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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931035/diabetic-phenotype-in-the-small-intestine-of-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#1
Henning Hvid, Stina Rikke Jensen, Brent M Witgen, Christian Fledelius, Jesper Damgaard, Charles Pyke, Thomas Bovbjerg Rasmussen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In contrast to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rodent models of diabetes, there are no thorough characterizations of the intestinal phenotype and the underlying changes in the global gene-expression of genetic models of diabetes, such as the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat. The aim of the present study was to characterize the intestine in the ZDF rat. METHODS: The intestine of ZDF rats and lean controls was examined macroscopically and histologically, and ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNAseq) was performed in samples of jejunal mucosa...
December 9, 2016: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930863/lessons-from-a-cardiovascular-outcome-trial-with-liraglutide-in-type-2-diabetes
#2
Hae Jin Kim, Dae Jung Kim
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and one of common diabetes-related complications in patients with type 2 diabetes(1) . After the US Food and Drug Administration issued guidelines for assessing the CVD risk of all new glucose-lowering agents for type 2 diabetes in 2008(2) , randomized controlled CV outcome trials with new antidiabetic drugs, such as the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (saxagliptin, alogliptin, and sitagliptin) and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA), lixisenatide, showed CV safety in high CV risk patient populations with type 2 diabtes(3) ...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929385/the-metabolic-implications-of-glucocorticoids-in-a-high-fat-diet-setting-and-the-counter-effects-of-exercise
#3
REVIEW
Emily C Dunford, Michael C Riddell
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones, naturally produced by activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, that mediate the immune and metabolic systems. Synthetic GCs are used to treat a number of inflammatory conditions and diseases including lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. Generally, chronic or high dose GC administration is associated with side effects such as steroid-induced skeletal muscle loss, visceral adiposity, and diabetes development. Patients who are taking exogenous GCs could also be more susceptible to poor food choices, but the effect that increasing fat consumption in combination with elevated exogenous GCs has only recently been investigated...
December 5, 2016: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928947/oral-glucose-lowering-drugs-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-from-the-negative-record-and-accord-to-neutral-tecos-and-promising-empa-reg
#4
C Tsioufis, E Andrikou, C Thomopoulos, N Papanas, D Tousoulis
Cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality are higher among patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM), particularly those with concomitant CV diseases, compared with other populations. In patients with T2DM, intensive glucose lowering reduces microvascular disease, but has a smaller and debated effect on CV events or mortality. In this setting, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required in 2008 that all new agents for the treatment of T2DM should be evaluated in terms of CV safety. Metformin has long been established as first-line pharmacological therapy in patients with T2DM, due to its proven beneficial CV effects...
December 8, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928772/barriers-and-facilitators-to-healthy-lifestyle-changes-in-minority-ethnic-populations-in-the-uk-a-narrative-review
#5
Naina Patel, Harriet Batista Ferrer, Freya Tyrer, Paula Wray, Azhar Farooqi, Melanie J Davies, Kamlesh Khunti
Minority ethnic populations experience a disproportionate burden of health inequalities compared with the rest of the population, including an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The purpose of this narrative review was to explore knowledge and attitudes around diabetes, physical activity and diet and identify barriers and facilitators to healthy lifestyle changes in minority ethnic populations in the UK. The narrative review focused on three key research topics in relation to barriers and facilitators to healthy lifestyle changes in minority adult ethnic populations: (i) knowledge and attitudes about diabetes risk; (ii) current behaviours and knowledge about physical activity and diet; and (iii) barriers and facilitators to living a healthier lifestyle...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928184/ismp-adverse-drug-reactions-chronic-marijuana-use-associated-with-recurrent-diabetic-ketoacidosis-lamotrigine-induced-cataplexy-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-induced-hyponatremia-ziprasidone-induced-sleepwalking-and-sleep-related-eating-metabolic-acidosis-associated
#6
Michael A Mancano
The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested...
November 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927186/diet-as-a-system-an-observational-study-investigating-a-multi-choice-system-of-moderately-restricted-low-protein-diets
#7
Giorgina Barbara Piccoli, Marta Nazha, Irene Capizzi, Federica Neve Vigotti, Stefania Scognamiglio, Valentina Consiglio, Elena Mongilardi, Marilisa Bilocati, Paolo Avagnina, Elisabetta Versino
BACKGROUND: There is no single, gold-standard, low-protein diet (LPD) for CKD patients; the best compliance is probably obtained by personalization. This study tests the hypothesis that a multiple choice diet network allows patients to attain a good compliance level, and that, in an open-choice system, overall results are not dependent upon the specific diet, but upon the clinical characteristics of the patients. METHODS: Observational study: Three LPD options were offered to all patients with severe or rapidly progressive CKD: vegan diets supplemented with alpha-ketoacids and essential aminoacids; protein-free food in substitution of normal bread and pasta; other (traditional, vegan non supplemented and tailored)...
