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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936426/statistical-comparison-of-mass-spectra-for-identification-of-amphetamine-type-stimulants
#1
Melissa A Bodnar Willard, Victoria L McGuffin, Ruth Waddell Smith
A method for the statistical comparison of mass spectral data is demonstrated for applications in controlled substance analysis. The method uses an unequal variance t-test at each mass-to-charge ratio in the scan range to determine if two spectra are statistically associated or discriminated. If the two spectra are associated, a random-match probability is calculated to estimate the likelihood that the mass spectral fragmentation pattern in question occurs by random chance alone. If the two spectra are discriminated, the fragment ions responsible for the discrimination are determined...
November 22, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216487/receptor-interaction-profiles-of-novel-psychoactive-tryptamines-compared-with-classic-hallucinogens
#2
Anna Rickli, Olivier D Moning, Marius C Hoener, Matthias E Liechti
The present study investigated interactions between the novel psychoactive tryptamines DiPT, 4-OH-DiPT, 4-OH-MET, 5-MeO-AMT, and 5-MeO-MiPT at monoamine receptors and transporters compared with the classic hallucinogens lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocin, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), and mescaline. We investigated binding affinities at human monoamine receptors and determined functional serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptor activation. Binding at and the inhibition of human monoamine uptake transporters and transporter-mediated monoamine release were also determined...
August 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27021629/dna-based-taxonomic-identification-of-basidiospores-in-hallucinogenic-mushrooms-cultivated-in-grow-kits-seized-by-the-police-lc-uv-quali-quantitative-determination-of-psilocybin-and-psilocin
#3
Veniero Gambaro, Gabriella Roda, Giacomo Luca Visconti, Sebastiano Arnoldi, Eleonora Casagni, Lucia Dell'Acqua, Fiorenza Farè, Eleonora Paladino, Chiara Rusconi, Stefania Arioli, Diego Mora
The taxonomic identification of the biological material contained in the hallucinogenic mushrooms culture media, was carried out using a DNA-based approach, thus highlighting the usefulness of this approach in the forensic identification of illegal samples also when they are present as basidiospores mixed in culture media and spore-bearing fruiting body are not present. This approach is very useful as it allows the unequivocal identification of potentially illicit material before the cultivation and it enables to stop the material to the Customs and to destroy it due to its dangerousness without cultivating the "grow-kits" and without instructing a criminal case...
June 5, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26461483/sex-differences-and-serotonergic-mechanisms-in-the-behavioural-effects-of-psilocin
#4
Filip Tylš, Tomáš Páleníček, Lukáš Kadeřábek, Michaela Lipski, Anna Kubešová, Jiří Horáček
Psilocybin has recently attracted a great deal of attention as a clinical research and therapeutic tool. The aim of this paper is to bridge two major knowledge gaps regarding its behavioural pharmacology - sex differences and the underlying receptor mechanisms. We used psilocin (0.25, 1 and 4 mg/kg), an active metabolite of psilocybin, in two behavioural paradigms - the open-field test and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reaction. Sex differences were evaluated with respect to the phase of the female cycle...
June 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26378143/a-case-review-of-the-first-analytically-confirmed-25i-nbome-related-death-in-washington-state
#5
Lyndsey M Lowe, Brianna L Peterson, Fiona J Couper
This case was submitted to the Washington State Patrol Toxicology Laboratory in September 2014. A 15-year-old male went to a party where he ingested 25I-NBOMe and mushrooms. A short time later, he started to vomit and began seizing until he eventually passed out. Resuscitation efforts were made, but were unsuccessful. He was transported to a local hospital, where he died three days later of multi-system organ failure following cardiopulmonary arrest. The hospital admission samples were negative for ethanol and basic drugs and their metabolites...
October 2015: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26270149/bufotenine-a-hallucinogen-in-ancient-snuff-powders-of-south-america-and-a-drug-of-abuse-on-the-streets-of-new-york-city
#6
REVIEW
R P Chamakura
Bufotenine, an isomer of psilocin, is a controlled Schedule I hallucinogenic substance under the New York state and Federal laws. Bufotenine was identified in 42 case samples received at the New York City Police Laboratory since May 1992. The samples were hard, resinous, dark reddish-brown material, sold on the streets as "hashish". A few other cases were also seized in Orlando and Tampa, FL. Natural sources of bufotenine are: (a) plant material, mostly seeds of the genus Anadenanthera (formerly Piptadenia); (b) plant organs of other genera; (c) toads (Bufo marinus, B...
