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Huntingtin associated Protein

Priscila A C Valadão, Matheus P S M Gomes, Bárbara C Aragão, Hermann A Rodrigues, Jéssica N Andrade, Rubens Garcias, Julliane V Joviano-Santos, Murilo A Luiz, Wallace L Camargo, Lígia A Naves, Christopher Kushmerick, Walter L G Cavalcante, Márcia Gallacci, Itamar C G de Jesus, Silvia Guatimosim, Cristina Guatimosim
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by chorea, incoordination, and psychiatric and behavioral symptoms. The leading cause of death in HD patients is aspiration pneumonia, associated with respiratory dysfunction, decreased respiratory muscle strength and dysphagia. Although most of the motor symptoms are derived from alterations in the central nervous system, some might be associated with changes in the components of motor units (MU). To explore this hypothesis, we evaluated morphofunctional aspects of the diaphragm muscle in a mouse model of HD (BACHD)...
March 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Jana Miniarikova, Melvin M Evers, Pavlina Konstantinova
The single mutation underlying the fatal neuropathology of Huntington's disease (HD) is a CAG triplet expansion in exon 1 of the huntingtin (HTT) gene, which gives rise to a toxic mutant HTT protein. There have been a number of not yet successful therapeutic advances in the treatment of HD. The current excitement in the HD field is due to the recent development of therapies targeting the culprit of HD either at the DNA or RNA level to reduce the overall mutant HTT protein. In this review, we briefly describe short-term and long-term HTT-lowering strategies targeting HTT transcripts...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Qiang Guo, Bin Huang, Jingdong Cheng, Manuel Seefelder, Tatjana Engler, Günter Pfeifer, Patrick Oeckl, Markus Otto, Franziska Moser, Melanie Maurer, Alexander Pautsch, Wolfgang Baumeister, Rubén Fernández-Busnadiego, Stefan Kochanek
Huntingtin (HTT) is a large (348 kDa) protein that is essential for embryonic development and is involved in diverse cellular activities such as vesicular transport, endocytosis, autophagy and the regulation of transcription. Although an integrative understanding of the biological functions of HTT is lacking, the large number of identified HTT interactors suggests that it serves as a protein-protein interaction hub. Furthermore, Huntington's disease is caused by a mutation in the HTT gene, resulting in a pathogenic expansion of a polyglutamine repeat at the amino terminus of HTT...
February 21, 2018: Nature
Xiao Zhou, Gang Li, Anna Kaplan, Michael M Gaschler, Xiaoyan Zhang, Zhipeng Hou, Jiang Mali, Roseann Zott, Serge Cremers, Brent R Stockwell, Wenzhen Duan
Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeat expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene encoding an elongated polyglutamine tract within the N-terminal of the Huntingtin protein (Htt) and leads to Htt misfolding, aberrant protein aggregation, and progressive appearance of disease symptoms. Chronic activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by mutant Htt (mHtt) results in cellular dysfunction and ultimately cell death. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is a chaperone protein located in the ER...
February 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Debasish Kumar Ghosh, Ajit Roy, Akash Ranjan
Protein aggregates result from altered structural conformations and they can perturb cellular homeostasis. Prevention mechanisms, which function against protein aggregation by modulatory processes, are diverse and redundant. In this study, we have characterized Huntingtin interacting protein K (HYPK) as a global aggregation-regulatory protein. We report the mechanistic details of how HYPK's aggregation-prone regions allow it to sense and prevent other toxic protein's aggregation by forming unique annular-shaped sequestration complexes...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Andreas Neueder, Gillian P Bates
This chapter summarises research investigating the expression of huntingtin sense and anti-sense transcripts, the effect of the mutation on huntingtin processing as well as the more global effect of the mutation on the coding and non-coding transcriptomes. The huntingtin gene is ubiquitously expressed, although expression levels vary between tissues and cell types. A SNP that affects NF-ĸB binding in the huntingtin promoter modulates the expression level of huntingtin transcripts and is associated with the age of disease onset...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sin Hui Neo, Bor Luen Tang
Sirtuins and their pharmacological activators/inhibitors have been associated with a range of neuroprotective effects or disease modifying influences in neurological disorders. Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant, progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by movement disorder, psychiatric symptoms and cognitive decline. The monogenic mutation in HD encodes a variant of the protein Huntingtin (HTT). The disease is a consequence of a CAG repeat extension leading to an abnormally long polyglutamine (Q) stretch at HTT's N-terminus, which likely confers a toxic gain of function to the mutant polypeptide...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Matheus B Victor, Michelle Richner, Hannah E Olsen, Seong Won Lee, Alejandro M Monteys, Chunyu Ma, Christine J Huh, Bo Zhang, Beverly L Davidson, X William Yang, Andrew S Yoo
In Huntington's disease (HD), expansion of CAG codons in the huntingtin gene (HTT) leads to the aberrant formation of protein aggregates and the differential degeneration of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Modeling HD using patient-specific MSNs has been challenging, as neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells are free of aggregates and lack an overt cell death phenotype. Here we generated MSNs from HD patient fibroblasts through microRNA-based direct neuronal conversion, bypassing the induction of pluripotency and retaining age signatures of the original fibroblasts...