December 7, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926889/precision-medicine-diabetes-and-the-u-s-food-and-drug-administration
#8
Robert J Meyer
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has long sought to achieve the broader use of personalized medicine, which is better targeting of FDA-approved therapies through incorporating precise knowledge of a patient's underlying condition to therapies optimally chosen to match those needs. While some strides have been made in precision medicine-particularly in oncology and rare genetic diseases-most of the standard general medicine indications have yet to realize the benefits of precision-guided therapies...
November 2016: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926472/sweetened-beverage-intake-and-risk-of-latent-autoimmune-diabetes-in-adults-lada-and-type-2-diabetes
#9
Josefin E Löfvenborg, Tomas Andersson, Per-Ola Carlsson, Mozhgan Dorkhan, Leif Groop, Mats Martinell, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Alicja Wolk, Sofia Carlsson
OBJECTIVE: Sweetened beverage intake is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but its association with autoimmune diabetes is unclear. We aimed to investigate sweetened beverage intake and risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA); autoimmune diabetes with features of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN/METHODS: Data from a Swedish population-based study was used, including incident cases of LADA (n = 357) and type 2 diabetes (n = 1136) and randomly selected controls (n = 1371)...
December 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925712/quantitative-assessment-of-nutrition-in-patients-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos
#10
Małgorzata Szczuko, Magdalena Skowronek, Marta Zapałowska-Chwyć, Andrzej Starczewski
Background: PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) is called a pathology of the XX century and affects at least 10-15% women of childbearing age. The therapy involves pharmacotherapy of hormonal imbalance, as well as the change of lifestyle, including the diet. Objective: Performing the quantitative assessment of components of diets of women with PCOS, comparing the results with current dietary standards for Polish people and defining dietary requirements for the patients...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925138/food-insecurity-and-peripheral-arterial-disease-in-older-adult-populations
#11
M L Redmond, F Dong, J Goetz, L T Jacobson, T C Collins
OBJECTIVES: Food insecurity, defined as the limited or uncertain availability of nutritious and safe foods, is a complex phenomenon and is linked to poor nutrition and diet-sensitive chronic diseases. Dietary patterns that include saturated fats and meat products are potential risk factors for the progression of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This study explored whether there is a relationship between food insecurity and PAD among a national sample of older adults. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional data analysis using data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924618/cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-and-health-outcomes-among-american-indians-in-oklahoma-the-thrive-study
#12
Valarie Blue Bird Jernigan, Marianna Wetherill, Jordan Hearod, Tvli Jacob, Alicia L Salvatore, Tamela Cannady, Mandy Grammar, Joy Standridge, Jill Fox, Jennifer Spiegel, AnDina Wiley, Carolyn Noonan, Dedra Buchwald
INTRODUCTION: Limited available data document higher prevalences of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and health outcomes among American Indians (AIs) compared to other racial/ethnic groups. METHODS: As part of a randomized control trial to improve tribal food and physical activity environments, our tribal-academic partnership surveyed a cross-sectional sample of American Indian adults (n = 513) to assess the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, tobacco use, physical activity, and vegetable and fruit intake...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924082/duodenal-endoluminal-barrier-sleeve-alters-gut-microbiota-of-zdf-rats
#13
T Kim, C L Holleman, T Ptacek, C D Morrow, K M Habegger
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The combination of energy dense diets and reduced energy expenditure in modern society has escalated the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities. Among these disease-states, type-2 diabetics (T2D) are disproportionately associated with obesity, suggesting a shared etiology. In conjunction with defects in hormonal and inflammatory states, obesity and T2D are also characterized by dysbiosis. METHODS: We have recently described the beneficial effects of duodenal nutrient exclusion, as induced by the duodenal endoluminal sleeve (DES); including body weight loss, prevented fat mass accumulation, and improved glucose tolerance in the ZDF rat, a rodent model of obesity and type-2 diabetes (T2D)...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923809/role-of-autonomic-nervous-system-in-chronic-cns-mediated-antidiabetic-action-of-leptin
#14
Alexandre A da Silva, John E Hall, Sydney P Moak, Jackson Browning, Haley J Houghton, Giovana C Micheloni, Jussara M do Carmo
This study tested whether chronic ganglionic blockade or hepatic vagotomy attenuates the chronic CNS-mediated antidiabetic and cardiovascular effects of leptin. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented with telemetry probes and arterial and venous catheters for determination of blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), blood sampling and intravenous (IV) infusions. An intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula was placed into the brain lateral ventricle for infusion of leptin or vehicle. After control measurements, streptozotocin (STZ) was injected IV (50 mg/kg) to induce diabetes and 5 days later leptin (n=6) or saline vehicle (n=5) was infused ICV for 12 days via osmotic pumps...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921432/-composition-of-macronutrients-in-the-diabetic-diet
