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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547661/targeting-sclerostin-in-postmenopausal-osteoporosis-focus-on-romosozumab-and-blosozumab
#1
Ian R Reid
Most current treatments for osteoporosis inhibit bone resorption and reduce total fracture numbers by about one-quarter. The identification of the osteocytic protein sclerostin as a potent regulator of bone turnover and bone density has led to the development of a new therapeutic class-agents that inhibit sclerostin activity, resulting in increased bone formation and reduced bone resorption. Romosozumab and blosozumab are monoclonal antibodies that bind to sclerostin, reducing its inhibition of Wnt signaling...
May 25, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546097/10-years-of-denosumab-treatment-in-postmenopausal-women-with-osteoporosis-results-from-the-phase-3-randomised-freedom-trial-and-open-label-extension
#2
Henry G Bone, Rachel B Wagman, Maria L Brandi, Jacques P Brown, Roland Chapurlat, Steven R Cummings, Edward Czerwiński, Astrid Fahrleitner-Pammer, David L Kendler, Kurt Lippuner, Jean-Yves Reginster, Christian Roux, Jorge Malouf, Michelle N Bradley, Nadia S Daizadeh, Andrea Wang, Paula Dakin, Nicola Pannacciulli, David W Dempster, Socrates Papapoulos
BACKGROUND: Long-term safety and efficacy of osteoporosis treatment are important because of the chronic nature of the disease. We aimed to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of denosumab, which is widely used for the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. METHODS: In the multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 FREEDOM trial, postmenopausal women aged 60-90 years with osteoporosis were enrolled in 214 centres in North America, Europe, Latin America, and Australasia and were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 60 mg subcutaneous denosumab or placebo every 6 months for 3 years...
May 22, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543940/greater-gains-in-spine-and-hip-strength-for-romosozumab-compared-to-teriparatide-in-postmenopausal-women-with-low-bone-mass
#3
T M Keaveny, D B Crittenden, M A Bolognese, H K Genant, K Engelke, B Oliveri, J P Brown, B L Langdahl, C Yan, A Grauer, C Libanati
Romosozumab is a monoclonal antibody that inhibits sclerostin and has been shown to reduce the risk of fractures within 12 months. In a Phase II, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of treatment-naïve postmenopausal women with low bone mass, romosozumab increased BMD at the hip and spine by the dual effect of increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption. In a substudy of that trial, which included placebo and teriparatide arms, here we investigated whether those observed increases in BMD also resulted in improvements in estimated strength, as assessed by finite element analysis...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542552/osteoporosis-associated-vertebral-fractures-health-economic-implications
#4
Julian Joestl, Nikolaus Lang, Adam Bukaty, Thomas M Tiefenboeck, Patrick Platzer
INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis-associated vertebral fractures represent an increasing clinical and public health problem, one with important socioeconomic effects within western countries. The purpose of this study was to analyse demographic, medical, gender and socioeconomic aspects of osteoporotic vertebral fractures of the thoracic or lumbar spine over a period of at least 10-years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Included for analysis were 694 patients who had suffered a vertebral fracture due to primary or secondary osteoporosis, and who were treated at our Level-I trauma center between 2000 and 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541863/danger-on-the-farm-a-comparison-of-agricultural-and-animal-related-injuries
#5
Jessica L Weaver, Charles W Kimbrough, Kimberly Broughton-Miller, Michelle Frisbie, Jodi Wojcik, Karina Pentecost, Matthew C Bozeman, Nicholas A Nash, Brian G Harbrecht
Animal-related injuries are common in rural areas. Agricultural workers can suffer severe injuries involving farm machinery or falls. The spectrum of injuries related to rural activities is poorly defined and characterizing these injuries will improve injury prevention efforts. Records for injured patients admitted between 2010 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with a mechanism of injury involving a large animal or with the injury site listed as "farm" were included. Patients with agricultural injuries (n = 85) were older with more multisystem injuries than patients injured by animals (n = 132) but the Injury Severity Score was equivalent...
May 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540505/retrospective-evaluation-of-serum-ctx-levels-after-denosumab-discontinuation-in-patients-with-or-without-prior-exposure-to-bisphosphonates
#6
B Uebelhart, R Rizzoli, S L Ferrari
Discontinuation of denosumab (Dmab) therapy is associated with lower serum CTX levels in osteoporotic patients previously exposed to bisphosphonates compared to those who were not. INTRODUCTION: Discontinuation of Dmab therapy is followed by a transient increase of bone turnover markers (BTMs) above pretreatment values, together with accelerated bone loss, and potentially an increased risk of multiple vertebral fractures. Since a substantial proportion of patients discontinuing Dmab have previously been exposed to bisphosphonates (BPs), we hypothesized that previous BP therapy could attenuate this increase in bone turnover because of the prolonged biological effects of BPs on bone...