February 5, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Maxmore Chaibva, Xiang Gao, Pranav Jain, Warren A Campbell, Shelli L Frey, Justin Legleiter
Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion beyond a critical threshold of a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract near the N-terminus of the huntingtin (htt) protein. Expanded polyQ promotes the formation of a variety of oligomeric and fibrillar aggregates of htt that accumulate into the hallmark proteinaceous inclusion bodies associated with HD. htt is also highly associated with numerous cellular and subcellular membranes that contain a variety of lipids. As lipid homeostasis and metabolism abnormalities are observed in HD patients, we investigated how varying both the sphingomyelin (SM) and ganglioside (GM1) contents modifies the interactions between htt and lipid membranes...
January 31, 2018: ACS Omega
Anne Jessica Roe, Xin Qi
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a major cytopathology in Huntington's disease (HD), a fatal and inherited neurodegenerative disease. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the disease-causing gene, mutant Huntingtin (mtHtt), affects mitochondrial function remains elusive. This study aims to determine the role that Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) plays in the over-activation of Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), the mitochondrial fission protein, which leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration seen in HD...
January 24, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Zahra Dargaei, Jee Yoon Bang, Vivek Mahadevan, C Sahara Khademullah, Simon Bedard, Gustavo Morrone Parfitt, Jun Chul Kim, Melanie A Woodin
Huntington's disease (HD) is classically characterized as a movement disorder, however cognitive impairments precede the motor symptoms by ∼15 y. Based on proteomic and bioinformatic data linking the Huntingtin protein (Htt) and KCC2, which is required for hyperpolarizing GABAergic inhibition, and the important role of inhibition in learning and memory, we hypothesized that aberrant KCC2 function contributes to the hippocampal-associated learning and memory deficits in HD. We discovered that Htt and KCC2 interact in the hippocampi of wild-type and R6/2-HD mice, with a decrease in KCC2 expression in the hippocampus of R6/2 and YAC128 mice...
January 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ammon E Posey, Kiersten M Ruff, Tyler S Harmon, Scott L Crick, Aimin Li, Marc I Diamond, Rohit V Pappu
Huntingtin N-terminal fragments (Htt-NTFs) with expanded polyglutamine tracts form a range of neurotoxic aggregates that are associated with Huntington's disease. Here, we show that aggregation of Htt-NTFs, irrespective of polyglutamine length, yields at least three phases (designated M, S, and F) that are delineated by sharp concentration thresholds and distinct aggregate sizes and morphologies. We find that monomers and oligomers make up the soluble M-phase, ~25 nm spheres dominate in the soluble S-phase, and long, linear fibrils make up the insoluble F-phase...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Chao Huang, Jingjing Wu, Li Xu, Jili Wang, Zhuo Chen, Rongrong Yang
Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a transcriptional factor that determines the efficiency of heat shock responses (HSRs) in the cell. Given its function has been extensively studied in recent years, HSF1 is considered a potential target for the treatment of disorders associated with protein aggregation. The activity of HSF1 is traditionally regulated at the transcriptional level in which the transactivation domain of HSF1 is modified by extensive array of pos-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, sumoylation, and acetylation...
