
January 2017: Rand Health Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747496/parainfluenza-virus-5-expressing-wild-type-or-prefusion-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-fusion-protein-protects-mice-and-cotton-rats-from-rsv-challenge
#4
Shannon I Phan, James R Zengel, Huiling Wei, Zhuo Li, Dai Wang, Biao He
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of pediatric bronchiolitis and hospitalizations. RSV can also cause severe complications in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. There is no licensed vaccine. We previously generated a parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5)-vectored vaccine candidate expressing the RSV fusion protein (F) that was immunogenic and protective in mice. In this work, our goal was to improve the original vaccine candidate by modifying the PIV5 vector or by modifying the RSV F antigen...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634236/alternative-evolutionary-pathways-for-drug-resistant-small-colony-variant-mutants-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#5
Sha Cao, Douglas L Huseby, Gerrit Brandis, Diarmaid Hughes
Staphylococcus aureus is known to generate small colony variants (SCVs) that are resistant to aminoglycoside antibiotics and can cause persistent and recurrent infections. The SCV phenotype is unstable, and compensatory mutations lead to restored growth, usually with loss of resistance. However, the evolution of improved growth, by mechanisms that avoid loss of antibiotic resistance, is very poorly understood. By selection with serial passaging, we isolated and characterized different classes of extragenic suppressor mutations that compensate for the slow growth of small colony variants...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631816/cognitive-rehabilitation-for-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injury-to-improve-occupational-outcomes
#6
REVIEW
K Suresh Kumar, Selvaraj Samuelkamaleshkumar, Anand Viswanathan, Ashish S Macaden
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment in people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) could affect multiple facets of their daily functioning. Cognitive rehabilitation brings about clinically significant improvement in certain cognitive skills. However, it is uncertain if these improved cognitive skills lead to betterments in other key aspects of daily living. We evaluated whether cognitive rehabilitation for people with TBI improves return to work, independence in daily activities, community integration and quality of life...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621793/kinetics-and-mechanism-of-oxidation-of-the-anti-tubercular-prodrug-isoniazid-and-its-analog-by-iridium-iv-as-models-for-biological-redox-systems
#7
Jingran Dong, Yanli Ren, Sufang Sun, Jiao Yang, Chunxia Nan, Hongmei Shi, Jianzhong Xu, Jie Duan, Tiesheng Shi, Lars I Elding
A complex reaction mechanism of oxidation of the anti-tubercular prodrug isoniazid (isonicotinic hydrazide, INH) by [IrCl6](2-) as a model for redox processes of such drugs in biological systems has been studied in aqueous solution as a function of pH between 0 and 8.5. Similar experiments have been performed with its isomer nicotinic hydrazide (NH). All reactions are overall second-order, first-order in [IrCl6](2-) and hydrazide, and the observed second-order rate constants k' have been determined as a function of pH...
June 16, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554062/an-isotope-dilution-uplc-ms-ms-technique-for-the-human-biomonitoring-of-the-internal-exposure-to-glycidol-via-a-valine-adduct-at-the-n-terminus-of-hemoglobin
#8
Jan Hielscher, Bernhard H Monien, Klaus Abraham, Sönke Jessel, Albrecht Seidel, Alfonso Lampen
Fatty acid esters of glycidol (glycidyl esters) are processing contaminants generated as a byproduct of the industrial deodorization of vegetable oils and fats. Oral intake of glycidyl esters leads to the release of glycidol in the gastrointestinal tract. Glycidol is carcinogenic, genotoxic and teratogenic in rodents. It is rated as probably carcinogenic to humans (IARC group 2A). The determination of internal exposure of glycidol may support the assessment of the possible human health risks related to glycidyl ester intake...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506326/a-model-to-infer-the-demographic-structure-evolution-of-endangered-donkey-populations
#9
F J Navas, J Jordana, J M León, C Barba, J V Delgado
Stemming from The Worldwide Donkey Breeds Project, an initiative aiming at connecting international researchers and entities working with the donkey species, molecularly tested pedigree analyses were carried out to study the genetic diversity, structure and historical evolution of the Andalusian donkey breed since the 1980s to infer a model to study the situation of international endangered donkey breeds under the remarkably frequent unknown genetical background status behind them. Demographic and genetic variability parameters were evaluated using ENDOG (v4...
