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Neuropsychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998113/sequence-analysis-of-drug-target-genes-with-suicidal-behavior-in-bipolar-disorder-patients
#1
Clement C Zai, Arun K Tiwari, Gwyneth C Zai, Vincenzo de Luca, Sajid A Shaikh, Nicole King, John Strauss, James L Kennedy, John B Vincent
Background: A number of genes have been implicated in recent genome-wide association studies of suicide attempt in bipolar disorder. More focused investigation of genes coding for protein targets of existing drugs may lead to drug repurposing for the treatment and/or prevention of suicide. Methods: We analyzed 2,457 DNA variants across 197 genes of interest to GlaxoSmithKline across the pipeline in our sample of European patients suffering from bipolar disorder ( N = 219)...
June 2018: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989436/symptomatology-following-traumatic-brain-injury-in-a-multidisciplinary-clinic-experiences-from-a-tertiary-centre
#2
Chris Bell, James Hackett, Benjamin Hall, Heinke Pülhorn, Catherine McMahon, Ganesh Bavikatte
BACKGROUND: Physical, cognitive and emotional sequelae in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been identified; some as late as two years post-injury. To aid in the specialist management of such patients, a multidisciplinary neurotrauma clinic was initiated at a tertiary centre.  Aim: This study sought to describe the clinical features of patients who attended the clinic. METHODS: Patient data was collected under several categories: basic demographics, mechanism and severity of injury, initial CT findings and management, hospital stay and discharge details, symptoms in clinic and actions performed by clinic staff (medication changes, referrals to other services, etc...
July 10, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986411/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-tourette-syndrome-a-historical-perspective-its-current-use-and-the-influence-of-comorbidities-in-treatment-response
#3
REVIEW
Marco Grados, Rachel Huselid, Laura Duque-Serrano
BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder consisting of impairing motor and vocal tics which often persists adolescent and adult years. In this older refractory group, standard treatments such as pharmacotherapy and psychotherapeutic interventions may only have limited effects. Based on electrical cortical dysregulation in individuals with TS, a novel approach has employed brain stimulation strategies to modulate the putative aberrant neural electrical activity in pathways that may underlie tics, such as insula-supplementary motor area (SMA) connectivity...
July 6, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986177/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder-a-community-sample-of-young-adult-women
#4
Adriana Bezerra de Carvalho, Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso, Thaíse Campos Mondin, Ricardo Azevedo da Silva, Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza, Pedro Vieira da Silva Magalhães, Karen Jansen
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) was recently included in DSM-5 as a full diagnostic category. Few studies have investigated PMDD in a community sample of young adults, especially in Brazil. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and the factors associated with PMDD in a community sample of 727 young adult women between the 18 and 24 years of age in southern Brazil. This was a cross-sectional population-based study. The data were collected from 2012 to 2014. PMDD was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview (M...
June 26, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29967998/biomarkers-in-neuropsychiatry-a-prospect-for-the-twenty-first-century
#5
Judith Pratt, Jeremy Hall
The search for biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of psychiatric conditions and predict response to treatment is a focus of twenty-first century medicine. The current lack of biomarkers in routine use is attributable in part to the existing way mental health conditions are diagnosed, being based upon descriptions of symptoms rather than causal biological evidence. New ways of conceptualizing mental health disorders together with the enormous advances in genetic, epidemiological, and neuroscience research are informing the brain circuits and physiological mechanisms underpinning behavioural constructs that cut across current diagnostic DSM-5 categories...
July 3, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955539/surveys-of-substance-use-disorders-education-in-us-pharmacy-programs
#6
Kelan Thomas, Andrew J Muzyk
Introduction: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are a significant US health problem affecting roughly 20 million Americans, but there continues to be limited access to SUD treatment and inadequate addiction medicine training. Therefore, it is important to understand how SUD education is being delivered to US health professionals, including pharmacists. Methods: A recent survey of US pharmacy programs' neuropsychiatry curricula was evaluated to identify any progress made toward increasing SUD education since the last national survey in 2004 and determine any remaining gaps between what is currently being taught and American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) curricular guidelines for SUD education updated in 2010...