#15
Zdeněk Rušavý, Michal Žourek
The diabetic diet is one of the pillars of diabetes treatment. The rapid development of knowledge relating to the treatment of diabetes also includes diet. The paper focuses on the importance of a diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and prevention of atherosclerosis. Its main goal is to assess the impact of a composition of macronutrients on individuals with type 2 diabetes. The paper is divided into several parts, each of which ends with a conclusion. The first part examines weight reduction. The diet aimed at a weight loss is effective, it can effectively prevent diabetes, it leads to improvements in glucose control and reduction of the risk factors for atherosclerosis, however it will not impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality until after more than 20 years...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921426/-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Hana Krejčí
The present generation of women of childbearing age more frequently suffer from overweight, obesity, initial as well as fully established metabolic syndrome, which together with postponing motherhood until the third decade in life plays an important role in the increasing incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM) that currently affects about 1/5 of pregnant women. However the causal link between diabetes during pregnancy and metabolic diseases in the whole population is mutual. By way of epigenetic changes, maternal diabetes unfavourably programmes metabolism of the offspring, who tend to transfer the disorder to the next generations...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921399/antioxidant-and-antidiabetic-properties-of-tartary-buckwheat-rice-flavonoids-after-in-vitro-digestion
#17
Tao Bao, Ye Wang, Yu-Ting Li, Vemana Gowd, Xin-He Niu, Hai-Ying Yang, Li-Shui Chen, Wei Chen, Chong-de Sun
Oxidative stress and diabetes have a tendency to alter protein, lipid, and DNA moieties. One of the strategic methods used to reduce diabetes-associated oxidative stress is to inhibit the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes, thereby decreasing gastrointestinal glucose production. Plant-derived natural antioxidant molecules are considered a therapeutic tool in the treatment of oxidative stress and diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids and evaluate the effect of in vitro digestion on their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921351/the-effect-of-combined-inositol-hexakisphosphate-and-inositol-supplement-in-streptozotocin-induced-type-2-diabetic-rats
#18
Shadae R Foster, Felix O Omoruyi, Juan Bustamante, Ruby L A Lindo, Lowell L Dilworth
Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) and inositol both regulate insulin secretion, but their combined use in the management of diabetes deserves investigation. The combined effects of IP6 and inositol supplementation were investigated in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats. The following groups of rats were studied for 8 weeks: non-diabetic control, non-diabetic high-fat diet control, diabetic untreated, diabetic rats treated with the combination of IP6 and inositol (650 mg/kg bw) and diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide (10 mg/kg bw)...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920817/pharmacological-characterization-of-liquiritigenin-a-chiral-flavonoid-in-licorice
#19
Samaa Alrushaid, Neal M Davies, Stephanie E Martinez, Casey L Sayre
Liquiritigenin is a chiral flavonoid present in plant based food, nutraceuticals, and traditional medicines. It is also an important ingredient present in licorice. The purpose of this study is to explore the pharmacological activity of racemic liquiritigenin utilizing several in vitro assays with relevant roles in colon cancer and diabetes. Where possible, the pure enantiomers were tested to identify the stereospecific contribution to the activity. In vitro antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory activities (cyclooxygenase inhibition), antidiabetic activities (alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibition) as well as cytochrome P450 (CYP450) inhibitory activities were assessed...
October 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920772/streptococcus-thermophilus-apc151-strain-is-suitable-for-the-manufacture-of-naturally-gaba-enriched-bioactive-yogurt
#20
Daniel M Linares, Tom F O'Callaghan, Paula M O'Connor, R P Ross, Catherine Stanton
Consumer interest in health-promoting food products is a major driving force for the increasing global demand of functional (probiotic) dairy foods. Yogurt is considered the ideal medium for delivery of beneficial functional ingredients. Gamma-amino-butyric acid has potential as a bioactive ingredient in functional foods due to its health-promoting properties as an anti-stress, anti-hypertensive, and anti-diabetic agent. Here, we report the use of a novel Streptococcus thermophilus strain, isolated from the digestive tract of fish, for production of yogurt naturally enriched with 2 mg/ml of gamma-amino-butyric acid (200 mg in a standard yogurt volume of 100 ml), a dose in the same range as that provided by some commercially available gamma-amino-butyric acid supplements...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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