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Huntingtin associated Protein

Yoshihiro Kino, Chika Washizu, Masaru Kurosawa, Mizuki Yamada, Hiroshi Doi, Toru Takumi, Hiroaki Adachi, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue, Geoffrey G Hicks, Nobutaka Hattori, Tomomi Shimogori, Nobuyuki Nukina
FUS/TLS is an RNA/DNA-binding protein associated with neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Previously, we found that a prion-like domain in the N-terminus of FUS/TLS mediates co-aggregation between FUS/TLS and mutant huntingtin, the gene product of Huntington's disease (HD). Here, we show that heterozygous knockout of FUS/TLS worsened the phenotypes of model mice of (HD, but not spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). This difference was correlated with the degree of pathological association between disease proteins and FUS/TLS...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Amanda L Lumsden, Richard L Young, Nektaria Pezos, Damien J Keating
BACKGROUND: Huntingtin-associated Protein 1 (HAP1) is expressed in neurons and endocrine cells, and is critical for postnatal survival in mice. HAP1 shares a conserved "HAP1_N" domain with TRAfficking Kinesin proteins TRAK1 and TRAK2 (vertebrate), Milton (Drosophila) and T27A3.1 (C. elegans). HAP1, TRAK1 and TRAK2 have a degree of common function, particularly regarding intracellular receptor trafficking. However, TRAK1, TRAK2 and Milton (which have a "Milt/TRAK" domain that is absent in human and rodent HAP1) differ in function to HAP1 in that they are mitochondrial transport proteins, while HAP1 has emerging roles in starvation response...
October 13, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Laura Rué, Mónica Bañez-Coronel, Jordi Creus-Muncunill, Albert Giralt, Rafael Alcalá-Vida, Gartze Mentxaka, Birgit Kagerbauer, M Teresa Zomeño-Abellán, Zeus Aranda, Veronica Venturi, Esther Pérez-Navarro, Xavier Estivill, Eulàlia Martí
Huntington's disease (HD) is a polyglutamine disorder caused by a CAG expansion in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene exon 1. This expansion encodes a mutant protein whose abnormal function is traditionally associated with HD pathogenesis; however, recent evidence has also linked HD pathogenesis to RNA stable hairpins formed by the mutant HTT expansion. Here, we have shown that a locked nucleic acid-modified antisense oligonucleotide complementary to the CAG repeat (LNA-CTG) preferentially binds to mutant HTT without affecting HTT mRNA or protein levels...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Beatriz Galan-Rodriguez, Elodie Martin, Emmanuel Brouillet, Nicole Déglon, Sandrine Betuing, Jocelyne Caboche
Huntington's Disease, an inherited neurodegenerative disorder, results from abnormal polyglutamine extension in the N-terminal region of the huntingtin protein. This mutation causes preferential degeneration of striatal projection neurons. We previously demonstrated, in vitro, that dopaminergic D2 receptor stimulation acted in synergy with expanded huntingtin to increase aggregates formation and striatal death through activation of the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway. In vivo, in a lentiviral-mediated model of expanded huntingtin expression in the rat striatum, we found that the D2 antagonist haloperidol protects striatal neurons against expanded huntingtin -mediated toxicity...
September 26, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
M Rodríguez-Arribas, S M S Yakhine-Diop, J M Bravo-San Pedro, P Gómez-Suaga, R Gómez-Sánchez, G Martínez-Chacón, J M Fuentes, R A González-Polo, M Niso-Santano
Mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) are structures that regulate physiological functions between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria in order to maintain calcium signaling and mitochondrial biogenesis. Several proteins located in MAMs, including those encoded by PARK genes and some of neurodegeneration-related proteins (huntingtin, presenilin, etc.), ensure this regulation. In this regard, MAM alteration is associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's (PD), Alzheimer's (AD), and Huntington's diseases (HD) and contributes to the appearance of the pathogenesis features, i...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Petr Vodicka, Kathryn Chase, Maria Iuliano, Adelaide Tousley, Dana T Valentine, Ellen Sapp, Kimberly B Kegel-Gleason, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Neil Aronin, Marian DiFiglia
BACKGROUND: Mutant huntingtin (mHTT) is encoded by the Huntington's disease (HD) gene and its accumulation in the brain contributes to HD pathogenesis. Reducing mHTT levels through activation of the autophagosome-lysosomal pathway may have therapeutic benefit. Transcription factor EB (TFEB) regulates lysosome biogenesis and autophagy. OBJECTIVE: To examine if increasing TFEB protein levels in HD mouse striatum induces autophagy and influences mHTT levels. METHODS: We introduced cDNA encoding TFEB with an HA tag (TFEB-HA) under the control of neuron specific synapsin 1 promoter into the striatum of 3 month old HDQ175/Q7 mice using adeno-associated virus AAV2/9...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Huntington's Disease
Géraldine Liot, Julien Valette, Jérémy Pépin, Julien Flament, Emmanuel Brouillet
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with involuntary abnormal movements (chorea), cognitive deficits and psychiatric disturbances. The most striking neuropathological change in HD is the early atrophy of the striatum. While the disease progresses, other brain structures also degenerate, including the cerebral cortex. Changes are also seen outside the brain, in particular weight loss/cachexia despite high dietary intake. The disease is caused by an abnormal expansion of a CAG repeat in the gene encoding the huntingtin protein (Htt)...