January 2018: The mental health clinician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29940236/modulation-of-glucocorticoids-by-the-serotonin-transporter-polymorphism-a-narrative-review
#7
REVIEW
T M Klein Gunnewiek, J R Homberg, T Kozicz
The biological background and consequences of serotonin transporter polymorphism-glucocorticoid relationship in individual differences in stress reactivity has been a major interest in neuropsychiatry research. Individual differences in glucocorticoid release have long been implicated in vulnerability to stress-related psychopathologies, like depression and anxiety in various species. Yet, it is largely elusive to what extent results from non-human primates and rodents translate to human findings. Based on our structured, comprehensive and non-hypothesis driven overview of this topic, we conclude that although gene-environment interaction studies have highlighted the importance of serotonin transporter polymorphism in modulating glucocorticoid release, there is compelling evidence that age, gender and ethnicity are significant factors too contributing to the equation...
June 22, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939105/bridging-the-great-divide-what-can-neurology-learn-from-psychiatry
#8
David L Perez, Matcheri S Keshavan, Jeremiah M Scharf, Aaron D Boes, Bruce H Price
Neurology and psychiatry share common historical origins and rely on similar tools to study brain disorders. Yet the practical integration of medical and scientific approaches across these clinical neurosciences remains elusive. Although much has been written about the need to incorporate emerging systems-level, cellular-molecular, and genetic-epigenetic advances into a science of mind for psychiatric disorders, less attention has been given to applying clinical neuroscience principles to conceptualize neurologic conditions with an integrated neurobio-psycho-social approach...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904358/editorial-mr-spectroscopy-in-neuropsychiatry
#9
EDITORIAL
Alice Egerton, Anouk Marsman, Brian V Broberg, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892055/brain-age-and-other-bodily-ages-implications-for-neuropsychiatry
#10
REVIEW
James H Cole, Riccardo E Marioni, Sarah E Harris, Ian J Deary
As our brains age, we tend to experience cognitive decline and are at greater risk of neurodegenerative disease and dementia. Symptoms of chronic neuropsychiatric diseases are also exacerbated during ageing. However, the ageing process does not affect people uniformly; nor, in fact, does the ageing process appear to be uniform even within an individual. Here, we outline recent neuroimaging research into brain ageing and the use of other bodily ageing biomarkers, including telomere length, the epigenetic clock, and grip strength...
June 11, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796968/recommendations-for-the-use-of-ect-in-pregnancy-literature-review-and-proposed-clinical-protocol
#11
Heather Burrell Ward, John A Fromson, Joseph J Cooper, Gildasio De Oliveira, Marcela Almeida
Psychiatric disorders are common in pregnancy, affecting 15-29% of pregnant women. Untreated depression has negative health consequences for mother and fetus. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective option for the treatment of severe depression, high suicide risk, catatonia, medication-resistant illness, psychotic agitation, severe physical decline, and other life-threatening conditions. To our knowledge, however, there is no literature that consolidates all the evidence on maternal and fetal risks associated with untreated depression, medications, and ECT then translating it into one cohesive protocol that could serve as a management guide and a source of reassurance to health-care providers involved in such practice...
May 23, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789033/the-neurological-examination-adapted-for-neuropsychiatry
#12
Sheldon Benjamin, Margo D Lauterbach
The neuropsychiatric examination includes standard neurological and cognitive examination techniques with several additional observations and tasks designed to capture abnormalities common among patients with neuropsychiatric disorders or neurocognitive complaints. Although useful as a screening tool, a single standardized rating scale such as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) or the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is insufficient to establish a neuropsychiatric diagnosis. Extra attention is paid to findings commonly seen in the setting of psychiatric disorders, dementias, movement disorders, or dysfunction of cortical or subcortical structures...
June 2018: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781408/gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome-as-a-paradigmatic-neuropsychiatric-disorder
#13
Andrea E Cavanna
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a chronic and complex tic disorder accompanied by specific behavioral problems in the majority of patients. With its multifaceted interplay between motion and emotion, this condition is a paradigmatic example of the science and art of clinical neuropsychiatry. This review article encompasses the clinical phenomenology of motor and vocal tics and associated sensory experiences (premonitory urges), as well as the behavioral spectrum of the most common comorbidities, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder, affective symptoms, and impulsivity...
