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uranium and cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753121/mortality-in-a-combined-cohort-of-uranium-enrichment-workers
#1
James H Yiin, Jeri L Anderson, Robert D Daniels, Stephen J Bertke, Donald A Fleming, David J Tollerud, Chih-Yu Tseng, Pi-Hsueh Chen, Kathleen M Waters
OBJECTIVE: To examine the patterns of cause-specific mortality and relationship between internal exposure to uranium and specific causes in a pooled cohort of 29,303 workers employed at three former uranium enrichment facilities in the United States with follow-up through 2011. METHODS: Cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for the full cohort were calculated with the U.S. population as referent. Internal comparison of the dose-response relation between selected outcomes and estimated organ doses was evaluated using regression models...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651479/cancer-incidence-and-mortality-from-exposure-to-radon-progeny-among-ontario-uranium-miners
#2
Garthika Navaranjan, Colin Berriault, Minh Do, Paul J Villeneuve, Paul A Demers
OBJECTIVES: The study objectives were to extend the follow-up of the Ontario uranium miners cohort, one of the largest cohorts of uranium miners with low cumulative exposures, to examine the relationship between radon exposure and lung cancer mortality and, for the first time incidence, and address gaps in the literature, including dose-response relationship between radon exposure and other cancer sites, and non-cancer mortality. METHODS: The cohort of mine and mill workers was created using data from Canada's National Dose Registry and the Ontario Mining Master File...
December 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594696/-assessment-of-radon-induced-health-risk-for-occupants-of-a-house-built-on-uranium-ore-residue
#3
E Cléro, L Marie, C Challeton-De Vathaire, D Laurier, A Rannou
BACKGROUND: At the request of French public authorities, the Institute of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety has assessed the radiological situation of a house built on uranium ore residues in Haute-Vienne and the health risks induced from exposure to radon for all occupants. Classified as a lung carcinogen by the World Health Organization, radon is a proven cause of lung cancer in case of regular inhalation over a long period, and the risk increases with cumulative exposure. METHODS: Radon exposure was reconstructed for various standard profiles of house occupancy...
September 2016: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512930/-lung-cancer-as-an-occupational-disease
#4
X Baur, H-J Woitowitz
Lung cancer is one of the most frequently encountered cancer types. According to the latest WHO data, about 10 % of this disease are due to occupational exposure to cancerogens. Asbestos is still the number one carcinogen. Further frequent causes include quarz and ionizing radiation (uranium mining). Probable causes of the disease can be identified only with the help of detailed occupational history taken by a medical specialist and qualified exposure assessment. Without clarifying the cause of the disease, there is neither a correct insurance procedure nor compensation for the victim, and furthermore, required preventive measures cannot be initiated...
August 2016: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338424/modelling-of-radiological-health-risks-from-gold-mine-tailings-in-wonderfonteinspruit-catchment-area-south-africa
#5
Manny Mathuthu, Caspah Kamunda, Morgan Madhuku
Mining is one of the major causes of elevation of naturally-occurring radionuclide material (NORM) concentrations on the Earth's surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the human risk associated with exposure to NORMs in soils from mine tailings around a gold mine. A broad-energy germanium detector was used to measure activity concentrations of these NORMs in 66 soil samples (56 from five mine tailings and 10 from the control area). The RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) OFFSITE modeling program (version 3...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27297055/the-use-of-mapped-geology-as-a-predictor-of-radon-potential-in-norway
#6
Robin J Watson, Mark A Smethurst, Guri V Ganerød, Ingvild Finne, Anne Liv Rudjord
Radon exposure is considered to cause several hundred fatalities from lung-cancer each year in Norway. A national map identifying areas which are likely to be exposed to elevated radon concentrations would be a useful tool for decision-making authorities, and would be particularly important in areas where only few indoor radon measurements exist. An earlier Norwegian study (Smethurst et al. 2008) produced radon hazard maps by examining the relationship between airborne gamma-ray spectrometry, bedrock and drift geology, and indoor radon...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27275162/renal-effects-and-carcinogenicity-of-occupational-exposure-to-uranium-a-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Leonhard Stammler, Andreas Uhl, Benjamin Mayer, Frieder Keller
PURPOSE: Uranium is a heavy metal with alpha radioactivity. We state the hypothesis that uranium exposure is harmful to human kidneys and carcinogenic to body tissues. Therefore, we review epidemiological studies from people with known long-lasting uranium exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three meta-analyses are performed using clinical studies published in the PubMed database and applying RevMan 5.3 from the Cochrane Collaboration to calculate the outcome. The first two meta-analyses examine the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and the standardized incidence ratio for any cancers of uranium workers who were operating in areas ranging from uranium processing to the assembly of final uranium products...
