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Triglycerides AND Coenzyme A

Muhammad Bilal Azmi, Shamim A Qureshi
Rauwolfia serpentina is well-reported in traditional medicines for the treatment of hypertensive and neurological disorders. However, its antidiabetic potential has been currently described in both alloxan-treated and normoglycemic mice. Present effort was carried out to investigate the effect of methanol root extract (MREt) of R.serpentina in fructose-induced type 2 diabetic mice. Experimental mice were grouped into normal control (distilled water 1ml/kg) and fructose-induced type 2 diabetic groups (10% fructose 1 ml/kg)...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
W-G Li, Y-Y Zhang, D-D Wang
Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1) is the key limiting enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, and plays a crucial role in the regulation of oleic acid. In this study, 165 ten-week-old Cherry Valley ducks were used to investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5' regulatory region of the SCD1 gene, and their associations with duck serum biochemical levels and fatty acid composition. Two novel SNPs, g.936516 C > G and g.936551 T > C, were found by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing methods, exhibiting six genotypes (AA, BB, CC, AB, AC, and BC)...
August 30, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Jae Hoon Cha, Sun Rim Kim, Hyun Joong Kang, Myung Hwan Kim, Ae Wha Ha, Woo Kyoung Kim
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Corn silk (CS) extract contains large amounts of maysin, which is a major flavonoid in CS. However, studies regarding the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets. MATERIALS/METHODS: Normal-fat group fed 7% fat diet, high-fat (HF) group fed 25% fat diet, and high-fat with corn silk (HFCS) group were orally administered CS extract (100 mg/kg body weight) daily...
October 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
Zhu Chen, Chunmei Li, Caixia Yang, Ronghua Zhao, Xiaojian Mao, Jie Yu
Introduction. Raw and processed Notoginseng Radix Et Rhizome (NRR) have been widely used in treatment of metabolic syndromes and related disease, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study was designed to investigate lipid regulation effects of raw and processed NRR in steatotic L02 cell. Materials and Methods. Steatotic L02 cells were obtained after being cultured with 5% fat emulsion-10% FBS-RPMI 1640 medium for 48 h. Contents of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in steatotic L02 cells were evaluated after treatment...
2016: BioMed Research International
Jun Jiao, Shu-Fen Han, Wei Zhang, Jia-Ying Xu, Xing Tong, Xue-Bin Yin, Lin-Xi Yuan, Li-Qiang Qin
BACKGROUND: Leucine supplementation has been reported to improve lipid metabolism. However, lipid metabolism in adipose tissues and liver has not been extensively studied for leucine supplementation in mice fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD). DESIGN: C57BL/6J mice were fed a chow diet, HFCD, HFCD supplemented with 1.5% leucine (HFCD+1.5% Leu group) or 3% leucine (HFCD+3% Leu group) for 24 weeks. The body weight, peritoneal adipose weight, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride in serum and liver, and serum adipokines were analyzed...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Mark F McCarty, James J DiNicolantonio
Recently, medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) containing a large fraction of lauric acid (LA) (C12)-about 30%-have been introduced commercially for use in salad oils and in cooking applications. As compared to the long-chain fatty acids found in other cooking oils, the medium-chain fats in MCTs are far less likely to be stored in adipose tissue, do not give rise to 'ectopic fat' metabolites that promote insulin resistance and inflammation, and may be less likely to activate macrophages. When ingested, medium-chain fatty acids are rapidly oxidised in hepatic mitochondria; the resulting glut of acetyl-coenzyme A drives ketone body production and also provokes a thermogenic response...
2016: Open Heart
Kai He, Xuegang Li, Yubo Xiao, Yang Yong, Zaiqi Zhang, Shuping Li, Taimei Zhou, Daqing Yang, Pincao Gao, Xiaoliang Xin
The present study evaluated the antihyperlipidemic activity of myricetin, myricetrin, the alcohol fraction (AF) and the ethyl acetate fraction (EF) obtained from the bark of Myrica rubra (MR) in high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFHC) induced hyperlipidemic C57BL/6j mice. Mice were treated with myricetin, myricetrin, AF and EF with a dose of 130 mg per kg per day for 35 days. After treatment, serum parameters including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total bile acids (TBA), etc...
August 10, 2016: Food & Function
M'hammed Aguennouz, Marco Beccaria, Giorgia Purcaro, Marianna Oteri, Giuseppe Micalizzi, Olimpia Musumesci, Annmaria Ciranni, Rosa Maria Di Giorgio, Antonio Toscano, Paola Dugo, Luigi Mondello
Lipid dysmetabolism disease is a condition in which lipids are stored abnormally in organs and tissues throughout the body, causing muscle weakness (myopathy). Usually, the diagnosis of this disease and its characterization goes through dosage of Acyl CoA in plasma accompanied with evidence of droplets of intra-fibrils lipids in the patient muscle biopsy. However, to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of lipid storage diseases, it is useful to identify the nature of lipids deposited in muscle fiber...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Chun-Lin Lee, Ja-Yan Wen, Ya-Wen Hsu, Tzu-Ming Pan
BACKGROUND/PURPOSES: Monascin (MS) and ankaflavin (AK) produced by Monascus purpureus NTU 568 were proven to show excellent hypolipidemic effects in our previous studies; however, the mechanism is still unclear. METHODS: This study used MS, AK, and monacolin K as test substances and performed tests on rats fed high-fat and high-cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. The lipid levels and the related protein levels of the rats were assessed to understand the effects of MS, AK, and monacolin K on lipid metabolism...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Yanyan Zhang, Fu Feng, Ting Chen, Zhongwen Li, Qingwu W Shen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The fruit of Forsythia suspense (Thunb.) Vahl, a well-known Chinese Materia Medica, has been traditionally used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of diabetes and some other diseases, but the rational for the usage of this plant is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect and potential mechanism of the fruit of F. suspensa using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Crude methanol extract of F...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Dorota Harasiuk, Marcin Baranowski, Piotr Zabielski, Adrian Chabowski, Jan Górski
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Liver X receptors (LXRα and LXRβ) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate expression of genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism. LXR expression has been identified in the heart, and enhanced LXR activity in the streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic myocardium was reported recently. The aim of this study was to investigate effect of in vivo LXR activation on myocardial lipid metabolism under conditions of STZ-induced diabetes. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups: non-diabetic control, treated with STZ, and treated with STZ and LXR agonist - TO901317...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Zhan-Wei Yang, Ke-Hui Ouyang, Jing Zhao, Hui Chen, Lei Xiong, Wen-Jun Wang
Polysaccharide is one of the important active ingredients of Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja leaves. The aims of this work were to analyze the structure of the polysaccharide of Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja leaves (CPP), and to investigate the antihyperlipidemic effect of CPP on high-fat emulsion (HFE)-induced hyperlipidaemic rats. CPP, comprised of two polysaccharides with average molecular weight (Mw) of 1.35×10(5)Da and 9.34×10(3)Da, was consisted of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in the molar ratio of 1...
