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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628951/cranial-indicators-identified-for-peak-incidence-of-otitis-media
#1
Anthony Pagano, Eugene Wang, Derek Yuan, Daniel Fischer, Charles Bluestone, Samuel Marquez, Jeffrey Laitman
Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common pediatric conditions worldwide. Peak age of occurrence for AOM has been identified within the first postnatal year and it remains frequent until approximately six postnatal years. Morphological differences between adults and infants in the cartilaginous Eustachian tube (CET) and associated structures may be responsible for development of this disease yet few have investigated normal growth trajectories. We tested hypotheses on coincidence of skeletal growth changes and known ages of peak AOM occurrence...
June 19, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620686/evaluation-and-optimization-of-pcr-primers-for-selective-and-quantitative-detection-of-marine-anme-subclusters-involved-in-sulfate-dependent-anaerobic-methane-oxidation
#2
Peer H A Timmers, H C Aura Widjaja-Greefkes, Caroline M Plugge, Alfons J M Stams
Since the discovery that anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) are involved in the anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulfate reduction in marine sediments, different primers and probes specifically targeting the 16S rRNA gene of these archaea have been developed. Microbial investigation of the different ANME subtypes (ANME-1; ANME-2a, b, and c; and ANME-3) was mainly done in sediments where specific subtypes of ANME were highly enriched and methanogenic cell numbers were low. In different sediments with higher archaeal diversity and abundance, it is important that primers and probes targeting different ANME subtypes are very specific and do not detect other ANME subtypes or methanogens that are also present...
June 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619710/heme-oxygenase-1-production-by-intestinal-cx3cr1-macrophages-helps-to-resolve-inflammation-and-prevents-carcinogenesis
#3
Giulia Marelli, Marco Erreni, Achille Anselmo, Valentina Taverniti, Simone Guglielmetti, Alberto Mantovani, Paola Allavena
CX3CR1(+) macrophages in the intestinal lamina propria contribute to gut homeostasis through the immunomodulatory interleukin IL-10, but there is little knowledge on how these cells or the CX3CR1 receptor may affect colorectal carcinogenesis. In this study, we show that CX3CR1-deficient mice fail to resolve gut inflammation despite high production of IL-10 and have increased colitis and adenomatous polyps in chemical and genetic models of colon carcinogenesis. Mechanistically, CX3CL1-mediated engagement of the CX3CR1 receptor induced upregulation of hemoxygenase-1 (HMOX-1), an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory enzyme...
June 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618417/cholesterol-enhances-colorectal-cancer-progression-via-ros-elevation-and-mapk-signaling-pathway-activation
#4
Caihua Wang, Peiwei Li, Junmei Xuan, Chunpeng Zhu, Jingjing Liu, Lizhen Shan, Qin Du, Yuezhong Ren, Jun Ye
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Elevated serum cholesterol levels were linked to a higher risk of colorectal adenoma and colorectal cancer (CRC), while the effect of cholesterol on CRC metastasis has not been widely studied. METHODS: CRC patients were enrolled to evaluate the association between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and CRC metastases, and LDL receptor (LDLR) level of the CRC tissue was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effects of LDL on cell proliferation, migration and stemness were assessed in CRC cells in vitro, and the effects of high fat diet (HFD) on tumor growth and intestinal tumorigenicity were investigated in vivo...
June 15, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616364/recurrent-acute-otitis-media-what-are-the-options-for-treatment-and-prevention
#5
REVIEW
Anna Granath
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To survey current strategies for treatment and prevention of recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM). RECENT FINDINGS: Treatment with systemic antibiotics is required in recurrent episodes of acute otitis media. A cautious attitude is recommended due to antibiotic resistance. Antibiotics also provide effective prophylaxis for rAOM. Topical treatment with ear drops is recommended in rAOM with otorrhea from tympanostomy tubes. Pneumococcal conjugated vaccines seem to have a moderate reductive effect on overall otitis media...
2017: Current Otorhinolaryngology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599320/keratin-8-reduces-colonic-permeability-and-maintains-gut-microbiota-homeostasis-protecting-against-colitis-and-colitis-associated-tumorigenesis
#6
Chao Liu, En-Dong Liu, Yun-Xiao Meng, Xiao-Ming Dong, Ya-Lan Bi, Huan-Wen Wu, Yan-Chao Jin, Ke Zhao, Jian-Jie Li, Miao Yu, Yi-Qun Zhan, Hui Chen, Chang-Hui Ge, Xiao-Ming Yang, Chang-Yan Li
Keratin 8 (CK8) is the major component of the intermediate filaments of simple or single-layered epithelia. Gene targeting mice model suggest that CK8 is involved in colonic active ion transport, colorectal hyperplasia and inflammation. In the present study, we found that CK8 is downregulated in the colon during DSS-induced colitis and AOM/DSS-induced colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) development. In human patients with colon cancer, CK8 is downregulated. Using CK8 heterozygous knockout mice (CK8+/-), we found that CK8+/- mice are highly susceptible to DSS-induced colitis and more prone to AOM/DSS-induced CAC than wild type (WT) mice...