September 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Danielle A Simmons, Nadia P Belichenko, Ellen C Ford, Sarah Semaan, Marie Monbureau, Sruti Aiyaswamy, Cameron M Holman, Christina Condon, Mehrdad Shamloo, Stephen M Massa, Frank M Longo
Decreases in the ratio of neurotrophic versus neurodegenerative signaling play a critical role in Huntington's disease (HD) pathogenesis and recent evidence suggests that the p75 neurotrophin receptor (NTR) contributes significantly to disease progression. p75(NTR) signaling intermediates substantially overlap with those promoting neuronal survival and synapse integrity and with those affected by the mutant huntingtin (muHtt) protein. MuHtt increases p75(NTR)-associated deleterious signaling and decreases survival signaling suggesting that p75(NTR) could be a valuable therapeutic target...
September 16, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Jing-Ying Pan, Shijin Yuan, Tao Yu, Cong-Lin Su, Xiao-Long Liu, Jun He, He Li
Huntingtin associated protein 1 (Hap1) was originally identified as a protein that binds to the Huntington disease protein, huntingtin. Growing evidence has shown that Hap1 participates in intracellular trafficking via its association with various microtubule- dependent transporters and organelles. Recent studies also revealed that Hap1 is involved in exocytosis such as insulin release from pancreatic beta cells.However, the mechanism underlying the action of Hap1 on insulin release remains to be investigated...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
I Alexandra Amaro, Lee A Henderson
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal progressive disease linked to expansion of glutamine repeats in the huntingtin protein and characterized by the progressive loss of cognitive and motor function. We show that expression of a mutant human huntingtin exon-1-GFP fusion construct results in nonspecific gene dysregulation that is significantly reduced by 50% due to coexpression of INT41, an intrabody specific for the proline-rich region of the huntingtin protein. Using stable PC12 cell lines expressing either inducible human mutant huntingtin (mHtt, Q73) or normal huntingtin (nHtt, Q23), we investigated the effect of rAAV6-INT41, an adeno-associated virus vector with the INT41 coding sequence, on the subcellular distribution of Htt...
2016: Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases
Natalia P Rocha, Fabiola M Ribeiro, Erin Furr-Stimming, Antonio L Teixeira
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective loss of neurons in the striatum and cortex, which leads to progressive motor dysfunction, cognitive decline, and psychiatric disorders. Although the cause of HD is well described-HD is a genetic disorder caused by a trinucleotide (CAG) repeat expansion in the gene encoding for huntingtin (HTT) on chromosome 4p16.3-the ultimate cause of neuronal death is still uncertain. Apart from impairment in systems for handling abnormal proteins, other metabolic pathways and mechanisms might contribute to neurodegeneration and progression of HD...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Yujin E Kim, Fabian Hosp, Frédéric Frottin, Hui Ge, Matthias Mann, Manajit Hayer-Hartl, F Ulrich Hartl
Huntington's disease is one of several neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the aggregation of polyglutamine (polyQ)-expanded mutant protein. How polyQ aggregation leads to cellular dysfunction is not well understood. Here, we analyzed aberrant protein interactions of soluble oligomers and insoluble inclusions of mutant huntingtin using in-cell single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and quantitative proteomics. We find that the interactome of soluble oligomers is highly complex, with an enrichment of RNA-binding proteins as well as proteins functioning in ribosome biogenesis, translation, transcription, and vesicle transport...
September 15, 2016: Molecular Cell
Yan Hong, Ting Zhao, Xiao-Jiang Li, Shihua Li
UNLABELLED: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for neuronal differentiation and survival. We know that BDNF levels decline in the brains of patients with Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease caused by the expression of mutant huntingtin protein (mHtt), and furthermore that administration of BDNF in HD mice is protective against HD neuropathology. BDNF is produced in neurons, but astrocytes are also an important source of BDNF in the brain. Nonetheless, whether mHtt affects astrocytic BDNF in the HD brain remains unknown...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Marta Fernández-Nogales, María Santos-Galindo, Ivó H Hernández, Jorge R Cabrera, José J Lucas
Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a CAG-repeat encoding a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the huntingtin protein. There is plenty of evidence of polyQ-driven toxicity. However, CAG repeat RNA-driven alteration of splicing has recently been proposed in analogy to CUG-repeat diseases. Here we review the reported alteration of the CAG-repeat associated splicing factor SRSF6 in brains of HD patients and mouse models and how this correlates with altered splicing of, at least, two microtubule-associated proteins in HD, namely MAPT (tau) and MAP2...