May 24, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539165/drug-holidays-from-bisphosphonates-and-denosumab-in-postmenopausal-osteoporosis-emas-position-statement
#7
REVIEW
Panagiotis Anagnostis, Stavroula A Paschou, Gesthimani Mintziori, Iuliana Ceausu, Herman Depypere, Irene Lambrinoudaki, Alfred Mueck, Faustino R Pérez-López, Margaret Rees, Levent M Senturk, Tommaso Simoncini, John C Stevenson, Petra Stute, Florence A Trémollieres, Dimitrios G Goulis
BACKGROUND: Bisphosphonates and denosumab are used extensively in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Despite their proven efficacy in the reduction of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures, their optimal duration of use has not been determined. The occurrence of adverse effects, such as osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) and atypical femoral fractures (AFF), has raised the issue of bisphosphonate or denosumab discontinuation ("drug holiday") after a certain treatment period. AIM: To assess the effect of bisphosphonate and denosumab discontinuation on fracture risk, as well as its possible benefits in reducing the risk of adverse effects...
July 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538596/acute-and-hyper-acute-thoracolumbar-corpectomy-for-traumatic-burst-fractures-using-a-mini-open-lateral-approach
#8
William D Smith, Nick Ghazarian, Ginger Christian
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. OBJECTIVE: The study purpose was to examine the feasibility of acute (<24 hours) and hyper-acute (<8 hours) treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures to maintain or improve spinal injury scores. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Historically, treatment of spinal burst fractures within 24 hours from injury was considered an "acute" treatment timeframe. Patient polytrauma triage, multiple surgical specialty and hospital resource coordination affect time to treatment...
May 22, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538396/effects-of-teriparatide-versus-alendronate-for-treatment-of-postmenopausal-osteoporosis-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#9
Ya-Kang Wang, Si-Qing Qin, Tao Ma, Wei Song, Ren-Qi Jiang, Jian-Bin Guo, Kun Li, Yu-Min Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Osteoporosis remains a clinical challenge. Teriparatide is an anabolic drug and alendronate is an antiresorptive agent; both are used in the treatment of osteoporosis. Comprehensive reviews investigating the comparative safety and efficacy of teriparatide versus alendronate are scarce. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of teriparatide versus alendronate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536889/the-phenotype-of-patients-with-a-recent-fracture-a-literature-survey-of-the-fracture-liaison-service
#10
REVIEW
Lisanne Vranken, Caroline E Wyers, Joop P W van den Bergh, Piet P M M Geusens
The aetiology of fractures in patients aged 50 years and older is multifactorial, and includes bone- and fall-related risks. The Fracture Liaison Service (FLS) is recommended to identify patients with a recent fracture and to evaluate their subsequent fracture risk, in order to take measures to decrease the risk of subsequent fractures in patients with a high risk phenotype. A literature survey was conducted to describe components of the bone- and fall-related phenotype of patients attending the FLS. Components of the patient phenotype at the FLS have been reported in 33 studies...
May 24, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535898/treatment-of-postmenopausal-osteoporosis-a-literature-based-algorithm-for-use-in-the-public-health-care-system
#11
Ellen Luz Pereira Caires, Mailze Campos Bezerra, Ana Flávia Torquato de Araújo Junqueira, Sheila Márcia de Araújo Fontenele, Silvana Cristina de Albuquerque Andrade, Catarina Brasil d'Alva
Bisphosphonates are considered first-line agents in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis based on extensive experience of use, safety, and proven efficacy in reducing vertebral, non-vertebral and femur fractures. However, post-marketing reports based on the treatment of millions of patients/year over lengthy periods of time have revealed the occurrence of initially unexpected adverse effects, such as osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femoral fracture, leading to the restriction of treatment duration with bisphosphonates by global regulatory agencies...
May 2017: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535619/prevalence-and-incidence-of-osteoporotic-fractures-in-patients-on-long-term-glucocorticoid-treatment-for-rheumatic-diseases-the-glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis-tool-giotto-study
#12
M Rossini, O Viapiana, M Vitiello, N Malavolta, G La Montagna, S Maddali Bongi, O Di Munno, R Nuti, C U Manzini, C Ferri, L Bogliolo, A Mathieu, F Cantatore, A Del Puente, M Muratore, W Grassi, B Frediani, G Saviola, P Delvino, L Mirone, G Ferraccioli, G Tripi, I Piazza, D Gatti
Osteoporosis and fractures are common and invalidating consequences of chronic glucorticoid (GC) treatment. Reliable information regarding the epidemiology of GC induced osteoporosis (GIOP) comes exclusively from the placebo group of randomized clinical trials while observational studies are generally lacking data on the real prevalence of vertebral fractures, GC dosage and primary diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of osteoporotic fractures and to identify their major determinants (primary disease, GC dosage, bone mineral density, risk factors, specific treatment for GIOP) in a large cohort of consecutive patients aged >21 years, on chronic treatment with GC (≥5 mg prednisone - PN - equivalent) and attending rheumatology centers located all over Italy...
