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Triglycerides AND Coenzyme A

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214879/thiamine-deprivation-produces-a-liver-atp-deficit-and-metabolic-and-genomic-effects-in-mice-findings-are-parallel-to-those-of-biotin-deficiency-and-have-implications-for-energy-disorders
#1
Alain de J Hernandez-Vazquez, Josue Andres Garcia-Sanchez, Elizabeth Moreno-Arriola, Ana Salvador-Adriano, Daniel Ortega-Cuellar, Antonio Velazquez-Arellano
Thiamine is one of several essential cofactors for ATP generation. Its deficiency, like in beriberi and in the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, has been studied for many decades. However, its mechanism of action is still not completely understood at the cellular and molecular levels. Since it acts as a coenzyme for dehydrogenases of pyruvate, branched-chain keto acids, and ketoglutarate, its nutritional privation is partly a phenocopy of inborn errors of metabolism, among them maple syrup urine disease. In the present paper, we report metabolic and genomic findings in mice deprived of thiamine...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163317/embelin-attenuates-adipogenesis-and-lipogenesis-through-activating-canonical-wnt-signaling-and-inhibits-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#2
Y Gao, J Li, X Xu, S Wang, Y Yang, J Zhou, L Zhang, F Zheng, X Li, B Wang
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that Embelin, a natural plant extract might have the potential to prevent body weight gain in rats. However, the mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated. METHODS: Effects of Embelin on adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis were studied in murine ST2 stromal cells and C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal cells. The mechanisms through which Embelin regulates adipogenic differentiation and lipogenesis were explored. The in vivo anti-obesity effects of Embelin in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mice and possible transcriptional impact were investigated...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917474/germacrone-inhibits-adipogenesis-and-stimulates-lipolysis-via-the-amp-activated-protein-kinase-signalling-pathway-in-3t3-l1-preadipocytes
#3
Yuan-Ri Guo, Se-Young Choung
OBJECTIVES: In a previous study, we reported that Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract (ASE) inhibited lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Of the components in ASE, germacrone (GM) was identified as a potent bioactive constituent. GM is known for its anticancer and antiviral activity. However, the effects of GM and the molecular mechanism by which GM regulates adipogenesis and lipolysis were not reported. Therefore, we investigated the effect of GM on adipogenesis and lipolysis and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanism...
February 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913825/hypolipidemic-effect-of-%C3%AE-caryophyllene-to-treat-hyperlipidemic-rats
#4
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Thirssa H Grando, Pedro H Doleski, Aline A Boligon, Lenita M Stefani, Silvia G Monteiro
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of β-caryophyllene on hypercholesterolemia using a model of hyperlipidemia induced by Triton WR-1339 in rats, as well as its possible effect on hepatic antioxidant enzymes. Thus, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were measured in serum, while reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutayl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in the hepatic tissue...
February 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889747/alisol-a-24-acetate-prevents-hepatic-steatosis-and-metabolic-disorders-in-hepg2-cells
#5
Lu Zeng, WaiJiao Tang, JinJin Yin, LiJuan Feng, Yabing Li, Xiaorui Yao, BenJie Zhou
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely associated with metabolic disorders including hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammation. Alisol A 24-acetate, a triterpene from Alismatis rhizome, has multiple biologic activities such as hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic. Thus we hypothesized that Alisol A 24 -acetate would have effect on NAFLD. The present study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effects and potential mechanisms of Alisol A 24-acetate against hepatic steatosis in a free fatty acids (FFAs) induced NAFLD cell model...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884413/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-down-regulation-mediates-the-inhibitory-effect-of-d-%C3%AE-tocotrienol-on-the-differentiation-of-murine-3t3-f442a-preadipocytes
#6
Sheida Torabi, Hoda Yeganehjoo, Chwan-Li Shen, Huanbiao Mo
Tocotrienols accelerate the degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of mevalonate; the latter is essential for preadipocyte differentiation. Tocotrienols also down-regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation. We hypothesized that mevalonate deprivation and PPARγ down-regulation mediate d-δ-tocotrienol-induced inhibition of adipocyte differentiation. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of d-δ-tocotrienol on 3T3-F442A preadipocyte differentiation and the involvement of PPARγ and mevalonate...
December 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872650/the-cholesterol-lowering-effect-of-alisol-acetates-based-on-hmg-coa-reductase-and-its-molecular-mechanism
#7
Fei Xu, Hui Yu, Cai Lu, Jun Chen, Wei Gu
This study measured the impact of alisol B 23-acetate and alisol A 24-acetate, the main active ingredients of the traditional Chinese medicine Alismatis rhizoma, on total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels of hyperlipidemic mice. The binding of alisol B 23-acetate and alisol A 24-acetate to the key enzyme involved in the metabolism of TC, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, was studied using the reagent kit method and the western blotting technique combined with a molecular simulation technique...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852305/schisandra-polysaccharide-inhibits-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-by-downregulating-expression-of-srebps-in-nafld-mice
#8
Chun-Mei Wang, Rong-Shuang Yuan, Wen-Yue Zhuang, Jing-Hui Sun, Jin-Ying Wu, He Li, Jian-Guang Chen
BACKGROUND: Hepatoprotective effects of Chinese herbal medicine Schisandra Chinensis (Schisandra) have been widely investigated. However, most studies were focused on its lignan extracts. We investigated the effects of Schisandra polysaccharide (SCP) in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and studied its effect on sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) and the related genes. METHODS: The mouse model of NAFLD was established by feeding mice with a high-fat diet for 16 weeks...