August 16, 2016: Brain Pathology
Margherita Verani, Maria Bustamante, Paola Martufi, Manuel Daldin, Cristina Cariulo, Lucia Azzollini, Valentina Fodale, Francesca Puglisi, Andreas Weiss, Douglas Macdonald, Lara Petricca, Andrea Caricasole
We have previously reported TR-FRET based immunoassays to detect a conformational change imparted on huntingtin protein by the polyglutamine expansion, which we confirmed using biophysical methodologies. Using these immunoassays, we now report that polyglutamine expansion influences the conformational properties of other polyglutamine disease proteins, exemplified by the androgen receptor (associated with spinal bulbar muscular atrophy) and TATA binding protein (associated with spinocerebellar ataxia 17). Using artificial constructs bearing short or long polyglutamine expansions or a multimerized, unrelated epitope (mimicking the increase in anti-polyglutamine antibody epitopes present in polyglutamine repeats of increasing length) we confirmed that the conformational TR-FRET based immunoassay detects an intrinsic conformational property of polyglutamine repeats...
September 16, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Kumari Aditi, Mallikarjun N Shakarad, Namita Agrawal
Huntington's disease (HD) is late-onset, progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat within Huntingtin (Htt) protein. In HD patients, energy-related manifestations such as modulation of weight during entire course of disease with energy deficit at terminal stage have been reported, however, underlying reason remains elusive till date. Lipids, carbohydrate and protein constitute a predominant fraction of body's energy reservoir and perturbation in their homeostasis may influence weight...
2016: Scientific Reports
Michał Wojciechowski, Àngel Gómez-Sicilia, Mariano Carrión-Vázquez, Marek Cieplak
Knots in proteins have been proposed to resist proteasomal degradation. Ample evidence associates proteasomal degradation with neurodegeneration. One interesting possibility is that indeed knotted conformers stall this machinery leading to toxicity. However, although the proteasome is known to unfold mechanically its substrates, at present there are no experimental methods to emulate this particular traction geometry. Here, we consider several dynamical models of the proteasome in which the complex is represented by an effective potential with an added pulling force...
August 16, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Piotr Hadaczek, Lisa Stanek, Agnieszka Ciesielska, Vivek Sudhakar, Lluis Samaranch, Philip Pivirotto, John Bringas, Catherine O'Riordan, Bryan Mastis, Waldy San Sebastian, John Forsayeth, Seng H Cheng, Krystof S Bankiewicz, Lamya S Shihabuddin
Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a toxic gain-of-function associated with the expression of the mutant huntingtin (htt) protein. Therefore, the use of RNA interference to inhibit Htt expression could represent a disease-modifying therapy. The potential of two recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV), AAV1 and AAV2, to transduce the cortico-striatal tissues that are predominantly affected in HD was explored. Green fluorescent protein was used as a reporter in each vector to show that both serotypes were broadly distributed in medium spiny neurons in the striatum and cortico-striatal neurons after infusion into the putamen and caudate nucleus of nonhuman primates (NHP), with AAV1-directed expression being slightly more robust than AAV2-driven expression...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Elena M Vayndorf, Courtney Scerbak, Skyler Hunter, Jason R Neuswanger, Marton Toth, J Alex Parker, Christian Neri, Monica Driscoll, Barbara E Taylor
Understanding cellular outcomes, such as neuronal remodeling, that are common to both healthy and diseased aging brains is essential to the development of successful brain aging strategies. Here, we used Caenorhabdits elegans to investigate how the expression of proteotoxic triggers, such as polyglutamine (polyQ)-expanded huntingtin and silencing of proteostasis regulators, such as the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and protein clearance components, may impact the morphological remodeling of individual neurons as animals age...
2016: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
Fran Norflus, Jingnan Bu, Evon Guyton, Claire-Anne Gutekunst
The precise role of huntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1) is not known, but studies have shown that it is important for early development and survival. A Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of HAP1, T27A3.1 (also called trak-1), has been found and is expressed in a subset of neurons. Potential behavioral functions of three knockout lines of T27A3.1 were examined. From its suspected role in mice we hypothesize that T27A3.1 might be involved in egg hatching and early growth, mechanosensation, chemosensation, sensitivity to osmolarity, and synaptic transmission...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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