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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049270/adipokine-profile-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-depends-on-degree-of-obesity
#1
Joanna Kocot, Piotr Dziemidok, Małgorzata Kiełczykowska, Anna Hordyjewska, Grzegorz Szcześniak, Irena Musik
BACKGROUND The fast pace of life, promoting fast food consumption and low physical activity, has resulted in obesity and/or diabetes as being serious social problems. The aim of the present study was to evaluate concentrations of selected adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin) and to assess the leptin/adiponectin ratio in plasma of type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients in relation to degree of obesity. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study comprised 92 T2D subjects divided into 4 groups according to BMI value - I (normal body weight), II (overweight), III (obesity), and IV (severe obesity) - and 20 healthy volunteers (control group)...
October 19, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046697/preclinical-safety-assessment-of-angelica-acutiloba-using-a-13-week-repeated-dose-oral-toxicity-study-in-rats
#2
Jun-Won Yun, Euna Kwon, Seung-Hyun Kim, Ji-Ran You, Yun-Soon Kim, In Ae Park, Hyeon Hoe Kim, Jeong-Hwan Che, Byeong-Cheol Kang
Angelica acutiloba (AA), a Japanese species of Danggui, has been used worldwide as a traditional herbal medicine with several bioactivities including anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and anti-obesity. However, there is lack of toxicological data available to evaluate potential long-term toxicity and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of AA extract in accordance with the test guidelines published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. In the 14-day repeat-dose toxicity study, no adverse effects on mortality, body weight change, clinical signs, and organ weights was found following repeat oral administration to rats for 14 days (125, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight), leading that 2000 mg/kg is the highest recommended dose of AA extract for the 13-week repeat-dose oral toxicity study...
September 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044708/optimal-prandial-timing-of-bolus-insulin-in-diabetes-management-a-review
#3
REVIEW
D Slattery, S A Amiel, P Choudhary
The inability to achieve optimal diabetes glucose control in people with diabetes is multifactorial, but one contributor may be inadequate control of postprandial glucose. In patients treated with multiple daily injections of insulin, both the dose and timing of meal-related rapid-acting insulin are key factors in this. There are conflicting opinions and evidence on the optimal time to administer mealtime insulin. We performed a comprehensive literature search to review the published data, focusing on the use of rapid-acting insulin analogues in patients with Type 1 diabetes...
October 17, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040545/ethnicity-and-place-the-geography-of-diabetes-inequalities-under-a-strong-welfare-state
#4
Elias Nosrati, Anne Karen Jenum, Anh Thi Tran, Sir Michael Marmot, Lawrence Peter King
Background: The Nordic 'health paradox' designates the seemingly puzzling empirical reality in which, despite the presence of strong welfare policies targeting structural inequalities, distinct health disparities persist in Scandinavian societies. In Norway, previous research has shown that inequalities in diabetes prevalence are particularly salient, notably between ethnic groups. These have often been attributed to lifestyle, socioeconomic factors, or genetics. No previous research has sought to investigate the sociospatial mediation of diabetes inequities...
October 10, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038789/diosgenin-a-novel-aldose-reductase-inhibitor-attenuates-the-galactosemic-cataract-in-rats
#5
Lixia Ji, Lixia Cheng, Zhihong Yang
OBJECTIVE: To seek efficient aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) with excellent in vitro and in vivo biological activities against rat galactosemic cataract. METHODS: The method was firstly optimized to screen strong ARIs from nonoriented synthetic compounds and natural extracts. Then, diosgenin was assessed on osmotic expansion of primarily cultured lens epithelial cells (LECs) induced by galactose (50 mM). Diosgenin was administered to galactosemic rats by oral (100 and 200 mg/kg) or direct drinking (0...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038694/dietary-habits-physical-activity-and-diabetes-perception-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-tabuk-city-saudi-arabia
#6
Nadiyah Abdullah Al-Mountashiri, Amal Mohammad Al-Zhrani, Shereen Fawzy Hafez Ibrahim, Hyder Othman Mirghani
BACKGROUND: Medical nutritional therapy is an important aspect of diabetes care, there is an increasing awareness of breakfast skipping, late dinner and meal contents on diabetes control. AIM: To assess dietary habits, physical activity and diabetes perception among patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted among patients with diabetes mellitus at the diabetes center in Tabuk City, Saudi Arabia during the period from March through June 2017...
September 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036936/barriers-and-facilitators-for-health-behavior-change-among-adults-from-multi-problem-households-a-qualitative-study
#7
Gera E Nagelhout, Lette Hogeling, Renate Spruijt, Nathalie Postma, Hein de Vries
Multi-problem households are households with problems on more than one of the following core problem areas: socio-economic problems, psycho-social problems, and problems related to child care. The aim of this study was to examine barriers and facilitators for health behavior change among adults from multi-problem households, as well as to identify ideas for a health promotion program. A qualitative study involving 25 semi-structured interviews was conducted among Dutch adults who received intensive family home care for multi-problem households...
