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Neuropsychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094464/test-retest-reliability-of-functional-connectivity-networks-during-naturalistic-fmri-paradigms
#1
Jiahui Wang, Yudan Ren, Xintao Hu, Vinh Thai Nguyen, Lei Guo, Junwei Han, Christine Cong Guo
Functional connectivity analysis has become a powerful tool for probing the human brain function and its breakdown in neuropsychiatry disorders. So far, most studies adopted resting-state paradigm to examine functional connectivity networks in the brain, thanks to its low demand and high tolerance that are essential for clinical studies. However, the test-retest reliability of resting-state connectivity measures is moderate, potentially due to its low behavioral constraint. On the other hand, naturalistic neuroimaging paradigms, an emerging approach for cognitive neuroscience with high ecological validity, could potentially improve the reliability of functional connectivity measures...
January 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091572/a-computational-psychiatry-approach-identifies-how-alpha-2a-noradrenergic-agonist-guanfacine-affects-feature-based-reinforcement-learning-in-the-macaque
#2
S A Hassani, M Oemisch, M Balcarras, S Westendorff, S Ardid, M A van der Meer, P Tiesinga, T Womelsdorf
Noradrenaline is believed to support cognitive flexibility through the alpha 2A noradrenergic receptor (a2A-NAR) acting in prefrontal cortex. Enhanced flexibility has been inferred from improved working memory with the a2A-NA agonist Guanfacine. But it has been unclear whether Guanfacine improves specific attention and learning mechanisms beyond working memory, and whether the drug effects can be formalized computationally to allow single subject predictions. We tested and confirmed these suggestions in a case study with a healthy nonhuman primate performing a feature-based reversal learning task evaluating performance using Bayesian and Reinforcement learning models...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079675/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-dementia
#3
Orestes V Forlenza, Júlia Cunha Loureiro, Marcos Vasconcelos Pais, Florindo Stella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present article addresses intriguing questions related to the clinical intervention in distinct neuropsychiatric syndromes of patients with dementia. RECENT FINDINGS: We reviewed 154 articles published between 2015 and 2016 targeting psychopharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions, and safety-tolerability concerns. We selected 115 articles addressing the purpose of this study. Of these, 33 were chosen because they were dedicated to subtopics: agitation (42), depression (33), apathy (18), sleep disorders/anxiety (8), and psychosis (4)...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076640/frontal-lobe-alterations-in-schizophrenia-a-review
#4
Ateeq Mubarik, Hassaan Tohid
Objective: To highlight the changes in the frontal lobe of the human brain in people with schizophrenia. Methods: This was a qualitative review of the literature. Results: Many schizophrenic patients exhibit functional, structural, and metabolic abnormalities in the frontal lobe. Some patients have few or no alterations, while some have more functional and structural changes than others. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows structural and functional changes in volume, gray matter, white matter, and functional activity in the frontal lobe, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not yet fully understood...
October 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067728/advances-in-developmental-neuropsychiatry-autism-spectrum-disorder-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome-self-injurious-behavior-down-syndrome-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-and-borderline-intellectual-functioning
#5
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040137/prenatal-diagnosis-of-familial-transmission-of-17q12-microduplication-associated-with-no-apparent-phenotypic-abnormality
#6
Chih-Ping Chen, Chung-Hu Fu, Yi-Hui Lin, Schu-Rern Chern, Peih-Shan Wu, Yen-Ni Chen, Shin-Wen Chen, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: We present prenatal diagnosis of familial transmission of 17q12 duplication associated with no apparent phenotypic abnormality. CASE REPORT: A 36-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a karyotype of 46,XY. Array comparative genomic hybridization of uncultured amniocytes revealed a 1.42-Mb duplication of 17q12 or arr 17q12 (34,822,465-36,243,365) × 3 encompassing 12 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) genes including LHX1, ACACA, and HNF1B...
December 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999521/screening-tools-for-anxiety-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#7
Brittany Litster, Kirsten M Fiest, Scott B Patten, John D Fisk, John R Walker, Lesley A Graff, James M Bolton, Jitender Sareen, James J Marriott, Lindsay I Berrigan, Charles N Bernstein, Ryan Zarychanski, Alexander Singer, Carol A Hitchon, Christine A Peschken, Ruth Ann Marrie
Background: Anxiety is prevalent in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Screening measures are used to identify symptoms of anxiety, but the optimal measure to screen for anxiety disorders in MS has not been established. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES Full Text, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, and Scopus databases from database inception until August 7, 2015. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and full-text reports for study inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias...
