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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222460/elements-for-success-in-managing-type-2-diabetes-with-sglt-2-inhibitors-overview-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-sglt-2-inhibitors-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Eden M Miller
Since the approval of the first sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2013, the SGLT-2 inhibitors have assumed key roles in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This review covers the safety and efficacy of these agents when used in this patient population.
February 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219830/gut-microbiome-based-medical-methodologies-for-early-stage-disease-prevention
#2
REVIEW
Jing-Zhang Wang, Wen-Tao Du, Yan-Li Xu, Shu-Zhen Cheng, Zhi-Jun Liu
Recent advancements highlight the important role of gut microbiome in human health. However, a variety of endogenous and exogenous factors, such as genes, foods, drugs, environmental pollutions, oxidative stress, etc., may interfere with the gut microbiome in vivo and increase risks of digestive system diseases, cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases, obesity, diabetes, cancers, and so on. Abundant discoveries listed in this work support that changes in the composition of the gut microbiome may be potentially used as sensitive early-stage diagnostic biomarkers and that the gut microbiome could be a promising therapeutic target for systemic prevention of multiple human diseases...
February 17, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218988/toxicological-effects-during-and-following-persistent-insulin-induced-hypoglycaemia-in-healthy-euglycaemic-rats
#3
Vivi F H Jensen, Anne-Marie Mølck, Line O Berthelsen, Lene Alifrangis, Lene Andersen, Melissa Chapman, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Ingrid B Bøgh
New insulin analogues with a longer duration of action and a "peakless" pharmacokinetic profile have been developed to improve efficacy, safety and convenience for diabetic patients. During non-clinical development, according to regulatory guidelines, these analogues are tested in healthy euglycaemic rats rendering them persistently hypoglycaemic. Little is known about the effect of persistent (24 hr/day) insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) in rats, complicating interpretation of results in pre-clinical studies with new longer-acting insulin analogues...
February 20, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218647/diabetes-mellitus-and-younger-age-are-risk-factors-for-hyperphosphatemia-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#4
Rameez Imtiaz, Steven Hawken, Brendan B McCormick, Simon Leung, Swapnil Hiremath, Deborah L Zimmerman
Hyperphosphatemia has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD). The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors for hyperphosphatemia in ESKD patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). This information will be used to develop a patient specific phosphate binder application to facilitate patient self-management of serum phosphate. Adult PD patients documented their food, beverage, and phosphate binder intake for three days using a dietitian developed food journal...
February 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217947/mechanism-of-capsaicin-inhibition-of-aldose-reductase-activity
#5
Zuhal Alim, Namık Kilinc, Bulent Sengul, Sukru Beydemir
Aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors play a vital importance as a potential therapeutic and preventive medicine when it comes to hyperglycemia associated diabetic complications. Additionally, capsaicin is used as a food additive and a drug in a number of diverse clinical trials. The aim of this study is to determine the in vitro inhibition behavior of capsaicin on AR enzyme activity, which was obtained from different rat tissues (heart, kidney, liver, and brain). We showed that AR was inhibited by capsaicin in the micromolar range and noncompetitive manner in all of the tissues...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217594/effectiveness-of-yoga-program-in-the-management-of-diabetes-using-community-health-workers-in-the-urban-slums-of-bangalore-city-a-non-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Hemavathi Dasappa, Farah Naaz Fathima, Rugmani Prabhakar
TRIAL DESIGN: Nonrandomized controlled trial. METHODS: Nonrandomized controlled trial. This was an interventional study that was conducted in 4 slums of Bengaluru. Of the 256 diabetes participants, only 109 people agreed to participate in the program. Of 109 people, 52 people agreed to participate in the intervention (agreed to learn and practice Yoga) while the remaining 57 people were assigned to nonintervention group. Randomization and blinding could not be done...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215947/food-insecurity-ckd-and-subsequent-esrd-in-us-adults
#7
Tanushree Banerjee, Deidra C Crews, Donald E Wesson, Sai Dharmarajan, Rajiv Saran, Nilka Ríos Burrows, Sharon Saydah, Neil R Powe
BACKGROUND: Poor access to food among low-income adults has been recognized as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), but there are no data for the impact of food insecurity on progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We hypothesized that food insecurity would be independently associated with risk for ESRD among persons with and without earlier stages of CKD. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 2,320 adults (aged ≥ 20 years) with CKD and 10,448 adults with no CKD enrolled in NHANES III (1988-1994) with household income ≤ 400% of the federal poverty level linked to the Medicare ESRD Registry for a median follow-up of 12 years...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212499/validation-of-the-french-version-of-the-dsm-5-yale-food-addiction-scale-in-a-nonclinical-sample
#8
Paul Brunault, Robert Courtois, Ashley N Gearhardt, Philippe Gaillard, Kevin Journiac, Sarah Cathelain, Christian Réveillère, Nicolas Ballon
OBJECTIVE: The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) is the only questionnaire that assesses food addiction (FA) based on substance dependence criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Following recent updating of addiction criteria, a new DSM-5 version (YFAS 2.0) has been developed. Our study tested the psychometric properties of the French YFAS 2.0 in a nonclinical population. METHOD: We assessed 330 nonclinical participants for FA (French YFAS 2...