June 1994: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26240441/phylogenetic-and-chemical-studies-in-the-potential-psychotropic-species-complex-of-psilocybe-atrobrunnea-with-taxonomic-and-nomenclatural-notes
#7
J Borovička, M Oborník, J Stříbrný, M E Noordeloos, L A Parra Sánchez, M Gryndler
Five Psilocybe species with unresolved systematic position (P. atrobrunnea, P. laetissima, P. medullosa, P. pelliculosa, and P. silvatica) were investigated using four molecular markers (EF1-α, ITS, LSU, and IGS). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that with the exception of P. laetissima, which is now rightfully classified in the genus Leratiomyces, all investigated species belong to Psilocybe sect. Psilocybe. For the first time, psychotropic compounds psilocin and psilocybin were detected in P. medullosa using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
June 2015: Persoonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26192543/neurovascular-and-neuroimaging-effects-of-the-hallucinogenic-serotonin-receptor-agonist-psilocin-in-the-rat-brain
#8
Aisling Spain, Clare Howarth, Alexandre A Khrapitchev, Trevor Sharp, Nicola R Sibson, Chris Martin
The development of pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) has presented the opportunity for investigation of the neurophysiological effects of drugs in vivo. Psilocin, a hallucinogen metabolised from psilocybin, was recently reported to evoke brain region-specific, phMRI signal changes in humans. The present study investigated the effects of psilocin in a rat model using phMRI and then probed the relationship between neuronal and haemodynamic responses using a multimodal measurement preparation...
December 2015: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26165663/light-microscopy-can-reveal-the-consumption-of-a-mixture-of-psychotropic-plant-and-fungal-material-in-suspicious-death
#9
Patricia E J Wiltshire, David L Hawksworth, Kevin J Edwards
Light microscopical examination of plant and fungal remains in the post mortem gut may be capable of demonstrating the ingestion of unexpected natural psychotropic materials. This is demonstrated here in a case in which a 'shaman' was accused of causing the death of a young man. The deceased had participated in a ceremony which involved the drinking of ayahuasca in order to induce a psychotropic experience. Ayahuasca is an infusion of Banisteriopsis caapi (ayahuasca vine), which produces a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, and one or more additional tropical plants, generally Psychotria viridis (chacruna) which produces dimethyltryptamine (DMT)...
August 2015: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25826052/research-on-acute-toxicity-and-the-behavioral-effects-of-methanolic-extract-from-psilocybin-mushrooms-and-psilocin-in-mice
#10
Olga Zhuk, Izabela Jasicka-Misiak, Anna Poliwoda, Anastasia Kazakova, Vladlena V Godovan, Marek Halama, Piotr P Wieczorek
The pharmacological activities and acute toxicity of the psilocin (PC) and dried residues of the crude extracts of psychotropic mushrooms were investigated in mice. The hallucinogenic substances were effectively isolated, by using methanol, from the species of Psilocybe semilanceata and Pholiotina cyanopus, that were collected in the north-east region of Poland. The chemical analysis of these extracts, which was performed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS), indicated the presence of psilocin and other hallucinogenic substances, including indolealkylamines and their phosphorylated analogues...
March 27, 2015: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25540060/analysis-of-psilocin-bufotenine-and-lsd-in-hair
#11
Rafaela Martin, Jennifer Schürenkamp, Angela Gasse, Heidi Pfeiffer, Helga Köhler
A method for the simultaneous extraction of the hallucinogens psilocin, bufotenine, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) as well as iso-LSD, nor-LSD and O-H-LSD from hair with hydrochloride acid and methanol is presented. Clean-up of the hair extracts is performed with solid phase extraction using a mixed-mode cation exchanger. Extracts are measured with liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The method was successfully validated according to the guidelines of the 'Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry' (GTFCh)...
March 2015: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25342005/effect-of-psilocin-on-extracellular-dopamine-and-serotonin-levels-in-the-mesoaccumbens-and-mesocortical-pathway-in-awake-rats
#12
Yuichi Sakashita, Kenji Abe, Nobuyuki Katagiri, Toshie Kambe, Toshiaki Saitoh, Iku Utsunomiya, Yoshie Horiguchi, Kyoji Taguchi
Psilocin (3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-1H-indol-4-ol) is a hallucinogenic component of the Mexican mushroom Psilocybe mexicana and a skeletal serotonin (5-HT) analogue. Psilocin is the active metabolite of psilocybin (3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-1H-indol-4-yl dihydrogen phosphate). In the present study, we examined the effects of systemically administered psilocin on extracellular dopamine and 5-HT concentrations in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex of the dopaminergic pathway in awake rats using in vivo microdialysis...
2015: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25171488/ultra-high-pressure-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-determination-of-hallucinogenic-drugs-in-hair-of-psychedelic-plants-and-mushrooms-consumers
#13
Simona Pichini, Emilia Marchei, Oscar García-Algar, Arelis Gomez, Rita Di Giovannandrea, Roberta Pacifici
A procedure based on ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of mescaline, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, psilocin, psilocybin, salvinorin A in hair of consumers of psychedelic vegetal material such peyote or trichocereus cacti, psilocybe mushrooms, Salvia divinorum or psychedelic beverage ayahuasca. After hair washing with methyl alcohol and diethyl ether and subsequent addition of mescaline-d9 and 3,4-methylenedioxypropylamphetamine as internal standards, hair samples were treated with 250μl VMA-T M3 reagent for 1h at 100°C...