November 16, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846372/loss-of-ulk1-increases-rps6kb1-ncor1-repression-of-nr1h-lxr-mediated-scd1-transcription-and-augments-lipotoxicity-in-hepatic-cells
#9
Rohit Anthony Sinha, Brijesh K Singh, Jin Zhou, Sherwin Xie, Benjamin L Farah, Ronny Lesmana, Kenji Ohba, Madhulika Tripathi, Sujoy Ghosh, Anthony N Hollenberg, Paul M Yen
Lipotoxicity caused by saturated fatty acids (SFAs) induces tissue damage and inflammation in metabolic disorders. SCD1 (stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1) converts SFAs to mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) that are incorporated into triglycerides and stored in lipid droplets. SCD1 thus helps protect hepatocytes from lipotoxicity and its reduced expression is associated with increased lipotoxic injury in cultured hepatic cells and mouse models. To further understand the role of SCD1 in lipotoxicity, we examined the regulation of Scd1 in hepatic cells treated with palmitate, and found that NR1H/LXR (nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H) ligand, GW3965, induced Scd1 expression and lipid droplet formation to improve cell survival...
January 2, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834848/berberine-alleviates-olanzapine-induced-adipogenesis-via-the-ampk%C3%AE-srebp-pathway-in-3t3-l1-cells
#10
Yanjie Li, Xiaomin Zhao, Xiyu Feng, Xuemei Liu, Chao Deng, Chang-Hua Hu
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of berberine (BBR) on olanzapine (OLZ)-induced adipogenesis in a well-replicated 3T3-L1 cell model. Oil-Red-O (ORO) staining showed that BBR significantly decreased OLZ-induced adipogenesis. Co-treatment with OLZ and BBR decreased the accumulation of triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) by 55.58% ± 3.65% and 49.84% ± 8.31%, respectively, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes accompanied by reduced expression of Sterol regulatory element binding proteins 1 (SREBP1), fatty acid synthase (FAS), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), SREBP2, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) genes compared with OLZ alone...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833243/short-term-effects-of-lovastatin-therapy-on-proteinuria-of-type-2-diabetic-nephropathy-a-clinical-trial-study
#11
Alireza Sadighi, Javid Safa, Amir-Mansour Vatankhah, Sona Ghorashi, Aida Aharilahagh, Sina Davari-Farid, Ourmaan Nezami-Nargabad, Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad, Reza Piri, Parinaz Pishahang, Savalan Babapoor-Farrokhran, Sanam Fakour, Nastaran Ghodratnezhad-Azar
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized by albuminuria, hypertension, and a progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A is a well-known agent that is active in lowering total plasma and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in cases with hypercholesterolemia. Hence, in this study, proteinuria changes at the beginning and after the withdrawal of lovastatin in patients with type 2 DN (T2DN) were studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lovastatin was administered for thirty male patients with T2DN and then was withdrawn...
September 2016: Nigerian Medical Journal: Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731821/rauwolfia-serpentina-improves-altered-glucose-and-lipid-homeostasis-in-fructose-induced-type-2-diabetic-mice
#12
Muhammad Bilal Azmi, Shamim A Qureshi
Rauwolfia serpentina is well-reported in traditional medicines for the treatment of hypertensive and neurological disorders. However, its antidiabetic potential has been currently described in both alloxan-treated and normoglycemic mice. Present effort was carried out to investigate the effect of methanol root extract (MREt) of R.serpentina in fructose-induced type 2 diabetic mice. Experimental mice were grouped into normal control (distilled water 1ml/kg) and fructose-induced type 2 diabetic groups (10% fructose 1 ml/kg)...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706673/novel-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-the-5-regulatory-region-of-the-duck-scd1-gene-and-their-associations-with-serum-biochemical-levels-and-fatty-acid-composition
#13
W-G Li, Y-Y Zhang, D-D Wang
Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1) is the key limiting enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, and plays a crucial role in the regulation of oleic acid. In this study, 165 ten-week-old Cherry Valley ducks were used to investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5' regulatory region of the SCD1 gene, and their associations with duck serum biochemical levels and fatty acid composition. Two novel SNPs, g.936516 C > G and g.936551 T > C, were found by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing methods, exhibiting six genotypes (AA, BB, CC, AB, AC, and BC)...
August 30, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698957/corn-silk-extract-improves-cholesterol-metabolism-in-c57bl-6j-mouse-fed-high-fat-diets
#14
Jae Hoon Cha, Sun Rim Kim, Hyun Joong Kang, Myung Hwan Kim, Ae Wha Ha, Woo Kyoung Kim
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Corn silk (CS) extract contains large amounts of maysin, which is a major flavonoid in CS. However, studies regarding the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets. MATERIALS/METHODS: Normal-fat group fed 7% fat diet, high-fat (HF) group fed 25% fat diet, and high-fat with corn silk (HFCS) group were orally administered CS extract (100 mg/kg body weight) daily...