January 2016: Nephron Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27198876/modeling-lung-carcinogenesis-in-radon-exposed-miner-cohorts-accounting-for-missing-information-on-smoking
#8
Teun van Dillen, Fieke Dekkers, Harmen Bijwaard, Irene Brüske, H-Erich Wichmann, Michaela Kreuzer, Bernd Grosche
Epidemiological miner cohort data used to estimate lung cancer risks related to occupational radon exposure often lack cohort-wide information on exposure to tobacco smoke, a potential confounder and important effect modifier. We have developed a method to project data on smoking habits from a case-control study onto an entire cohort by means of a Monte Carlo resampling technique. As a proof of principle, this method is tested on a subcohort of 35,084 former uranium miners employed at the WISMUT company (Germany), with 461 lung cancer deaths in the follow-up period 1955-1998...
May 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27165601/assessment-of-environmental-and-occupational-exposure-to-heavy-metals-in-taranto-and-other-provinces-of-southern-italy-by-means-of-scalp-hair-analysis
#9
Elena Viola Buononato, Daniela De Luca, Innocenzo Cataldo Galeandro, Maria Luisa Congedo, Domenica Cavone, Graziana Intranuovo, Chiara Monica Guastadisegno, Vincenzo Corrado, Giovanni Maria Ferri
The monitoring of heavy metals in industrialized areas to study their association with different occupational and environmental factors is carried out in different ways. In this study, scalp hair analysis was used for the assessment of exposure to these metals in the industrial city of Taranto, characterized by a severe environmental pollution. The highest median values were observed for aluminum, barium, cadmium, lead, mercury, and uranium. Moreover, in the industrial area of Taranto, high levels of barium, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, and silver were observed in comparison with other Apulia areas...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27107776/assessment-of-radioactive-materials-and-heavy-metals-in-the-surface-soil-around-uranium-mining-area-of-tongliao-china
#10
Haribala, Bitao Hu, Chengguo Wang, Gerilemandahu, Xiao Xu, Shuai Zhang, Shanhu Bao, Yuhong Li
Natural and artificial radionuclides and heavy metals in the surface soil of the uranium mining area of Tongliao, China, were measured using gamma spectrometry, flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and microwave dissolution atomic fluorescence spectrometry respectively. The estimated average activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs are 27.53±16.01, 15.89±5.20, 12.64±4.27, 746.84±38.24 and 4.23±4.76Bq/kg respectively...
August 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27105766/the-predictive-power-of-airborne-gamma-ray-survey-data-on-the-locations-of-domestic-radon-hazards-in-norway-a-strong-case-for-utilizing-airborne-data-in-large-scale-radon-potential-mapping
#11
M A Smethurst, R J Watson, V C Baranwal, A L Rudjord, I Finne
It is estimated that exposure to radon in Norwegian dwellings is responsible for as many as 300 deaths a year due to lung cancer. To address this, the authorities in Norway have developed a national action plan that has the aim of reducing exposure to radon in Norway (Norwegian Ministries, 2010). The plan includes further investigation of the relationship between radon hazard and geological conditions, and development of map-based tools for assessing the large spatial variation in radon hazard levels across Norway...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27048635/cancer-and-non-cancer-mortality-among-french-uranium-cycle-workers-the-tracy-cohort
#12
Eric Samson, Irwin Piot, Sergey Zhivin, David B Richardson, Pierre Laroche, Ana-Paula Serond, Dominique Laurier, Olivier Laurent
OBJECTIVES: The health effects of internal contamination by radionuclides, and notably by uranium, are poorly characterised. New cohorts of uranium workers are needed to better examine these effects. This paper analyses for the first time the mortality profile of the French cohort of uranium cycle workers. It considers mortality from cancer and non-cancer causes. METHODS: The cohort includes workers employed at least 6 months between 1958 and 2006 in French companies involved in the production of nuclear fuel...
2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27012843/contaminated-sites-from-the-past-experience-of-the-us-environmental-protection-agency
#13
M A Boyd
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the experience of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in cleaning up radioactively contaminated sites. In the USA, EPA regulates the radiological clean-up of uranium mill tailings sites, some Department of Energy legacy sites within the US nuclear weapons complex, and Superfund National Priorities List sites. The approach to site remediation decisions, including the determination of clean-up levels, varies according to the enabling legislation granting EPA these authorities...
