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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655165/investigation-of-natural-radioactivity-as-a-possible-driver-of-cancer-incidence-in-para%C3%A3-ba-northeastern-brazil
#1
Josineide Marques do Nascimento Santos, José Araújo Dos Santos Júnior, Ana Maria Mendoça de Albuquerque Melo, Romilton Dos Santos Amaral, Rômulo Simões Cezar Menezes, Zahily Herrero Fernández, Lino Angel Valcárcel Rojas, Jairo Dias Bezerra, Alberto Antônio da Silva, Kennedy Francys Rodrigues Damascena, Nilson Vicente da Silva Medeiros
An increase of health problems has been reported in the city of Triunfo, Paraíba, NE Brazil. This pattern has been attributed to environmental radiation since there are uranium deposits in the neighboring municipalities. The present study aimed to carry a radiometric survey in Triunfo to determine effective dose from external outdoor radiation exposure. The results were obtained through 'in situ' measurements using a gamma spectrometry system. The results ranged from 0.06 to 0.38 mSv/y, mean of 0.20 mSv/y...
June 24, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520643/risk-of-lung-cancer-mortality-in-nuclear-workers-from-internal-exposure-to-alpha-particle-emitting-radionuclides
#2
James Grellier, Will Atkinson, Philippe Bérard, Derek Bingham, Alan Birchall, Eric Blanchardon, Richard Bull, Irina Canu Guseva, Cécile Challeton-de Vathaire, Rupert Cockerill, Minh T Do, Hilde Engels, Jordi Figuerola, Adrian Foster, Luc Holmstock, Christian Hurtgen, Dominique Laurier, Matthew Puncher, Anthony E Riddell, Eric Samson, Isabelle Thierry-Chef, Margot Tirmarche, Martine Vrijheid, Elisabeth Cardis
BACKGROUND: Carcinogenic risks of internal exposures to alpha-emitters (except radon) are poorly understood. Since exposure to alpha particles-particularly through inhalation-occurs in a range of settings, understanding consequent risks is a public health priority. We aimed to quantify dose-response relationships between lung dose from alpha-emitters and lung cancer in nuclear workers. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study, nested within Belgian, French, and UK cohorts of uranium and plutonium workers...
May 17, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508337/natural-radionuclide-dose-and-lifetime-cancer-risk-due-to-ingestion-of-fish-and-water-from-fresh-water-reservoirs-near-the-proposed-uranium-mining-site
#3
Sathesh Kumar Annamalai, Kantha Deivi Arunachalam, Rajaram Selvaraj
Ten sampling locations in Nagarjuna Sagar Dam have been selected to assess the suitability of the reservoir water for human consumption. The sediment, water, and fish samples were collected and analyzed for radionuclide ((238)U, (232)Th, (210)Po, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and physicochemical parameters like pH, TOC, total hardness, alkalinity, DO, cation exchange capacity, and particle size. The spatial variations among the radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th, (210)Po, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) in water and bottom sediments of Nagarjuna Sagar Dam were determined...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462701/depleted-uranium-and-human-health
#4
Armando Faa, Clara Gerosa, Daniela Fanni, Giuseppe Floris, Peter Van Eyken, Joanna Izabela Lachowicz, Valeria Marina Nurchi
Depleted uranium (DU) is generally considered an emerging pollutant, first extensively introduced into environment in the early nineties in Iraq, during the military operation called "Desert Storm". DU has been hypothesized to represent a hazardous element both for soldiers exposed as well as for the inhabitants of the polluted areas in the war zones. In this review, the possible consequences on human health of DU released in the environment are critically analyzed. In the first part, the chemical properties of DU and the principal civil and military uses are summarized...
April 25, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443719/influence-of-quartz-exposure-on-lung-cancer-types-in-cases-of-lymph-node-only-silicosis-and-lung-silicosis-in-german-uranium-miners
#5
Stefan Mielke, Dirk Taeger, Kerstin Weitmann, Thomas Brüning, Wolfgang Hoffmann
Inhaled crystalline quartz is a carcinogen. Analyses show differences in the distribution of lung cancer types depending on the status of silicosis. Using 2,524 lung tumor cases from the WISMUT autopsy repository database, silicosis was differentiated into cases without silicosis in lung parenchyma and its lymph nodes, with lymph node-only silicosis, or with lung silicosis including lymph node silicosis. The proportions of adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and small-cell lung carcinoma mortality for increasing quartz exposures were estimated in a multinomial logistic regression model...
April 26, 2017: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432368/indoor-radon-in-micro-geological-setting-of-an-indigenous-community-in-canada-a-pilot-study-for-hazard-identification
#6
Atanu Sarkar, Derek Hc Wilton, Erica Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. In Canada, the health authorities have no access to comprehensive profile of the communities built over uranium-rich micro-geological settings. The present indoor radon monitoring guideline is unable to provide an accurate identification of health hazards due to discounting several parameters of housing characteristics. OBJECTIVE: To explore indoor radon levels in a micro-geological setting known for high uranium in bedrock and to develop a theoretical model for a revised radon testing protocol...