October 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642594/lipid-regulation-effects-of-raw-and-processed-notoginseng-radix-et-rhizome-on-steatotic-hepatocyte-l02-cell
#15
Zhu Chen, Chunmei Li, Caixia Yang, Ronghua Zhao, Xiaojian Mao, Jie Yu
Introduction. Raw and processed Notoginseng Radix Et Rhizome (NRR) have been widely used in treatment of metabolic syndromes and related disease, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study was designed to investigate lipid regulation effects of raw and processed NRR in steatotic L02 cell. Materials and Methods. Steatotic L02 cells were obtained after being cultured with 5% fat emulsion-10% FBS-RPMI 1640 medium for 48 h. Contents of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in steatotic L02 cells were evaluated after treatment...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616737/chronic-leucine-supplementation-improves-lipid-metabolism-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-with-a-high-fat-cholesterol-diet
#16
Jun Jiao, Shu-Fen Han, Wei Zhang, Jia-Ying Xu, Xing Tong, Xue-Bin Yin, Lin-Xi Yuan, Li-Qiang Qin
BACKGROUND: Leucine supplementation has been reported to improve lipid metabolism. However, lipid metabolism in adipose tissues and liver has not been extensively studied for leucine supplementation in mice fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD). DESIGN: C57BL/6J mice were fed a chow diet, HFCD, HFCD supplemented with 1.5% leucine (HFCD+1.5% Leu group) or 3% leucine (HFCD+3% Leu group) for 24 weeks. The body weight, peritoneal adipose weight, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride in serum and liver, and serum adipokines were analyzed...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547436/lauric-acid-rich-medium-chain-triglycerides-can-substitute-for-other-oils-in-cooking-applications-and-may-have-limited-pathogenicity
#17
REVIEW
Mark F McCarty, James J DiNicolantonio
Recently, medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) containing a large fraction of lauric acid (LA) (C12)-about 30%-have been introduced commercially for use in salad oils and in cooking applications. As compared to the long-chain fatty acids found in other cooking oils, the medium-chain fats in MCTs are far less likely to be stored in adipose tissue, do not give rise to 'ectopic fat' metabolites that promote insulin resistance and inflammation, and may be less likely to activate macrophages. When ingested, medium-chain fatty acids are rapidly oxidised in hepatic mitochondria; the resulting glut of acetyl-coenzyme A drives ketone body production and also provokes a thermogenic response...
2016: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459037/hypolipidemic-effects-of-myrica-rubra-extracts-and-main-compounds-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#18
Kai He, Xuegang Li, Yubo Xiao, Yang Yong, Zaiqi Zhang, Shuping Li, Taimei Zhou, Daqing Yang, Pincao Gao, Xiaoliang Xin
The present study evaluated the antihyperlipidemic activity of myricetin, myricetrin, the alcohol fraction (AF) and the ethyl acetate fraction (EF) obtained from the bark of Myrica rubra (MR) in high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFHC) induced hyperlipidemic C57BL/6j mice. Mice were treated with myricetin, myricetrin, AF and EF with a dose of 130 mg per kg per day for 35 days. After treatment, serum parameters including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total bile acids (TBA), etc...
August 10, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428459/analysis-of-lipid-profile-in-lipid-storage-myopathy
#19
M'hammed Aguennouz, Marco Beccaria, Giorgia Purcaro, Marianna Oteri, Giuseppe Micalizzi, Olimpia Musumesci, Annmaria Ciranni, Rosa Maria Di Giorgio, Antonio Toscano, Paola Dugo, Luigi Mondello
Lipid dysmetabolism disease is a condition in which lipids are stored abnormally in organs and tissues throughout the body, causing muscle weakness (myopathy). Usually, the diagnosis of this disease and its characterization goes through dosage of Acyl CoA in plasma accompanied with evidence of droplets of intra-fibrils lipids in the patient muscle biopsy. However, to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of lipid storage diseases, it is useful to identify the nature of lipids deposited in muscle fiber...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422746/the-blood-lipid-regulation-of-monascus-produced-monascin-and-ankaflavin-via-the-suppression-of-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-assembly-and-stimulation-of-apolipoprotein-a1-expression-in-the-liver
#20
Chun-Lin Lee, Ja-Yan Wen, Ya-Wen Hsu, Tzu-Ming Pan
BACKGROUND/PURPOSES: Monascin (MS) and ankaflavin (AK) produced by Monascus purpureus NTU 568 were proven to show excellent hypolipidemic effects in our previous studies; however, the mechanism is still unclear. METHODS: This study used MS, AK, and monacolin K as test substances and performed tests on rats fed high-fat and high-cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. The lipid levels and the related protein levels of the rats were assessed to understand the effects of MS, AK, and monacolin K on lipid metabolism...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
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