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211485/association-of-female-reproductive-factors-with-hypertension-diabetes-and-lqtc-in-chinese-women
#9
Bayi Xu, Yequn Chen, Jianping Xiong, Nan Lu, Xuerui Tan
The association of female reproductive factors (FRFs) with cardiovascular risk factors among different population was variable and inconsistent. The objective of this study was to examine the association between FRFs and hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and long heart-rate-corrected QT interval (LQTc) in Chinese post-menopausal women (Post-MW). A total of 8046 Post-MW from the China Chaoshan Biobank Cohort Study were included for analysis. Logistic regression and general linear regression models were used to estimate the association between FRFs and hypertension, DM, and LQTc...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211296/recommendations-for-the-medical-management-of-chronic-venous-disease-the-role-of-micronized-purified-flavanoid-fraction-mpff
#10
Ronald Bush, Anthony Comerota, Mark Meissner, Joseph D Raffetto, Steven R Hahn, Katherine Freeman
Scope A systematic review of the clinical literature concerning medical management of chronic venous disease with the venoactive therapy Micronized Purified Flavonoid Fraction was conducted in addition to an investigation of the hemodynamics and mechanism of chronic venous disease. Methods The systematic review of the literature focused on the use of Micronized Purified Flavonoid Fraction (diosmin) which has recently become available in the US, in the management of chronic venous disease. The primary goal was to assess the level of evidence of the role of Micronized Purified Flavonoid Fraction in the healing of ulcers, and secondarily on the improvement of the symptoms of chronic venous disease such as edema...
April 2017: Phlebology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208582/nutrients-in-energy-and-one-carbon-metabolism-learning-from-metformin-users
#11
REVIEW
Fedra Luciano-Mateo, Anna Hernández-Aguilera, Noemi Cabre, Jordi Camps, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Jose Lopez-Miranda, Javier A Menendez, Jorge Joven
Metabolic vulnerability is associated with age-related diseases and concomitant co-morbidities, which include obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer. Most of the health problems we face today come from excessive intake of nutrients and drugs mimicking dietary effects and dietary restriction are the most successful manipulations targeting age-related pathways. Phenotypic heterogeneity and individual response to metabolic stressors are closely related food intake. Understanding the complexity of the relationship between dietary provision and metabolic consequences in the long term might provide clinical strategies to improve healthspan...
February 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207675/acculturation-and-self-management-perceptions-among-mexican-american-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#12
Julie Plasencia, Sharon Hoerr, Marsha Carolan, Lorraine Weatherspoon
Because type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is disproportionately high among Mexican Americans in the United States, this study examined how acculturation influences T2DM self-management, a critical component for disease outcome. Qualitative interviews of 24 low-income Mexican American patients with T2DM were matched to their biomedical and dietary data and degree of acculturation. Greater acculturation to the United States was associated with less favorable diabetes control, fiber density, leisure-time physical activity, and more physical disability...
April 2017: Family & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203479/metformin-impairs-spatial-memory-and-visual-acuity-in-old-male-mice
#13
Nopporn Thangthaeng, Margaret Rutledge, Jessica M Wong, Philip H Vann, Michael J Forster, Nathalie Sumien
Metformin is an oral anti-diabetic used as first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes. Because benefits of metformin extend beyond diabetes to other age-related pathology, and because its effect on gene expression profiles resembles that of caloric restriction, metformin has a potential as an anti-aging intervention and may soon be assessed as an intervention to extend healthspan. However, beneficial actions of metformin in the central nervous system have not been clearly established. The current study examined the effect of chronic oral metformin treatment on motor and cognitive function when initiated in young, middle-aged, or old male mice...