April 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431380/recent-aspects-of-uranium-toxicology-in-medical-geology
#7
REVIEW
Geir Bjørklund, Olav Albert Christophersen, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Olle Selinus, Jan Aaseth
Uranium (U) is a chemo-toxic, radiotoxic and even a carcinogenic element. Due to its radioactivity, the effects of U on humans health have been extensively investigated. Prolonged U exposure may cause kidney disease and cancer. The geological distribution of U radionuclides is still a great concern for human health. Uranium in groundwater, frequently used as drinking water, and general environmental pollution with U raise concerns about the potential public health problem in several areas of Asia. The particular paleo-geological hallmark of India and other Southern Asiatic regions enhances the risk of U pollution in rural and urban communities...
July 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395154/meta-analysis-of-depleted-uranium-levels-in-the-balkan-region
#8
Larisa Besic, Imer Muhovic, Adna Asic, Amina Kurtovic-Kozaric
In recent years, contradicting data has been published on the connection between the presence of depleted uranium and an increased cancer incidence among military personnel deployed in the Balkans during the 1992-1999 wars. This has led to numerous research articles investigating possible depleted uranium contamination of the afflicted regions of the Balkan Peninsula, namely Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia, Kosovo and Montenegro. The aim of this study was to collect data from previously published reports investigating the levels of depleted uranium in the Balkans and to present the data in the form of a meta-analysis...
June 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340370/validation-of-comet-assay-in-oregon-r-and-wild-type-strains-of-drosophila-melanogaster-exposed-to-a-natural-radioactive-environment-in-brazilian-semiarid-region
#9
Cícero Jorge Verçosa, Aroldo Vieira de Moraes Filho, Ícaro Fillipe de Araújo Castro, Robson Gomes Dos Santos, Kenya Silva Cunha, Daniela de Melo E Silva, Ana Cristina Lauer Garcia, Julio Alejandro Navoni, Viviane Souza do Amaral, Claudia Rohde
Natural radiation of geological origin is a common phenomenon in Brazil, a country where radioactive agents such as uranium may be often found. As an unstable atom, uranium undergoes radioactive decay with the generation of a series of decay by-products, including radon, which may be highly genotoxic and trigger several pathological processes, among which cancer. Because it is a gas, radon may move freely between cracks and gaps in the ground, seeping upwards into the buildings and in the environment. In this study, two Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera, Drosophilidae) strains called Oregon-R and Wild (collected in a non-radioactive environment) were exposed to atmospheric radiation in the Lajes Pintadas city, in the semiarid zone of northeastern Brazil...
March 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335450/assessment-of-radioactive-materials-and-heavy-metals-in-the-surface-soil-around-the-bayanwula-prospective-uranium-mining-area-in-china
#10
Haribala Bai, Bitao Hu, Chengguo Wang, Shanhu Bao, Gerilemandahu Sai, Xiao Xu, Shuai Zhang, Yuhong Li
The present work is the first systematic and large scale study on radioactive materials and heavy metals in surface soil around the Bayanwula prospective uranium mining area in China. In this work, both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and heavy metals in 48 surface soil samples were analyzed using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) γ spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The obtained mean activity concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (137)Cs were 25.81 ± 9...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290930/medical-effects-of-a-transuranic-dirty-bomb
#11
Asaf Durakovic
The modern military battlefields are characterized by the use of nonconventional weapons such as encountered in the conflicts of the Gulf War I and Gulf War II. Recent warfare in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Balkans has introduced radioactive weapons to the modern war zone scenarios. This presents the military medicine with a new area of radioactive warfare with the potential large scale contamination of military and civilian targets with the variety of radioactive isotopes further enhanced by the clandestine use of radioactive materials in the terrorist radioactive warfare...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286974/natural-radioactivity-levels-and-associated-health-hazards-from-the-terrestrial-ecosystem-in-rosetta-branch-of-the-river-nile-egypt
#12
W M Abdellah, H M Diab, S U El-Kameesy, E Salama, S El-Framawy
Twenty soil and 25 sediment samples were collected from the banks and bottom of the River Nile in the surroundings of biggest cities located close to it. Natural radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K have been evaluated for all samples by means of γ spectrometric analysis. The radioactivity levels of soil and sediment samples fall within the internationally recommended values. Nevertheless, high natural background radiation zones are detected in the Kafr El-Zayat region due to the presence of a fertilizer factory, and in the Rosetta region due to the presence of black sand deposits...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251247/the-social-costs-of-uranium-mining-in-the-us-colorado-plateau-cohort-1960-2005
#13
Benjamin A Jones
OBJECTIVES: Long-term social costs associated with underground uranium mining are largely unknown. This study estimated health costs of Native American and white (Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin) uranium miners in the US Public Health Service Colorado Plateau cohort study. METHODS: Elevated uranium miner person-years of life lost (PYLL) were calculated from the most recent study of the Colorado Plateau cohort over 1960-2005. Nine causes of death categories were included...