May 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502809/challenges-of-informed-consent-for-pragmatic-trials
#10
Shona Kalkman, Ghislaine J M W van Thiel, Mira G P Zuidgeest, Iris Goetz, Boris M Pfeiffer, Diederick E Grobbee, Johannes J M van Delden
The GetReal consortium of the Innovative Medicines Initiative aims to develop strategies to incorporate real-world evidence earlier into the drug life cycle to better inform health care decision makers on the comparative risks and benefits of new drugs. Pragmatic trials are currently explored as a means to generate such evidence in routine care settings. The traditional informed consent model for randomized clinical trials has been argued to pose substantial hurdles to the practicability of pragmatic trials: it would lead to recruitment difficulties, reduced generalizability of the results, and selection bias...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185538/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-hybrid-1-5-and-2-5-disubstituted-indoles-as-potentially-new-antitubercular-agents
#11
Ana Soares, Monica S Estevao, Maria M B Marques, Vasily Kovalishyn, Diogo A R S Latino, Joao Aires-de-Sousa, Jorge Ramos, Miguel Viveiros, Filomena Martins
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the second leading cause of mortality worldwide being a highly contagious and insidious illness caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mtb. Additionally, the emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant strains of Mtb, together with significant levels of co-infection with HIV and TB (HIV/TB) make the search for new antitubercular drugs urgent and challenging. METHODS: This work was based on the hypothesis that an active compound could be obtained if substituents present in some other active compounds were attached on a core of an important structure, in this case the indole scaffold, thus generating a hybrid compound...
2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182580/internal-dosimetry-with-the-monte-carlo-code-gate-validation-using-the-icrp-icru-female-reference-computational-model
#12
Daphnée Villoing, Sara Marcatili, Marie-Paule Garcia, Manuel Bardiès
The purpose of this work was to validate GATE-based clinical scale absorbed dose calculations in nuclear medicine dosimetry. GATE (version 6.2) and MCNPX (version 2.7.a) were used to derive dosimetric parameters (absorbed fractions, specific absorbed fractions and S-values) for the reference female computational model proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in ICRP report 110. Monoenergetic photons and electrons (from 50 keV to 2 MeV) and four isotopes currently used in nuclear medicine (fluorine-18, lutetium-177, iodine-131 and yttrium-90) were investigated...
March 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102616/development-and-psychometric-testing-of-the-attitudes-subjective-norms-perceived-behavioural-control-and-intention-to-pursue-a-career-in-mental-health-nursing-scale
#13
Mark Wilbourn, Yenna Salamonson, Lucie Ramjan, Sungwon Chang
The aim of the present study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Attitudes, Subjective Norms, Perceived Behavioural Control, and Intention to Pursue a Career in Mental Health Nursing (ASPIRE) scale, an instrument to assess nursing students' intention to work in mental health nursing. Understanding the factors influencing undergraduate nursing students' career intentions might lead to improved recruitment strategies. However, there are no standardized tools to measure and assess students' intention to pursue a career in mental health nursing...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047566/su-f-j-147-magnetic-field-dose-response-considerations-for-a-linac-monitor-chamber
#14
M Reynolds, B Fallone
PURPOSE: The impact of magnetic fields on the readings of a linac monitor chamber have not yet been investigated. Herein we examine the total dose response as well as any deviations in the beam parameters of flatness and symmetry when a Varian monitor chamber is irradiated within an applied magnetic field. This work has direct application to the development of Linac-MR systems worldwide. METHODS: A Varian monitor chamber was modeled in the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE and irradiated in the presence of a magnetic field with a phase space generated from a model of a Linac-MR prototype system...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895572/plastic-changes-in-human-motor-cortical-output-induced-by-random-but-not-closed-loop-peripheral-stimulation-the-curse-of-causality
#15
Kenneth I Brown, Elizabeth R Williams, Felipe de Carvalho, Stuart N Baker