November 2016: International Journal of MS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919478/attitudes-to-cannabis-and-patterns-of-use-among-canadians-with-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Emma Banwell, Bennis Pavisian, Liesly Lee, Anthony Feinstein
BACKGROUND: Canada has the highest incidence of MS worldwide. Anecdotal evidence reveals that people with MS smoke, ingest or vaporize cannabis for a multiplicity of reasons. With the legal situation in relation to use currently in flux, we undertook a study investigating patterns of use amongst people with MS and their attitudes towards the drug. METHODS: A consecutive sample of people with MS (n=246) attending a neurology (n=118) and a neuropsychiatry (n=107) clinic was enrolled and asked to complete a questionnaire containing demographic, disease and cannabis related variables...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909326/prospects-for-medications-to-reverse-causative-epigenetic-processes-in-neuropsychiatry-disorders
#9
Moshe Szyf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888241/neuropsychiatry-a-synthesis-of-clinical-and-scientific-fields-for-disorders-of-mind-and-body
#10
EDITORIAL
Jeffrey Cl Looi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866090/relationship-between-anxiety-disorders-and-domains-of-health-related-quality-of-life-among-nigerians-with-breast-cancer
#11
Olamijulo Adedeji Fatiregun, Andrew Toyin Olagunju, Adebayo Rasheed Erinfolami, Olubunmi Ayodele Arogunmati, Omolara Amina Fatiregun, Joseph Dada Adeyemi
PURPOSE: Health Related Quality of life (HRQoL) is increasingly recognised as an important indicator of outcome and well-being in oncology care. We set out in this study to evaluate whether significant association exists between anxiety disorders (ADs) and HRQoL in breast cancer, such that any intervention addressing ADs would potentially improve HRQoL. METHODS: A cross sectional evaluation of 200 attendees of an oncology clinic was done using designed questionnaire to gather socio-demographic and clinical data...
February 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846298/damage-in-the-multiethnic-malaysian-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-sle-cohort-comparison-with-other-cohorts-worldwide
#12
Syahrul Sazliyana Shaharir, Heselynn Hussein, Sakthiswary Rajalingham, Mohd Shahrir Mohamed Said, Abdul Halim Abdul Gafor, Rozita Mohd, Ruslinda Mustafar
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease and despite the improvement in the survival in the past few decades, the morbidity due to disease damage remains significant. The objectives of this study were to investigate the disease damagepattern and determine the associated factors of damage in the multi-ethnic Malaysian SLE patients. We consecutively 424SLE patients who attended a consistent follow-up at the National University of Malaysia Medical Centre and Putrajaya Hospital were recruited...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844089/-biomarkers-for-dementia-and-other-neurodegenerative-diseases-current-developments
#13
J Wiltfang, P Lewczuk, M Otto
Cerebrospinal fluid-based neurochemical dementia diagnostics (CSF-NDD) support the early and differential diagnosis of dementia, most importantly the diagnosis of early or preclinical Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Meanwhile CSF-NDD are now recommended for improved exclusion and positive diagnostics of AD by the German national neuropsychiatry S3 dementia guidelines ( www.DGPPN.de ). Meta-analyses of independent international multicenter studies have shown that a combined CSF analysis of amyloid-beta 1-42 (Aβ 1-42, decreased), total tau proteins (increased) and phospho-tau proteins (increased) offers a sensitivity and specificity of 80-90 % for the early and differential diagnosis of AD (AD versus all other)...