May 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218831/new-possibilities-for-magnetic-control-of-chemical-and-biochemical-reactions
#14
Anatoly Buchachenko, Ronald G Lawler
Chemistry is controlled by Coulomb energy; magnetic energy is lower by many orders of magnitude and may be confidently ignored in the energy balance of chemical reactions. The situation becomes less clear, however, when reaction rates are considered. In this case, magnetic perturbations of nearly degenerate energy surface crossings may produce observable, and sometimes even dramatic, effects on reactions rates, product yields, and spectroscopic transitions. A case in point that has been studied for nearly five decades is electron spin-selective chemistry via the intermediacy of radical pairs...
February 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161042/factors-affecting-atmospheric-radon-concentration-human-health
#15
D E Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, M Kłos
We studied the influence of terrain, geology and weather condition on radon concentration in the atmosphere and occurrence of radon density currents. The survey was carried out in Kowary (SW Poland) and in the spoil tip formed during uranium mining. The measurements of radon concentration were performed using SSNTD LR-115. The measurements of uranium thorium and potassium content in soil were carried out using gamma ray spectrometer Exploranium RS-230. We noticed that terrain and stability of weather condition had significant impact on atmospheric radon concentration...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118116/accounting-for-berkson-and-classical-measurement-error-in-radon-exposure-using-a-bayesian-structural-approach-in-the-analysis-of-lung-cancer-mortality-in-the-french-cohort-of-uranium-miners
#16
Sabine Hoffmann, Estelle Rage, Dominique Laurier, Pierre Laroche, Chantal Guihenneuc, Sophie Ancelet
Many occupational cohort studies on underground miners have demonstrated that radon exposure is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer mortality. However, despite the deleterious consequences of exposure measurement error on statistical inference, these analyses traditionally do not account for exposure uncertainty. This might be due to the challenging nature of measurement error resulting from imperfect surrogate measures of radon exposure. Indeed, we are typically faced with exposure uncertainty in a time-varying exposure variable where both the type and the magnitude of error may depend on period of exposure...
February 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090134/outcome-dependent-sampling-design-and-inference-for-cox-s-proportional-hazards-model
#17
Jichang Yu, Yanyan Liu, Jianwen Cai, Dale P Sandler, Haibo Zhou
We propose a cost-effective outcome-dependent sampling design for the failure time data and develop an efficient inference procedure for data collected with this design. To account for the biased sampling scheme, we derive estimators from a weighted partial likelihood estimating equation. The proposed estimators for regression parameters are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed. A criteria that can be used to optimally implement the ODS design in practice is proposed and studied. The small sample performance of the proposed method is evaluated by simulation studies...
November 2016: Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753121/mortality-in-a-combined-cohort-of-uranium-enrichment-workers
#18
James H Yiin, Jeri L Anderson, Robert D Daniels, Stephen J Bertke, Donald A Fleming, David J Tollerud, Chih-Yu Tseng, Pi-Hsueh Chen, Kathleen M Waters
OBJECTIVE: To examine the patterns of cause-specific mortality and relationship between internal exposure to uranium and specific causes in a pooled cohort of 29,303 workers employed at three former uranium enrichment facilities in the United States with follow-up through 2011. METHODS: Cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for the full cohort were calculated with the U.S. population as referent. Internal comparison of the dose-response relation between selected outcomes and estimated organ doses was evaluated using regression models...
January 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651479/cancer-incidence-and-mortality-from-exposure-to-radon-progeny-among-ontario-uranium-miners
#19
Garthika Navaranjan, Colin Berriault, Minh Do, Paul J Villeneuve, Paul A Demers
OBJECTIVES: The study objectives were to extend the follow-up of the Ontario uranium miners cohort, one of the largest cohorts of uranium miners with low cumulative exposures, to examine the relationship between radon exposure and lung cancer mortality and, for the first time incidence, and address gaps in the literature, including dose-response relationship between radon exposure and other cancer sites, and non-cancer mortality. METHODS: The cohort of mine and mill workers was created using data from Canada's National Dose Registry and the Ontario Mining Master File...
December 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594696/-assessment-of-radon-induced-health-risk-for-occupants-of-a-house-built-on-uranium-ore-residue
#20
E Cléro, L Marie, C Challeton-De Vathaire, D Laurier, A Rannou
BACKGROUND: At the request of French public authorities, the Institute of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety has assessed the radiological situation of a house built on uranium ore residues in Haute-Vienne and the health risks induced from exposure to radon for all occupants. Classified as a lung carcinogen by the World Health Organization, radon is a proven cause of lung cancer in case of regular inhalation over a long period, and the risk increases with cumulative exposure. METHODS: Radon exposure was reconstructed for various standard profiles of house occupancy...
September 2016: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
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