June 2016: Annals of the ICRP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949535/an-updated-review-of-case-control-studies-of-lung-cancer-and-indoor-radon-is-indoor-radon-the-risk-factor-for-lung-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Seungsoo Sheen, Keu Sung Lee, Wou Young Chung, Saeil Nam, Dae Ryong Kang
Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Smoking is definitely the most important risk factor for lung cancer. Radon ((222)Rn) is a natural gas produced from radium ((226)Ra) in the decay series of uranium ((238)U). Radon exposure is the second most common cause of lung cancer and the first risk factor for lung cancer in never-smokers. Case-control studies have provided epidemiological evidence of the causative relationship between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer. Twenty-four case-control study papers were found by our search strategy from the PubMed database...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26922774/ionizing-radiation-exposures-in-treatments-of-solid-neoplasms-are-not-associated-with-subsequent-increased-risks-of-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#15
Tomas Radivoyevitch, Rainer K Sachs, Robert Peter Gale, Mitchell R Smith, Brian T Hill
Exposure to ionizing radiation is not thought to cause chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Challenging this notion are recent data suggesting CLL incidence may be increased by radiation exposure from the atomic bombs (after many decades), uranium mining and nuclear power facility accidents. To assess the effects of therapeutic ionizing radiation for the treatment of solid neoplasms we studied CLL risks in data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. Specifically, we compared the risks of developing CLL in persons with a 1(st) non-hematologic cancer treated with or without ionizing radiation...
April 2016: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26690196/assessing-heavy-metal-and-pcb-exposure-from-tap-water-by-measuring-levels-in-plasma-from-sporadic-breast-cancer-patients-a-pilot-study
#16
Anne Marie Zimeri, Sara Wagner Robb, Sayed M Hassan, Rupali R Hire, Melissa B Davis
Breast cancer (BrCA) is the most common cancer affecting women around the world. However, it does not arise from the same causative agent among all women. Genetic markers have been associated with heritable or familial breast cancers, which may or may not be confounded by environmental factors, whereas sporadic breast cancer cases are more likely attributable to environmental exposures. Approximately 85% of women diagnosed with BrCA have no family history of the disease. Given this overwhelming bias, more plausible etiologic mechanisms should be investigated to accurately assess a woman's risk of acquiring breast cancer...
December 2015: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26655962/mortality-1968-2008-in-a-french-cohort-of-uranium-enrichment-workers-potentially-exposed-to-rapidly-soluble-uranium-compounds
#17
Sergey Zhivin, Irina Guseva Canu, Eric Samson, Olivier Laurent, James Grellier, Philippe Collomb, Lydia B Zablotska, Dominique Laurier
OBJECTIVES: Until recently, enrichment of uranium for civil and military purposes in France was carried out by gaseous diffusion using rapidly soluble uranium compounds. We analysed the relationship between exposure to soluble uranium compounds and exposure to external γ-radiation and mortality in a cohort of 4688 French uranium enrichment workers who were employed between 1964 and 2006. METHODS: Data on individual annual exposure to radiological and non-radiological hazards were collected for workers of the AREVA NC, CEA and Eurodif uranium enrichment plants from job-exposure matrixes and external dosimetry records, differentiating between natural, enriched and depleted uranium...
March 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26635013/mortality-in-italian-veterans-deployed-in-bosnia-herzegovina-and-kosovo
#18
Riccardo Capocaccia, Roberto Biselli, Raffaella Ruggeri, Cristiano Tesei, Enrico Grande, Lucia Martina, Anna Rocchetti, Stefania Salmaso, Massimiliano Caldora, Silvia Francisci
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The possible increase of cancer risk in military personnel deployed in Balkans during and after the 1992-1999 wars, mainly related to the depleted uranium, was addressed by several studies on European veterans of those war theatres. This article reports on the results of the mortality study on the Italian cohort of Bosnia and Kosovo veterans (Balkan cohort). METHODS: Mortality rates for the Balkan cohort (71 144 persons) were compared with those of the Italian general population as well as to those of a comparable and unselected control cohort of not deployed military personnel (114 269 persons)...
August 2016: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26599146/description-of-the-behavior-of-an-aquifer-by-using-continuous-radon-monitoring-in-a-thermal-spa
#19
Carlos Sainz, Daniel Rábago, Ismael Fuente, Santiago Celaya, Luis Santiago Quindós
Radon ((222)Rn) levels in air and water have been analyzed continuously for almost a year in Las Caldas de Besaya thermal spa, north Spain. Radon is a naturally occurring noble gas from the decay of radium ((226)Ra) both constituents of radioactive uranium 238 series. It has been recognized as a lung carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Furthermore the Royal Decree R.D 1439/2010 of November, 2010 establishes the obligation to study occupational activities where workers and, where appropriate, members of the public are exposed to inhalation of radon in workplaces such as spas...
February 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26512425/environmental-pollutions-associated-to-conflicts-in-iraq-and-related-health-problems
#20
Ahmed Majeed Al-Shammari
Several wars and a 13-year embargo as well as several years of civil war with the recent war on terrorism have cumulatively damaged Iraq's land, air, water, and health infrastructure. The sand particles in Iraq contain toxic substances, which dates back to the pollution caused by military actions that disassemble the desert sands and turn it into light dust. This dust reaches cities as dust storms that effect most Iraqi cities. The presence of depleted uranium (DU) in the Iraqi food chain is documented by measuring the uranium in animals organs in different Iraqi cities with the highest concentration in the south of Iraq...
June 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
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