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J Stone
The history of functional neurologic disorders in the 20th century from the point of view of the neurologist is U-shaped. A flurry of interest between the 1880s and early 1920s gave way to lack of interest, skepticism, and concern about misdiagnosis. This was mirrored by increasing professional and geographic divisions between neurology and psychiatry after the First World War. In the 1990s the advent of imaging and other technology highlighted the positive nature of a functional diagnosis. Having been closer in the early 20th century but later more separate, these disorders are now once again the subject of academic and clinical interest, although arguably still very much on the fringes of neurology and neuropsychiatry...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Heather S Anderson, William F Gabrielli, Anthony Paolo, Anne Walling
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to assess any impact on National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) neurology and psychiatry subject examination scores of changing from an integrated neuropsychiatry clerkship to independent neurology and psychiatry clerkships. METHODS: NBME psychiatry and neurology subject examinations scores were compared for all 625 students completing the required neuropsychiatry clerkship in academic years 2005-2006 through 2008-2009 with all 650 students completing the independent neurology and psychiatry clerkships in academic years 2009-2010 through 2012-2013...
October 7, 2016: Academic Psychiatry
Thaíse Campos Mondin, Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso, Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza, Karen Jansen, Pedro Vieira da Silva Magalhães, Flávio Kapczinski, Ricardo Azevedo da Silva
BACKGROUND: It is known that sleep disturbance has been considered a trait-marker of mood disorders. However, the role of disruptions in biological rhythms, such as eating, activity, and social patterns, needs to be better understood. AIM: To assess the differences in biological rhythms in subjects with bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and healthy controls. We also tested the association between disruptions of biological rhythms and circadian preferences...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Maxime Bertoux, Marie Sarazin, Florence Pasquier, Michel Bottlaender, Leonardo Cruz de Souza, Eneida Mioshi, Michael Hornberger, Kamalini G Ranasinghe, Katherine P Rankin, Iryna V Lobach, Joel H Kramer, Virginia E Sturm, Brianne M Bettcher, Katherine Possin, S Christine You, Amanda K Lamarre, Tal Shany-Ur, Melanie L Stephens, David C Perry, Suzee E Lee, Zachary A Miller, Maria L Gorno-Tempini, Howard J Rosen, Adam Boxer, William W Seeley, Gil D Rabinovici, Keith A Vossel, Bruce L Miller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Neurology
Fioravante Capone, Gianluca Capone, Giovanni Di Pino, Lucia Florio, Gianluca Oricchio, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro
There is great interest about the individual differences that influence the ability of dealing with risky decisions. In this light, an intriguing question is whether decision-making during risk is related to other cognitive abilities, especially executive functions. To investigate, in healthy subjects, the existence of a possible correlation between risk-taking and cognitive abilities, the balloon analogue risk task (BART) has been exploited to assess risk-taking propensity and the random number generation (RNG), to investigate cognitive functions...
September 22, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Ji Han Lee, Won Sang Jung, Woo Hee Choi, Hyun Kook Lim
OBJECTIVE: Among patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), sleep disturbances are common and serious noncognitive symptoms. Previous studies of AD patients have identified deformations in the brain stem, which may play an important role in the regulation of sleep. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relationship between sleep disturbances and alterations in brain stem morphology in AD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 44 patients with AD and 40 healthy elderly controls, sleep disturbances were measured using the Neuropsychiatry Inventory sleep subscale...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Bizu Gelaye, Ijala Wilson, Hanna Y Berhane, Negussie Deyessa, Yonas Bahretibeb, Dawit Wondimagegn, Teshome Shibre Kelkile, Yemane Berhane, Jesse R Fann, Michelle A Williams
BACKGROUND: The Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) is an ultra-brief questionnaire widely used by researchers and clinicians to detect major depressive disorder (MDD). Despite its individual and societal impact, MDD is often undetected and untreated particularly among sub-Saharan Africans. We conducted this study to evaluate the reliability and validity of using the PHQ-2 as a screen for MDD among Ethiopian adults. METHODS: A total of 926 adults attending outpatient departments in a major referral hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia participated in this study...
October 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Anshu Gupta, Shabnam Mirza, Sarbjeet Khurana, Roopali Singh, Sujata Chaturvedi, Bharat Singh
INTRODUCTION: The Rh blood group system is one of the most polymorphic and immunogenic blood group systems in humans. The expression of Rh blood group antigen is complex, among that Rh-D antigen is the most important antigen because of its immunogenicity. It is easy to detect D antigen in most of the cases. Sometimes, variable expression of Rh-D antigen leads to presence of weak forms. Weak D reacts variably with anti D sera and poses a problem in blood banking. Molecular genetics of Rh-D revealed that weak D antigen is a Rh-D phenotype that possesses less numbers of complete D antigens on the surface of red blood cells...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
M Justin Coffey, C Edward Coffey
The growth of new technologies in health care is exponential, and the impact of such rapid technological innovation on health care delivery is substantial. This review describes two emerging technologies-mobile applications and wearable technologies-and uses a virtual case report to illustrate the impact of currently available technologies on the health care experience of a patient with neuropsychiatric illness.