February 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202478/total-and-subtypes-of-dietary-fat-intake-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-the-prevenci%C3%A3-n-con-dieta-mediterr%C3%A3-nea-predimed-study
#14
Marta Guasch-Ferré, Nerea Becerra-Tomás, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Dolores Corella, Helmut Schröder, Ramon Estruch, Emilio Ros, Fernando Arós, Enrique Gómez-Gracia, Miquel Fiol, Lluís Serra-Majem, José Lapetra, Josep Basora, Nerea Martín-Calvo, Olga Portoles, Montserrat Fitó, Frank B Hu, Lluís Forga, Jordi Salas-Salvadó
Background: The associations between dietary fat and cardiovascular disease have been evaluated in several studies, but less is known about their influence on the risk of diabetes.Objective: We examined the associations between total fat, subtypes of dietary fat, and food sources rich in saturated fatty acids and the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D).Design: A prospective cohort analysis of 3349 individuals who were free of diabetes at baseline but were at high cardiovascular risk from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study was conducted...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197977/interpreting-cardiovascular-endpoints-in-trials-of-antihyperglycemic-drugs
#15
REVIEW
Himika Chawla, Nikhil Tandon
In view of the significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and concerns raised about the CV safety of some glucose-lowering drugs, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued guidance for the industry in 2008 to demonstrate CV safety for the approval of all new antihyperglycemic drugs. Seven randomized controlled trials involving around 60,000 participants have been completed so far and have demonstrated the CV safety of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (saxagliptin, alogliptin and sitagliptin), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (lixisenatide, liraglutide and semaglutide) and a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (empagliflozin) in patients with type 2 diabetes...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197835/selenium-vanadium-and-chromium-as-micronutrients-to-improve-metabolic-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Sunil K Panchal, Stephen Wanyonyi, Lindsay Brown
Trace metals play an important role in the proper functioning of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Some of the trace metals are thus essential for maintaining homeostasis, while deficiency of these trace metals can cause disorders with metabolic and physiological imbalances. This article concentrates on three trace metals (selenium, vanadium, and chromium) that may play crucial roles in controlling blood glucose concentrations possibly through their insulin-mimetic effects. For these trace metals, the level of evidence available for their health effects as supplements is weak...
March 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196548/glycaemic-index-glycaemic-load-and-risk-of-cutaneous-melanoma-in-a-population-based-case-control-study
#17
Marcella Malavolti, Carlotta Malagoli, Catherine M Crespi, Furio Brighenti, Claudia Agnoli, Sabina Sieri, Vittorio Krogh, Chiara Fiorentini, Francesca Farnetani, Caterina Longo, Cinzia Ricci, Giuseppe Albertini, Anna Lanzoni, Leonardo Veneziano, Annarosa Virgili, Calogero Pagliarello, Claudio Feliciani, Pier Alessandro Fanti, Emi Dika, Giovanni Pellacani, Marco Vinceti
Glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) are indicators of dietary carbohydrate quantity and quality and have been associated with increased risk of certain cancers and type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance has been associated with increased melanoma risk. However, GI and GL have not been investigated for melanoma. We present the first study to examine the possible association of GI and GL with melanoma risk. We carried out a population-based, case-control study involving 380 incident cases of cutaneous melanoma and 719 age- and sex-matched controls in a northern Italian region...
February 15, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196524/financial-barriers-and-adverse-clinical-outcomes-among-patients-with-cardiovascular-related-chronic-diseases-a-cohort-study
#18
David J T Campbell, Braden J Manns, Robert G Weaver, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Kathryn M King-Shier, Claudia Sanmartin
BACKGROUND: Some patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease report financial barriers to achieving optimal health. Previous surveys report that the perception of having a financial barrier is associated with self-reported adverse clinical outcomes. We sought to confirm these findings using linked survey and administrative data to determine, among patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases, if there is an association between perceived financial barriers and the outcomes of: (1) disease-related hospitalizations, (2) all-cause mortality and (3) inpatient healthcare costs...
February 15, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195061/overview-of-the-preclinical-pharmacological-properties-of-nigella-sativa-black-seeds-a-complementary-drug-with-historical-and-clinical-significance
#19
E Z Dajani, T G Shahwan, N E Dajani
Nigella sativa (N. sativa, black seeds; or sometimes known by many other names such as the blessed seed by the Arabs, black cumin in the Holy Bible, black caraway and Kalonji in South Asia) has been traditionally used for many years not only as a food but also as complementary drug. It is the objective of this communication to review the evidence-based pre-clinical pharmacological actions of N. sativa as a basis of its existing and potential new human clinical uses. Primary PubMed literature searches and secondary Medline searches were conducted to define N...
December 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194470/effect-of-vanadium-on-calcium-homeostasis-osteopontin-mrna-expression-and-bone-microarchitecture-in-diabetic-rats
#20
Cristina Sanchez-Gonzalez, Laura Moreno, Carlos Lopez-Chaves, Elena Nebot, Peter Pietschmann, Alba Rodriguez-Nogales, Julio Galvez, María Montes-Bayon, Alfredo Sanz-Medel, Juan Llopis
The aim of this study was to examine whether alterations caused by diabetes in calcium homeostasis, expression of osteopontin and the microarchitecture of bone are corrected by exposure to vanadium. Four study groups were examined over a period of five weeks: control (C), diabetic (DM), diabetic treated with 1 mg V per d (DMV), and diabetic treated with 3 mg V per d (DMVH). Vanadium was supplied in drinking water as bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(iv). Calcium was measured in the food, faeces, urine, serum, kidneys, liver, muscles, and femur...
February 14, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
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