May 22, 2017: Reumatismo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535560/nomogram-for-predicting-intradiscal-cement-leakage-following-percutaneous-vertebroplasty-in-patients-with-osteoporotic-related-vertebral-compression-fractures
#13
Bin-Yan Zhong, Shi-Cheng He, Hai-Dong Zhu, Tao Pan, Wen Fang, Li Chen, Jin-He Guo, Gang Deng, Guang-Yu Zhu, Gao-Jun Teng
BACKGROUND: Intradiscal cement leakage (ICL) is a common complication following percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP). However, the risk factors for such a complication are under debate and there is no accurate predictive nomogram to predict ICL. OBJECTIVES: To establish an effective and novel nomogram for ICL following PVP in patients with osteoporotic-related vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study approved by the Institutional Review Board of our institution...
May 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531932/in-reply-to-the-letter-to-the-editor-regarding-restoration-of-anterior-vertebral-height-by-short-segment-pedicle-screw-fixation-with-screwing-of-fractured-vertebra-for-the-treatment-of-unstable-thoracolumbar-fractures
#14
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531931/a-letter-to-the-editor-regarding-restoration-of-anterior-vertebral-height-by-short-segment-pedicle-screw-fixation-with-screwing-of-fractured-vertebra-for-the-treatment-of-unstable-thoracolumbar-fractures
#15
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530782/multiple-thoracic-vertebral-fractures-as-a-complication-of-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-a-case-report
#16
Tae Seok Jeong, Sang Gu Lee
A 50-year-old man experienced cardiac arrest. The patient underwent standard cardiopulmonary resuscitative measures for approximately 20 minutes before spontaneous circulation returned. He was diagnosed with variant angina, and subsequent imaging for evaluation of upper back pain revealed fractures of the fifth through eighth thoracic vertebrae. Multiple thoracic vertebral fractures are extremely rare. Here we report a case of multiple thoracic vertebral fractures as a complication of cardiopulmonary resuscitation...
May 2017: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530467/osteoporotic-fractures-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-end-stage-renal-disease
#17
B Le, J L Waller, R Radhakrishnan, S J Oh, M F Kheda, N S Nahman, L Carbone
Background The incidence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is rising. However, the relationship between osteoporotic fractures and SLE in the setting of ESRD remains uninvestigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the frequency of incident osteoporotic fractures in patients with ESRD with and without SLE, to identify risk factors for fractures in patients with SLE and ESRD, and to examine the contribution of these fractures to mortality. Methods Retrospective cohort study of patients with SLE ( n = 716) and a 5% random sample of controls without SLE ( n = 4176) in the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) from years 2006-2008 enrolled in Medicare Part D...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529724/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-osteoporosis
#18
REVIEW
Seiji Fukumoto, Toshio Matsumoto
There has been substantial progress in the management of patients with osteoporosis and the prevention of osteoporotic fractures. Currently available strong anti-resorptive agents are bisphosphonates and an anti-receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) antibody, denosumab. Although bisphosphonates and denosumab both inhibit bone resorption and prevent vertebral and non-vertebral fractures, their mechanisms of action are different. Whereas bisphosphonates' effects on bone mineral density and fracture peak around 3 to 5 years and become plateaued, those of denosumab are maintained for up to 10 years...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529276/association-between-the-risk-of-falls-and-osteoporotic-fractures-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Maki Yokomoto-Umakoshi, Ippei Kanazawa, Shiori Kondo, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of falls, which increases the incidence of osteoporotic fractures and accordingly decreases quality of life. However, the association between fall risk and diabetic complications is not completely understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between fall risk and osteoporotic fractures in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We enrolled 194 Japanese patients with T2DM and assessed their fall risk using a brief interview form that included five items covering physical and social aspects of functioning and environmental factors...
May 19, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526568/analysis-of-complications-following-posterior-vertebral-column-resection-for-the-treatment-of-severe-angular-kyphosis-greater-than-100%C3%A2
#20
Yunus Atici, Mehmet Bulent Balioglu, Deniz Kargin, Muhammed Mert, Akif Albayrak, Mehmet Akif Kaygusuz
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the complications, efficacy and safety of posterior vertebral column resection (PVCR) in severe angular kyphosis (SAK) greater than 100°. METHODS: The medical records of 17 patients (mean age 17.9 (range, 9-27) years) with SAK who underwent PVCR, were reviewed. Mean follow-up period was 32.2 (range, 24-64) months. Diagnosis of the patients included congenital kyphosis in 11 patients, post-tuberculosis kyphosis in 3 patients and neurofibromatosis in 3 patients...
May 16, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
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