Previous work showed that repetitive peripheral nerve stimulation can induce plastic changes in motor cortical output. Triggering electrical stimulation of central structures from natural activity can also generate plasticity. In this study, we tested whether triggering peripheral nerve stimulation from muscle activity would likewise induce changes in motor output. We developed a wearable electronic device capable of recording electromyogram (EMG) and delivering electrical stimulation under closed-loop control...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811385/evaluation-of-event-position-reconstruction-in-monolithic-crystals-that-are-optically-coupled
#16
M Morrocchi, W C J Hunter, A Del Guerra, T K Lewellen, P E Kinahan, L R MacDonald, M G Bisogni, R S Miyaoka
A PET detector featuring a pseudo-monolithic crystal is being developed as a more cost-effective alternative to a full monolithic crystal PET detector. This work evaluates different methods to localize the scintillation events in quartered monolithic crystals that are optically coupled. A semi-monolithic crystal assembly was formed using four 26  ×  26  ×  10 mm(3) LYSO crystals optically coupled together using optical adhesive, to mimic a 52  ×  52  ×  10 mm(3) monolithic crystal detector...
December 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748587/qualitative-investigation-of-the-decomposition-of-organic-solvent-based-lithium-ion-battery-electrolytes-with-lc-it-tof-ms
#17
Carola Schultz, Sven Vedder, Martin Winter, Sascha Nowak
The development of a novel high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method hyphenated to an ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometer (IT-TOF-MS) for the separation and identification of constituents from common organic carbonate solvent-based electrolyte systems in lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is presented in this work. The method development was conducted for the qualitative structural elucidation of electrolyte main constituents with a special focus on the aging products of these components. The determination of their limits of detection was performed as well...
November 15, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627621/how-computational-models-contribute-to-our-understanding-of-the-germ-line
#18
REVIEW
Kathryn Atwell, Sara-Jane Dunn, James M Osborne, Hillel Kugler, E Jane Albert Hubbard
Computational models are an invaluable tool in modern biology. They provide a framework within which to summarize existing knowledge, enable competing hypotheses to be compared qualitatively and quantitatively, and to facilitate the interpretation of complex data. Moreover, models allow questions to be investigated that are difficult to approach experimentally. Theories can be tested in context, identifying the gaps in our understanding and potentially leading to new hypotheses. Models can be developed on a variety of scales and with different levels of mechanistic detail, depending on the available data, the biological questions of interest, and the available mathematical and computational tools...
November 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619396/analysis-of-the-impact-of-different-service-levels-on-the-workload-of-an-ambulance-service-provider
#19
REVIEW
Marco Oberscheider, Patrick Hirsch
BACKGROUND: Efficient transport of non-emergency patients is crucial for ambulance service providers to cope with increased demand resulting from aging Western societies. This paper deals with the optimization of the patient transport operations of the Red Cross of Lower Austria, which is the main provider in this state. Different quality levels of the provided service - expressed by time windows, feasible maximum ride times and exclusive transports - are tested and analyzed on real-life instances to show daily impacts on the provider's resources...
September 13, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597823/the-reality-of-myoelectric-prostheses-understanding-what-makes-these-devices-difficult-for-some-users-to-control
#20
Alix Chadwell, Laurence Kenney, Sibylle Thies, Adam Galpin, John Head
Users of myoelectric prostheses can often find them difficult to control. This can lead to passive-use of the device or total rejection, which can have detrimental effects on the contralateral limb due to overuse. Current clinically available prostheses are "open loop" systems, and although considerable effort has been focused on developing biofeedback to "close the loop," there is evidence from laboratory-based studies that other factors, notably improving predictability of response, may be as, if not more, important...
2016: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
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