May 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583134/sphingosine-kinase-1-expression-enhances-colon-tumor-growth
#7
Hideki Furuya, Yoshiko Shimizu, Paulette M Tamashiro, Kayoko Iino, Jacek Bielawski, Owen T M Chan, Ian Pagano, Toshihiko Kawamori
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1)/sphingosine 1-phosphate pathway plays a pivotal role in colon carcinogenesis. METHODS: To further support the evidence, we investigated the effects of SphK1 using three separate animal models: SphK1 knockout mice, SphK1 overexpressing transgenic mice, and SphK1 overexpression in human colon cancer xenografts. Using azoxymethane (AOM, colon carcinogen), we analyzed colon tumor development in SphK1 KO and SphK1 overexpression in intestinal epithelial cells regulated by a tet-on system...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576537/can-changes-in-parentally-measured-acoustic-reflectometry-levels-predict-the-middle-ear-status
#8
Nora Erkkola-Anttinen, Miia K Laine, Paula A Tähtinen, Aino Ruohola
OBJECTIVE: Spectral gradient acoustic reflectometry (SG-AR) may be used to detect middle ear effusion. Our aim was to investigate whether increasing SG-AR levels between two SG-AR examinations indicate deterioration from a healthy middle ear to acute otitis media (AOM). METHODS: We enrolled 185 children (age 6-35 months) whose parents were willing to use the SG-AR at home daily. Measurement pairs of parental home SG-AR examination results were generated and analyzed...
April 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576535/adherence-to-acute-otitis-media-diagnosis-and-treatment-guidelines-among-israeli-otolaryngologists
#9
Tal Marom, Mathan Bobrow, Ephraim Eviatar, Yahav Oron, Sharon Ovnat Tamir
INTRODUCTION: The recent Israeli acute otitis media (AOM) guidelines, drafted mainly by pediatricians and family physicians in 2013, addressed diagnostic and therapeutic issues, in order to reduce over-diagnosis and treatment. These guidelines are considered as the 'standard of care' for AOM management. While the adherence rate of pediatricians to previous Israeli AOM guidelines (2004) was reported to be high (>85%), the compliance of otolaryngologists has not been studied. METHODS: An anonymous 19-item questionnaire was circulated among practicing Israeli otolaryngologists (residents [n = 93], specialists [n = 283])...
April 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571504/impact-of-protein-d-containing-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-acute-otitis-media-and-carriage
#10
Christopher Clarke, Lauren O Bakaletz, Javier Ruiz-Guiñazú, Dorota Borys, Tomas Mrkvan
Protein D-containing vaccines may decrease acute otitis media (AOM) burden and nasopharyngeal carriage of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Protein D-containing pneumococcal conjugate vaccine PHiD-CV (Synflorix, GSK Vaccines) elicits robust immune responses against protein D. However, the phase III Clinical Otitis Media and PneumoniA Study (COMPAS), assessing PHiD-CV efficacy against various pneumococcal diseases, was not powered to demonstrate efficacy against NTHi; only trends of protective efficacy against NTHi AOM in children were shown...
July 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565805/effects-of-dual-modified-resistant-indica-rice-starch-on-azoxymethane-induced-incipient-colon-cancer-in-mice
#11
Huaibo Yuan, Xiping Zhu, Deyi Chen, Wenjuan Wang, Shaohua Meng, Junhui Wang
In this study, the effects of different doses of dual modification-treated (DMT) indica rice resistant starch (IR-RS) on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced early colon cancer in mice were investigated. The investigated factors included body weight, gastrointestinal emptying rate, the number and morphology of aberrant crypt foci (ACFs) and the specific expressions of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and cytochrome c genes. The results demonstrated that DMT IR-RS controlled the increase in the body weights of the mice, increased the gastrointestinal emptying rates and reduced the numbers of ACFs and aberrant crypts...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549858/a-prospective-observational-cohort-study-to-assess-the-incidence-of-acute-otitis-media-among-children-0-5-years-of-age-in-southern-brazil
#12
Tatiana M Lanzieri, Clóvis Arns da Cunha, Rejane B Cunha, D Fermin Arguello, Raghavendra Devadiga, Nervo Sanchez, Eduardo Ortega Barria
OBJECTIVES: To estimate acute otitis media (AOM) incidence among young children and impact on quality of life of parents/caregivers in a southern Brazilian city. METHODS: Prospective cohort study including children 0-5 years of age registered at a private pediatric practice. AOM episodes diagnosed by a pediatrician and impact on quality of life of parents/caregivers were assessed during a 12-month follow-up. RESULTS: During September 2008-March 2010, of 1136 children enrolled in the study, 1074 (95%) were followed: 55...