October 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035040/orally-administrated-baker-s-yeast-beta-glucan-promotes-glucose-and-lipid-homeostasis-in-the-livers-of-ob-ob-mice
#8
Yan Cao, Ying Sun, Siwei Zou, Mengxia Li, Xiaojuan Xu
Baker's yeast glucan (BYG) has been reported to be anti-diabetic. Herein, further study on the effect of orally administrated BYG on glucose and lipid homeostasis in the livers of ob/ob mice was performed. It was found that BYG decreased the blood glucose and the hepatic glucose and lipid disorders. Western blotting analysis revealed that BYG up-regulated p-AKT and p-AMPK, and down-regulated p-Acc in the liver. Furthermore, RNA-Seq analysis indicated that BYG down-regulated genes responsible for gluconeogenesis (G6pase and Got1), fatty acid biosynthesis (Acly, Acc, Fas, etc...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032525/determinants-of-serum-organochlorine-pesticide-and-polychlorinated-biphenyl-levels-in-middle-aged-korean-adults
#9
Jun-Tae Kim, Jung-Ho Kang, Yoon-Seok Chang, Duk-Hee Lee, Sung-Deuk Choi
The serum levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in a middle-aged Korean population and investigated associations with age, gender, body mass index (BMI), metabolic syndrome (MS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and dietary habits. The median concentrations of 22 OCPs and 34 PCBs in the serum samples were 483 and 216 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively. The most abundant compound was p,p'-DDE, followed by PCB 153, β-HCH, PCB 118, and PCB 180. The results of multiple linear regression and other statistical analyses revealed that serum OCP and PCB levels were higher in women and were positively correlated with age...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031711/lorcaserin-improves-glycemic-control-via-a-melanocortin-neurocircuit
#10
Luke K Burke, Emmanuel Ogunnowo-Bada, Teodora Georgescu, Claudia Cristiano, Pablo B Martinez de Morentin, Lourdes Valencia Torres, Giuseppe D'Agostino, Christine Riches, Nicholas Heeley, Yue Ruan, Marcelo Rubinstein, Malcolm J Low, Martin G Myers, Justin J Rochford, Mark L Evans, Lora K Heisler
OBJECTIVE: The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and associated morbidity and mortality emphasizes the need for a more complete understanding of the mechanisms mediating glucose homeostasis to accelerate the identification of new medications. Recent reports indicate that the obesity medication lorcaserin, a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) agonist, improves glycemic control in association with weight loss in obese patients with T2D. Here we evaluate whether lorcaserin has an effect on glycemia without body weight loss and how this effect is achieved...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031395/habitual-dietary-intake-of-fatty-acids-are-associated-with-leptin-gene-expression-in-subcutaneous-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-of-patients-without-diabetes
#11
Hosein Rostami, Mohammad Samadi, Emad Yuzbashian, Maryam Zarkesh, Golaleh Asghari, Mehdi Hedayati, Afsoon Daneshafrooz, Parvin Mirmiran, Alireza Khalaj
The purpose of the study was to investigate the association of leptin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues with habitual fatty acid intake and its subtypes in adults. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues were gathered from 97 participants aged ≥ 20, who had undergone elective abdominal surgery. Dietary fatty acid intakes including total fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids were collected using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ)...
November 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028440/intracerebroventricular-infusion-of-an-angiotensin-at2-receptor-agonist-novokinin-aggravates-some-diabetes-mellitus-induced-alterations-in-wistar-rats
#12
Daniela Pechlivanova, Kiril Petrov, Petar Grozdanov, Zlatina Nenchovska, Jana Tchekalarova, Alexander Stoynev
Cumulative data suggest the significant role of the Renin - Angiotensin System in the development of the pathological consequences of diabetes mellitus (DM). Newly synthesized AT2 receptor agonists gained importance as a target for creating new antihypertensives. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of a peptide AT2 agonist Novokinin, infused intracerebroventricularly, on the consequences of the streptozotocin-induced type 1 DM (T1 DM) in Wistar rats. Food and water consumption, body weight, urine excretion (metabolic cages), motor activity (open field test), anxiety (elevated plus maze), nociception (paw pressure analgesimeter test), spatial memory (T-maze alternation test) and plasma levels of glucose and corticosterone (ELISA) were assessed two weeks after the T1 DM induction...
October 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027968/rapid-identification-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-dpp-iv-inhibitory-peptides-from-ruditapes-philippinarum-hydrolysate
#13
Rui Liu, Lei Zhou, Yan Zhang, Nai-Juan Sheng, Zhi-Kang Wang, Ti-Zhi Wu, Xin-Zhi Wang, Hao Wu
Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory peptides were rapidly identified from Ruditapes philippinarum hydrolysate. The hydrolysate was fractionated by ethanol precipitation and preparative reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The fraction which showed the highest DPP-IV inhibitory activity was then analyzed by a high-throughput nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC ESI-MS/MS) method, and the sequences of peptides were identified based on the MS/MS spectra against the Mollusca protein data from the UniProt database...