January 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Xiaoyu Dong, Shuyan Cong
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited, progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene; various dysfunctions of biological processes in HD have been proposed. However, at present the exact pathogenesis of HD is not fully understood. The present study aimed to explore the pathogenesis of HD using a computational bioinformatics analysis of gene expression. GSE11358 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus andthe differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the mutant HTT knock‑in cell model STHdhQ111/Q111 were predicted...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Teresa Trotta, Maria Antonietta Panaro, Antonia Cianciulli, Giorgio Mori, Adriana Di Benedetto, Chiara Porro
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), based on their origin or size, can be classified as apoptotic bodies, microvesicles (MVs)/microparticles (MPs), and exosomes. EVs are one of the new emerging modes of communication between cells that are providing new insights into the pathophysiology of several diseases. EVs released from activated or apoptotic cells contain specific proteins (signaling molecules, receptors, integrins, cytokines), bioactive lipids, nucleic acids (mRNA, miRNA, small non coding RNAs, DNA) from their progenitor cells...
January 3, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Dong-Kyu Kim, Kyu-Won Cho, Woo Jung Ahn, Dayana Perez-Acuña, Hyunsu Jeong, He-Jin Lee, Seung-Jae Lee
Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and cognitive dysfunction caused by expansion of polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat in exon 1 of huntingtin (HTT). In patients, the number of glutamine residues in polyQ tracts are over 35, and it is correlated with age of onset, severity, and disease progression. Expansion of polyQ increases the propensity for HTT protein aggregation, process known to be implicated in neurodegeneration. These pathological aggregates can be transmitted from neuron to another neuron, and this process may explain the pathological spreading of polyQ aggregates...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
Kuo-Hsuan Chang, Yih-Ru Wu, Chiung-Mei Chen
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD), caused by expansion of a polyglutamine tract within HUNTINGTIN (HTT) protein, is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease associated with a progressive neurodegeneration of striatum and cerebral cortex. Although a few studies have identified substantial microRNA (miRNA) alterations in central nervous tissues from HD patients, it will be more accessible to employ these molecular changes in peripheral tissues as biomarkers for HD. METHODS: We examined the expression levels of 13 miRNAs (miR-1, mirR-9, miR-9*, miR-10b, miR-29a, miR-29b, miR-124a, miR-132, miR-155, miR-196a, miR-196b, miR-330 and miR-615), 10 of which previously demonstrated alterations and 3 of which are potential regulators of differentially-expressed genes in brains of HD patients, in the peripheral leukocytes of 36 HD patients, 8 pre-symptomatic HD carriers and 28 healthy controls...
December 19, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Lea J Hachigian, Vitor Carmona, Robert J Fenster, Ruth Kulicke, Adrian Heilbut, Annie Sittler, Luís Pereira de Almeida, Jill P Mesirov, Fan Gao, Eric D Kolaczyk, Myriam Heiman
Alteration of corticostriatal glutamatergic function is an early pathophysiological change associated with Huntington's disease (HD). The factors that regulate the maintenance of corticostriatal glutamatergic synapses post-developmentally are not well understood. Recently, the striatum-enriched transcription factor Foxp2 was implicated in the development of these synapses. Here, we show that, in mice, overexpression of Foxp2 in the adult striatum of two models of HD leads to rescue of HD-associated behaviors, while knockdown of Foxp2 in wild-type mice leads to development of HD-associated behaviors...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
Zih-Ning Huang, Her Min Chung, Su-Chiung Fang, Lu-Shiun Her
Striatal neuron death in Huntington's disease is associated with abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and functions. However, the mechanisms for this mitochondrial dysregulation remain elusive. Increased accumulation of Huntingtin-associated protein 40 (HAP40) has been shown to be associated with Huntington's disease. However, the link between increased HAP40 and Huntington's disease remains largely unknown. Here we show that HAP40 overexpression causes mitochondrial dysfunction and reduces cell viability in the immortalized mouse striatal neurons...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Eduardo Calpena, Víctor López Del Amo, Mouli Chakraborty, Beatriz Llamusí, Rubén Artero, Carmen Espinós, Máximo I Galindo
Members of the Junctophilin (JPH) protein family have emerged as key actors in all excitable cells, with crucial implications for human pathophysiology. In mammals, this family consists of four members (JPH1-JPH4) that are differentially expressed throughout excitable cells. The analysis of knockout mice lacking JPH subtypes has demonstrated their essential contribution to physiological functions in skeletal and cardiac muscles and in neurons. Moreover, mutations in the human JPH2 gene are associated with hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies; mutations in JPH3 are responsible for the neurodegenerative Huntington's disease-like-2 (HDL2), whereas JPH1 acts as a genetic modifier in Charcot-Marie-Tooth 2K peripheral neuropathy...
January 17, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
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