May 23, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522908/detection-and-characterization-of-murine-colitis-and-carcinogenesis-by-molecularly-targeted-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound
#13
Markus Brückner, Jan Heidemann, Tobias M Nowacki, Friederike Cordes, Jörg Stypmann, Philipp Lenz, Faekah Gohar, Andreas Lügering, Dominik Bettenworth
AIM: To study mucosal addressin cellular adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for the assessment of murine colitis and carcinogenesis. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were challenged with 3% dextran sodium-sulfate (DSS) for three, six or nine days to study the development of acute colitis. Ultrasound was performed with and without the addition of unspecific contrast agents. MAdCAM-1-targeted contrast agent was used to detect and quantify MAdCAM-1 expression...
April 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501455/exploring-the-acceptability-of-the-available-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-in-canadian-health-care-professionals-and-immunization-experts
#14
Melissa Berman, Eve Dubé, Caroline Quach
BACKGROUND: In children, the 13 and 10-valent pneumoccocal conjugate vaccines (PCV13/10) are currently approved for the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Acceptability is a key consideration in the implementation of a vaccine program and it is recognized that health professional's attitudes and opinions towards vaccines are independent predictors of the success of an immunization program. We aimed to survey the beliefs and attitudes for the two available PCVs in health care professionals and immunization experts...
June 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494451/anthocyanins-prevent-colorectal-cancer-development-in-a-mouse-model
#15
Elisabeth Lippert, Petra Ruemmele, Florian Obermeier, Stefan Goelder, Claudia Kunst, Gerhard Rogler, Nadja Dunger, Helmut Messmann, Arndt Hartmann, Esther Endlicher
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the main leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Present data suggest that plant-derived anthocyanins have anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of an anthocyanin-rich extract from bilberries on colorectal tumour development and growth in the administration of azoxymethan (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) mouse model. METHODS: Colonic carcinogenesis was induced by AOM and DSS 3 or 5%, respectively, in 50 female Balb/c mice...
May 12, 2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483250/monophosphoryl-lipid-a-enhances-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-specific-mucosal-and-systemic-immune-responses-by-intranasal-immunization
#16
Taro Iwasaki, Takashi Hirano, Satoru Kodama, Yoshinori Kadowaki, Munehito Moriyama, Toshiaki Kawano, Masashi Suzuki
OBJECTIVE: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common infectious diseases in children. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is Gram-negative bacteria that are considered major pathogens of AOM and respiratory tract infections. In this study, we used monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), a toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 agonist, as an adjuvant to induce mucosal immune responses against NTHi to enhance bacterial clearance from the nasopharynx. METHODS: Mice were administered 10 μg outer membrane protein (OMP) from NTHi and 0, 10, or 20 μg MPL intranasally once a week for 3 weeks...
June 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483246/comparison-of-first-year-of-life-acute-otitis-media-admissions-before-and-after-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine
#17
Tal Marom, Ofer Israel, Haim Gavriel, Jacob Pitaro, Ali Abo Baker, Ephraim Eviatar
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common childhood infection, which is usually managed in the outpatient setting. Yet, the more severe cases are referred for inpatient treatment. We hypothesized that pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), administered during the first year of life, would decrease AOM admissions rate in this age group. We studied the characteristics of infants admitted with AOM and acute mastoiditis (AM) in the PCV13 era, routinely given from November 2010 to all infants...
June 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483232/a-fatal-case-of-gradenigo-s-syndrome-in-zimbabwe-and-the-danish-zimbabwean-ent-collaboration
#18
P V F Jensen, M B Avnstorp, T Dzongodza, C Chidziva, C von Buchwald
As a part of a bilateral educational exchange program two Danish ENT residents were invited to Zimbabwe in 2015. During this exchange a 9-year-old girl was admitted due to complications to acute otitis media (AOM). She developed Gradenigo's syndrome and later on a brain abscess leading to a fatal outcome. Life threatening complications to AOM are rare in developed countries today but are still a challenge in developing countries. We put forward this case from a developing country to bring focus to the fact that a fatal outcome is the consequence if specialist treatment is not accessible...
June 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480409/biochemical-composition-and-nutritional-evaluation-of-barley-rihane-hordeum-vulgare-l
#19
Lamia Lahouar, Fatma Ghrairi, Amira El Arem, Sana Medimagh, Mouledi El Felah, Hichem Ben Salem, Lotfi Achour
BACKGROUND: Many experimental studies have suggested an important role for barley Rihane(BR)in the prevention of colon cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical properties and nutritional characterizations of BR compared to other varieties grown in Tunisia (Manel, Roho and Tej). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber(β-glucan), total protein, ash and some minerals of BR and Tunisian barley varieties were determined...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478805/clostridium-butyricum-partially-regulates-the-development-of-colitis-associated-cancer-through-mir-200c
#20
Y Xiao, X Dai, K Li, G Gui, J Liu, H Yang
Colitis-associated cancer (CAC), one form of colorectal cancer (CRC),is an increasing concern worldwide. Both diagnosis and current therapy are challenging and bottlenecked. The aim of this study is to investigate novel mechanisms by which the therapeutic C. butyricum regulates colitis-induced oncogenesis. Mouse models of CAC were established with 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)and azoxymethane (AOM), following by biochemical, clinical and histological analysis. The integrity of epitheliumwas examined by electron microscopy (EM)...
April 29, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
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