June 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Ana Cristina Simões E Silva, Janaina Matos Moreira, Roberta Maia Castro Romanelli, Antonio Lucio Teixeira
Before 2007, Zika virus (ZIKV) was generally considered as an arbovirus of low clinical relevance, causing a mild self-limiting febrile illness in tropical Africa and Southeast Asia. Currently, a large, ongoing outbreak of ZIKV that started in Brazil in 2015 is spreading across the Americas. Virus infection during pregnancy has been potentially linked to congenital malformations, including microcephaly. In addition to congenital malformations, a temporal association between ZIKV infection and an increase in cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome is currently being observed in several countries...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Clare M Eddy
The temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) is implicated in a variety of processes including multisensory integration, social cognition, sense of agency and stimulus-driven attention functions. Furthermore, manipulation of cortical excitation in this region can influence a diverse range of personal and interpersonal perceptions, from those involved in moral decision making to judgments about the location of the self in space. Synthesis of existing studies places the TPJ at the neural interface between mind and matter, where information about both mental and physical states is processed and integrated, contributing to self-other differentiation...
August 2016: Neuropsychologia
Na-Yeon Jung, Hee Jin Kim, Yeo Jin Kim, Seonwoo Kim, Sang Won Seo, Eun-Joo Kim, Duk L Na
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms of subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) are mainly associated with damage to frontal-subcortical circuits and may be similar to symptoms of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). The aim of this study was to determine whether the neuropsychiatric manifestations of the Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-negative SVaD and bvFTD groups differ. METHODS: We compared the Caregiver-Administered Neuropsychiatry Inventory (CGA-NPI) between 48 patients with PiB(-) SVaD and 31 patients with bvFTD...
November 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Christopher A Baker, Robin A Hurley, Katherine Taber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
A Perry, K Gordon-Smith, A Di Florio, L Forty, N Craddock, L Jones, I Jones
BACKGROUND: Women with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of postpartum psychosis. Adverse childhood life events have been associated with depression in the postpartum period, but have been little studied in relation to postpartum psychosis. In this study we investigated whether adverse childhood life events are associated with postpartum psychosis in a large sample of women with bipolar I disorder. METHODS: Participants were 432 parous women with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder recruited into the Bipolar Disorder Research Network (www...
June 27, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Eoin Sherwin, Kiran V Sandhu, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The role of the gut microbiota in health and disease is becoming increasingly recognized. The microbiota-gut-brain axis is a bi-directional pathway between the brain and the gastrointestinal system. The bacterial commensals in our gut can signal to the brain through a variety of mechanisms, which are slowly being resolved. These include the vagus nerve, immune mediators and microbial metabolites, which influence central processes such as neurotransmission and behaviour. Dysregulation in the composition of the gut microbiota has been identified in several neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia and depression...
July 14, 2016: CNS Drugs
Hermann A M Mucke
Among the psychedelic drugs that enjoyed a period of popularity in psychiatric research during the 1950s and 1960s, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the most prominent one. Psychiatrists of that time had seen LSD not only as a tool for psychotherapy but also as a potential therapeutic for anxiety, depression, alcohol abuse, autism, and even schizophrenia. When it became a quasi-religious epitome of the Hippie counterculture in the mid 1960s, and cases of what we now call hallucinogen persisting perception disorder and acute psychotic "flashbacks" mounted, authorities moved to make LSD illegal...
July 8, 2016: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
K-J Neumärker, B Holdorff
The physician and psychologist Dr. Fredy Quadfasel, born in East Prussia, was trained in neuropsychiatry by Kurt Goldstein in Frankfurt/Main and by Karl Bonhoeffer at the Charité in Berlin. After he was detained by the Gestapo due to political opposition, he was probably denounced for offending the so-called Malicious Practices Act (Heimtückegesetz) from March 1933, and imprisoned for 2-3 months. In 1934/35 he emigrated to the USA via England and Canada, where he initially ran a neuropsychiatry office in New York...
August 2016: Der Nervenarzt
James A Bourgeois
OBJECTIVES: Clinical neuropsychologists benefit from clinical currency in recently ascertained neuropsychiatric illness, such as fragile X premutation (FXPM) disorders. The author reviewed the clinical literature through 2016 for neuropsychiatric phenotypes in FXPM disorders, including patients with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). METHODS: A PubMed search using the search terms 'Fragile X,' 'Premutation,' 'Carriers,' 'Psychiatric,' 'Dementia,' 'Mood,' and 'Anxiety' for citations in the clinical literature through 2016 was reviewed for studies specifically examining the neuropsychiatric phenotype in FXPM patients...
August 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Fernanda Pedrotti Moreira, Karen Jansen, Thaíse Campos Mondin, Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso, Pedro Vieira da Silva Magalhães, Flavio Kapczinski, Benicio N Frey, Jean Pierre Oses, Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza, Ricardo Azevedo da Silva, Carolina David Wiener
The purpose of this study was to assess the disruption in biological rhythms and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in individuals with depressive episode. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study with a representative sample of 905 young adults. Current depressive episode were confirmed by a psychologist using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)-Plus. Self-reported biological rhythms were assessed using the Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN). MetS was defined using modified NCEP/ATPIII criteria...
October 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Chittaranjan Andrade
Psychosis is one of the most serious among the adverse effects associated with cannabis use. The association between cannabis use and psychosis has been variously explored in a series of recent meta-analyses. The results of these meta-analyses show that persons who develop psychosis experience onset of psychosis about 2-3 years earlier if they are cannabis users; this effect is not observed with alcohol or other substance use. Higher levels of cannabis use are associated with greater risk of psychosis. Current cannabis abuse or dependence (but not past use or lower levels of current use) increases the risk of transition into psychosis in persons at ultrahigh risk of psychosis...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
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