October 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe Cicero, Alessandro Colletti, Federica Fogacci, Marilisa Bove, Martina Rosticci, Claudio Borghi
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest for combined nutraceuticals that can act on several points of lipid and glucose metabolism with preventive purposes. However, the simple assemblage of nutraceuticals with potentially additive mechanism of action need to be clinically tested. METHODS: To assess the effects of a combination of nutraceuticals based on artichoke, red yeast rice, banaba, and coenzyme Q10, we performed a double bind, cross-over designed trial versus placebo in 30 adults with LDL cholesterol suboptimal in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease...
June 23, 2016: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
Mohsen Mazidi, Haleh Rokni, Amir Hossein Sahebkar, Akram Mohammadi, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Gordon A Ferns
BACKGROUND: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) are antihyperlipidemic drugs with an established efficacy in stabilizing atherosclerotic plaques and preventing atherogenesis and reducing cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of simvastatin on serum Vitamin D status in dyslipidemic patients as Vitamin D status has an impact on monocyte/macrophage function and may also contribute to cardiovascular risk. METHODS: Selected individuals (n = 102) were treated with simvastatin (40 mg/day), or matching placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial...
2016: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
MinHwa Suk, YunA Shin
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of high-intensity exercise (Ex) and high dietary fat intake on lipid metabolism in the liver of rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of the four groups (n=10 per group) that were maintained on a normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD) consisting of 30% fat (w/w), with or without exercise on a treadmill at 30 m/min and 8% grade) for 4 weeks (i.e., ND, ND+Ex, HFD, and HFD+Ex groups). RESULTS: Body weight (p<...
December 31, 2015: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
Humeyra Ercan, Aysel Kiyici, Kamile Marakoglu, Mufide Oncel
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome has become an important health problem, which involves obesity, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and high blood pressure values. The components of metabolic syndrome are all suggested as independent cardiovascular disease risk factors along with high mortality and morbidity rates accompanied by many organ and system complications. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine 8-isoprostane (8-IsoP) and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) levels in patients with metabolic syndrome and healthy individuals and demonstrate whether there was any relation between these parameters and metabolic syndrome criteria...
August 2016: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Nosratola D Vaziri
Nephrotic syndrome results in hyperlipidemia and profound alterations in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins (very low-density lipoprotein [VLDL], immediate-density lipoprotein [IDL], and low-density lipoprotein [LDL]), lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]), and the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio are increased in nephrotic syndrome. This is accompanied by significant changes in the composition of various lipoproteins including their cholesterol-to-triglyceride, free cholesterol-to-cholesterol ester, and phospholipid-to-protein ratios...
July 2016: Kidney International
Rathinam Ayyasamy, Pari Leelavinothan
CONTEXT: Myrtenal is monoterpene a constituent of essential oils found mainly in herbs such as mint, pepper, cumin, etc. It exerts admirable pharmacological activities against many diseases including diabetes. Hyperlipidaemia is a secondary complication of diabetes and also a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the possible antihyperlipidaemic efficacy of myrtenal on plasma glucose, pancreatic insulin, plasma and tissue lipid levels in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats...
May 9, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Matteo Pirro, Massimo Raffaele Mannarino, Vanessa Bianconi, Luis E Simental-Mendía, Francesco Bagaglia, Elmo Mannarino, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia are associated with an increased risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease. Positive effects of a nutraceutical combination comprising red yeast rice, berberine, policosanol, astaxanthin, coenzyme Q10 and folic acid (NComb) on plasma lipid and glucose levels have been reported in some but not all clinical trials. To address this inconsistency, we tried to estimate the size of lipid- and glucose-lowering effects of NComb through a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials...
August 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Zhixian Leng, Qin Fu, Xue Yang, Liren Ding, Chao Wen, Yanmin Zhou
Two hundred and forty 1-day-old male Arbor Acres broiler chickens were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments with six replicates of eight chickens per replicate cage for a 42-day feeding trial. Broiler chickens were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 250, 500, 750 or 1000 mg/kg betaine, respectively. Growth performance was not affected by betaine. Incremental levels of betaine decreased the absolute and relative weight of abdominal fat (linear P < 0.05, quadratic P < 0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) (linear P < 0...
August 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
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