October 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027375/vibrio-vulnificus-new-insights-into-a-deadly-opportunistic-pathogen
#14
Craig Baker-Austin, James D Oliver
Vibrio vulnificus is a Gram-negative aquatic bacterium first isolated by the United States (US) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1964. This bacterium is part of the normal microbiota of estuarine waters and occurs in high numbers in molluscan shellfish around the world, particularly in warmer months. Infections in humans are derived from consumption of seafood produce and from water exposure. V. vulnificus is a striking and enigmatic human pathogen, yet many aspects related to its biology, genomics, virulence capabilities and epidemiology remain elusive and poorly understood...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026636/neck-abscess-due-to-salmonella-choleraesuis-case-study-and-literature-review
#15
Ryoji Sugimoto, Hirotaka Suzuki, Takahito Nei, Ayaka Tashiro, Yohei Washio, Kazunari Sonobe, Yuzo Nakamura, Nozomu Wakayama, Shunta Inai, Hidemasa Izumiya
Introduction. We herein describe a case with a neck abscess due to non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS). NTS habitually reside in our environment and colonize all animals including mammals. Colonizations of pigs, chickens, cows and sheep are important because food poisoning episodes in human are often associated with meat. Extra-intestinal infection due to NTS has numerous presentations and complications, with aortic aneurysms being common. Case presentation. A 26-year-old Japanese male complaining of left-sided neck swelling was referred to our hospital for a suspected deep neck abscess...
August 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025979/the-melatonin-receptor-agonist-piromelatine-ameliorates-impaired-glucose-metabolism-in-chronically-stressed-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#16
Jun Zhou, Deng Wang, Xiaohong Luo, Xu Jia, Maoxing Li, Laudon Moshe, Ruxue Zhang, Zhengping Jia
Modern lifestyle factors (high-caloric food rich in fat) and daily chronic stress are important risk factors for metabolic disturbances. Increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and the subsequent excess production of glucocorticoids (GCs) in response to chronic stress (CS) leads to increases in metabolic complications, such as type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance (IR). Melatonin (MLT), which protects several regulatory components of the HPA axis from GC-induced deterioration, might improve glucose homeostasis...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023424/dietary-anthocyanins-and-insulin-resistance-when-food-becomes-a-medicine
#17
REVIEW
Tarun Belwal, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Solomon Habtemariam
Insulin resistance is an abnormal physiological state that occurs when insulin from pancreatic β-cells is unable to trigger a signal transduction pathway in target organs such as the liver, muscles and adipose tissues. The loss of insulin sensitivity is generally associated with persistent hyperglycemia (diabetes), hyperinsulinemia, fatty acids and/or lipid dysregulation which are often prevalent under obesity conditions. Hence, insulin sensitizers are one class of drugs currently employed to treat diabetes and associated metabolic disorders...
October 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022978/freeze-dried-strawberry-and-blueberry-attenuates-diet-induced-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-rats-by-inhibiting-adipogenesis-and-lipogenesis
#18
Paula Aranaz, Ana Romo-Hualde, María Zabala, David Navarro-Herrera, Marina Ruiz de Galarreta, Ana Gloria Gil, J Alfredo Martinez, Fermín I Milagro, Carlos J González-Navarro
Obesity and type 2-diabetes are becoming a worldwide health problem, reiterating the importance of alternative therapies to tackle their progression. Here, we hypothesized that supplementation of diet with 6% w/w of a freeze-dried strawberry-blueberry (5 : 1) powder (FDSB) could exert beneficial metabolic effects on Wistar rats. FDSB-supplemented animals experienced significantly reduced body weight gain, food efficiency and visceral adiposity accumulation in two independent experiments. FDSB supplementation also contributed to lower area under the curve after an intraperitoneal GTT and reduced serum insulin levels and an insulin resistance index (IR-HOMA) in HFS diet-fed animals, together with reduced plasma MCP-1 inflammation marker concentrations...
October 12, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022562/ketogenic-diet-in-endocrine-disorders-current-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
L Gupta, D Khandelwal, S Kalra, P Gupta, D Dutta, S Aggarwal
Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome...
October 2017: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022388/our-gut-microbiota-a-long-walk-to-homeostasis
#20
L M T Dicks, J Geldenhuys, L S Mikkelsen, E Brandsborg, H Marcotte
The microbiome of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) consists of billions of bacteria, fungi and viruses, of which bacteria play the most important role in nutrition, immune development, production of vitamins and maintaining a well-balanced (homeostatic) microbial population. Many papers have been published on the microbiota in the human GIT, but little is known about the first group of bacteria that colonises an infant. The intestinal tract of an unborn is, despite general belief, not sterile, but contains bacteria that have been transferred from the mother...
October 12, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
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