June 2018: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764523/the-history-and-scope-of-neuropsychiatry
#14
Michael Trimble
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758057/ankk1-is-found-in-myogenic-precursors-and-muscle-fibers-subtypes-with-glycolytic-metabolism
#15
Estrella Rubio-Solsona, Salvador Martí, Juan J Vílchez, Francesc Palau, Janet Hoenicka
Ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1) gene has been widely related to neuropsychiatry disorders. The localization of ANKK1 in neural progenitors and its correlation with the cell cycle has suggested its participation in development. However, ANKK1 functions still need to be identified. Here, we have further characterized the ANKK1 localization in vivo and in vitro, by using immunolabeling, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot in the myogenic lineage. Histologic investigations in mice and humans revealed that ANKK1 is expressed in precursors of embryonic and adult muscles...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748506/dietary-neurotransmitters-a-narrative-review-on-current-knowledge
#16
REVIEW
Matteo Briguglio, Bernardo Dell'Osso, Giancarlo Panzica, Antonio Malgaroli, Giuseppe Banfi, Carlotta Zanaboni Dina, Roberta Galentino, Mauro Porta
Foods are natural sources of substances that may exert crucial effects on the nervous system in humans. Some of these substances are the neurotransmitters (NTs) acetylcholine (ACh), the modified amino acids glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and the biogenic amines dopamine, serotonin (5-HT), and histamine. In neuropsychiatry, progressive integration of dietary approaches in clinical routine made it necessary to discern the more about some of these dietary NTs. Relevant books and literature from PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for data on food sources of Ach, glutamate, GABA, dopamine, 5-HT, and histamine...
May 10, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736067/mix-headache-a-valid-clinical-entity
#17
Tapas Kumar Aich, Uttam Gupta, Sandip Subedi
Background: Chronic daily headache (CDH) patients respond better with a combination of anti-migraine and anti-stress medications, irrespective of clinical diagnosis of chronic migraine (CM) or chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Hypothesis: "CDH: Mix headache" type is a valid clinical entity. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 participants fulfilling the diagnosis of "primary CDH", aged between 15 and 55 years were taken up for the present study...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725168/prevalence-of-psychiatric-illness-among-residents-of-old-age-homes-in-northern-india
#18
Shamsi Akbar, S C Tiwari, Rakesh K Tripathi, Nisha M Pandey, Ambrish Kumar
Context: There are many factors which compelled older adults to live in old age homes (OAHs) and vulnerable to psychological problems. Studies reported high prevalence of mental health problems (20%-60%) among elderlies of OAHs. Therefore, the study was conducted to explore prevalence of psychiatric illness (PI) among residents of OAHs of Northern India. Settings and Design: The present study was conducted in OAHs of Districts Bareilly, Lucknow, Varanasi, Dehradun, and Haridwar, using cross-sectional descriptive study method...
April 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694526/-the-poetry-of-augusto-dos-anjos-and-fin-de-si%C3%A3-cle-neuropsychiatry
#19
Leonardo Cruz de Souza, Ana Carolina Sarquis Salgado, Maurício Viotti Daker, Francisco Cardoso, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira
Augusto dos Anjos, from Paraíba, Brazil, occupies a singular place in Brazilian literature, defying alignment with any one literary style. His poetry is marked by anguished verse, by existential dimensions and a vocabulary replete with scientific terms. His work is of great interest to neuropsychiatry, not just for the abundance of related terms, but also because it reflects conceptions from neuroscience at the turn of the twentieth century. This study focuses on his literary output from a dual perspective: by identifying how his poetry reflects the organicist tendency in psychiatry at the time, as generally personified in the figure of Emil Kraepelin, and by exploring the ideological content of the work, like the Darwinist perspective and the tension between dualism and materialistic monism...
March 2018: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688411/relevance-of-rodent-models-of-depression-in-clinical-practice-can-we-overcome-the-obstacles-in-translational-neuropsychiatry
#20
Johan Söderlund, Maria Lindskog
The diagnosis of a mental disorder generally depends on clinical observations and phenomenological symptoms reported by the patient. The definition of a given diagnosis is criteria based and relies on the ability to accurately interpret subjective symptoms and complex behavior. This type of diagnosis comprises a challenge to translate to reliable animal models, and these translational uncertainties hamper the development of new treatments. In this review, we will discuss how depressive-like behavior can be induced in rodents, and the relationship between these models and depression in humans...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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