December 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836181/circadian-preferences-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-cytokines-in-bipolar-disorder-a-community-study
#14
Thaise Campos Mondin, Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso, Fernanda Pedrotti Moreira, Carolina Wiener, Jean Pierre Oses, Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza, Karen Jansen, Pedro Vieira da Silva Magalhães, Flávio Kapczinski, Ricardo Azevedo da Silva
OBJECTIVE: To assess circadian preference among a community sample of people with bipolar disorder, major depression and without any mood disorders. Secondly, we investigated the association of circadian preference with cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and oxidative stress assessed by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), uric acid and Protein Carbonyl Content (PCC). METHOD: A cross-sectional study nested in a population-based sample...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833249/quality-of-life-and-associated-factors-among-poststroke-clinic-attendees-at-a-university-teaching-hospital-in-nigeria
#15
Osunwale Dahunsi Oni, Olatunji F Aina, Francis I Ojini, Victor O Olisah
BACKGROUND: Quality of life (QOL) measures are effective in quantifying disease burden after stroke, more so than levels of debility. The objective of this study is to determine QOL and associated factors of stroke survivors in Lagos, Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy stroke survivors (study sample) and seventy stable hypertensive patients (control sample) attending clinics at a Nigerian hospital were recruited for the study. Respondents were assessed using sociodemographic/clinical questionnaires, modified mini-mental state examination, modified Rankin Scale, schedule for clinical assessment in neuropsychiatry, and World Health Organization-QOL-BREF...
September 2016: Nigerian Medical Journal: Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832936/feeding-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-diet-microbiome-and-neuropsychiatry
#16
REVIEW
Kiran V Sandhu, Eoin Sherwin, Harriët Schellekens, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The microbial population residing within the human gut represents one of the most densely populated microbial niche in the human body with growing evidence showing it playing a key role in the regulation of behavior and brain function. The bidirectional communication between the gut microbiota and the brain, the microbiota-gut-brain axis, occurs through various pathways including the vagus nerve, the immune system, neuroendocrine pathways, and bacteria-derived metabolites. This axis has been shown to influence neurotransmission and the behavior that are often associated with neuropsychiatric conditions...
January 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830922/pediatric-selective-mutism-therapy-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Maria Esposito, Francesca Gimigliano, Maria R Barillari, Francesco Precenzano, Maria Ruberto, Joseph Sepe, Umberto Barillari, Raffaele Gimigliano, Roberto Militerni, Giovanni Messina, Marco Carotenuto
BACKGROUND: Selective Mutism (SM) is a rare disease in children coded by DSM-5 as an anxiety disorder. Despite the disabling nature of the disease, there is still no specific treatment. AIMS: The aims of this study were to verify the efficacy of six-month standard psychomotor treatment and the positive changes in lifestyle, in a population of children affected by SM. DESIGN: Randomised Controlled Trial registered in the European Clinical Trials Registry (EuDract 2015-001161-36)...
November 10, 2016: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825787/-i-swear-it-is-tourette-s-on-functional-coprolalia-and-other-tic-like-vocalizations
#18
Christos Ganos, Mark J Edwards, Kirsten Müller-Vahl
Coprolalia in neuropsychiatry is typically associated with tic disorders, in particular Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. To date, there has been no report of functional coprolalia. Here, we provide the clinical characteristics of 13 adolescent and adult patients with coprolalic and other functional tic-like complex vocalizations who, on the basis of these symptoms, were misdiagnosed with a primary tic disorder, most commonly Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. We describe similarities and highlight the differences from primary tic disorders in order to provide a pragmatic list of clinical clues that will facilitate correct diagnostic labeling and thereby treatment...
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818061/young-children-who-screen-positive-for-autism-stability-change-and-comorbidity-over-two-years
#19
Anne-Katrin Kantzer, Elisabeth Fernell, Joakim Westerlund, Bibbi Hagberg, Christopher Gillberg, Carmela Miniscalco
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder with a wide variety of clinical phenotypes and co-occurrences with other neurodevelopmental conditions. Symptoms may change over time. AIMS: The aim of the present study was to prospectively follow 96 children, initially assessed for suspected ASD at an average age of 2.9 years. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: All children had been identified with autistic symptoms in a general population child health screening program, and had been referred to the Child Neuropsychiatry Clinic in Gothenburg, Sweden for further assessment by a multi-professional team at Time 1 (T1)...
November 3, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806423/-milestones-of-child-neuropsychiatry
#20
F Häßler
The development of child and adolescent psychiatry took different pathways in East and West Germany after World War II. In East Germany, child and adolescent psychiatry put more emphasis on neurology as it was influenced by the foundation of the first chair and care unit in Rostock. Prof. Göllnitz, who held the chair for many years, established child and adolescent neuropsychiatry as a subject in its own right in research and health care and helped promoting it at other universities and medical academies.
October 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
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