November 2014: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24904332/the-effect-of-psilocin-on-memory-acquisition-retrieval-and-consolidation-in-the-rat
#14
Lukas Rambousek, Tomas Palenicek, Karel Vales, Ales Stuchlik
The involvement of the serotonin system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia has been elucidated by experiments with hallucinogens. Application of a hallucinogen to humans leads to changes in perception, cognition, emotions, and induction of psychotic-like symptoms that resemble symptoms of schizophrenia. In rodent studies, their acute administration affects sensorimotor gating, locomotor activity, social behavior, and cognition including working memory, the phenotypes are considered as an animal model of schizophrenia...
2014: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24513688/synthesis-hydrolysis-and-stability-of-psilocin-glucuronide
#15
Rafaela Martin, Jennifer Schürenkamp, Heidi Pfeiffer, Matthias Lehr, Helga Köhler
A two-step synthesis of psilocin glucuronide (PCG), the main metabolite of psilocin, with methyl 2,3,4-tri-O-isobutyryl-1-O-trichloroacetimidoyl-α-d-glucopyranuronate is reported. With the synthesized PCG, hydrolysis conditions in serum and urine were optimized. Escherichia coli proved to be a better enzyme source for β-glucuronidase than Helix pomatia. It was essential to add ascorbic acid to serum samples to protect psilocin during incubation. Furthermore the stability of PCG and psilocin was compared as stability data are the basis for forensic interpretation of measurements...
April 2014: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24048847/broadband-cortical-desynchronization-underlies-the-human-psychedelic-state
#16
Suresh D Muthukumaraswamy, Robin L Carhart-Harris, Rosalyn J Moran, Matthew J Brookes, Tim M Williams, David Errtizoe, Ben Sessa, Andreas Papadopoulos, Mark Bolstridge, Krish D Singh, Amanda Feilding, Karl J Friston, David J Nutt
Psychedelic drugs produce profound changes in consciousness, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms for this remain unclear. Spontaneous and induced oscillatory activity was recorded in healthy human participants with magnetoencephalography after intravenous infusion of psilocybin--prodrug of the nonselective serotonin 2A receptor agonist and classic psychedelic psilocin. Psilocybin reduced spontaneous cortical oscillatory power from 1 to 50 Hz in posterior association cortices, and from 8 to 100 Hz in frontal association cortices...
September 18, 2013: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23878898/-suicide-under-the-influence-of-magic-mushrooms
#17
Katja Müller, Klaus Püschel, Stefanie Iwersen-Bergmann
Psilocybin/psilocin from so-called psychoactive mushrooms causes hallucinogenic effects. Especially for people with mental or psychiatric disorders ingestion of magic mushrooms may result in horror trips combined with the intention of self-destruction and suicidal thoughts. Automutilation after consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms has already been described. Our case report demonstrates the suicide of a man by self-inflicted cut and stab injuries. A causal connection between suicidal behaviour and previous ingestion of psychoactive mushrooms is discussed...
May 2013: Archiv Für Kriminologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23851905/fungal-hallucinogens-psilocin-ibotenic-acid-and-muscimol-analytical-methods-and-biologic-activities
#18
REVIEW
Katarzyna Stebelska
Psychoactive drugs of fungal origin, psilocin, ibotenic acid, and muscimol among them have been proposed for recreational use and popularized since the 1960s, XX century. Despite their well-documented neurotoxicity, they reached reputation of being safe and nonaddictive. Scientific efforts to find any medical application for these hallucinogens in psychiatry, psychotherapy, and even for religious rituals support are highly controversial. Even if they show any healing potential, their usage in psychotherapy is in some cases inadequate and may additionally harm seriously suffering patients...
August 2013: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23692208/identification-of-novel-psychoactive-drug-use-in-sweden-based-on-laboratory-analysis-initial-experiences-from-the-strida-project
#19
Anders Helander, Olof Beck, Robert Hägerkvist, Peter Hultén
AIM: The study aimed to collect information concerning the increasing use of new psychoactive substances, commonly sold through online shops as 'Internet drugs' or 'legal highs', or in terms of masked products such as 'bath salts' and 'plant food'. METHODS: The Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Laboratory and the Swedish Poisons Information Centre have initiated a project called 'STRIDA' aiming to monitor the occurrence and trends of new psychoactive substances in Sweden, and collect information about their clinical symptoms, toxicity and associated health risks...
August 2013: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23183899/determination-of-psilocin-bufotenine-lsd-and-its-metabolites-in-serum-plasma-and-urine-by-spe-lc-ms-ms
#20
Rafaela Martin, Jennifer Schürenkamp, Angela Gasse, Heidi Pfeiffer, Helga Köhler
A validated method for the simultaneous determination of psilocin, bufotenine, lysergic acid diethylamide and its metabolites in serum, plasma and urine using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry was developed. During the solid-phase extraction procedure with polymeric mixed-mode cation exchange columns, the unstable analytes were protected by ascorbic acid, drying with nitrogen and exclusion of light. The limits of detection and quantitation for all analytes were low. Recovery was ≥86 % for all analytes and no significant matrix effects were observed...
May 2013: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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