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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662189/akt-as-a-key-target-for-growth-promoting-functions-of-neutral-ceramidase-in-colon-cancer-cells
#1
Nicolas Coant, Mónica García-Barros, Qifeng Zhang, Lina M Obeid, Yusuf A Hannun
Despite advances in the field, colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Research into bioactive sphingolipids over the past two decades has played an important role in increasing our understanding of the pathogenesis and therapeutics of CRC. In the complex metabolic network of sphingolipids, ceramidases (CDases) have a key function. These enzymes hydrolyze ceramides into sphingosine (SPH) which in turn is phosphorylated by sphingosine kinases (SK) 1 and 2 to generate sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P)...
April 17, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662147/a-methanotrophic-archaeon-couples-anaerobic-oxidation-of-methane-to-fe-iii-reduction
#2
Chen Cai, Andy O Leu, Guo-Jun Xie, Jianhua Guo, Yuexing Feng, Jian-Xin Zhao, Gene W Tyson, Zhiguo Yuan, Shihu Hu
Microbially mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a key process in the regulation of methane emissions to the atmosphere. Iron can serve as an electron acceptor for AOM, and it has been suggested that Fe(III)-dependent AOM potentially comprises a major global methane sink. Although it has been proposed that anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME) archaea can facilitate this process, their active metabolic pathways have not been confirmed. Here we report the enrichment and characterisation of a novel archaeon in a laboratory-scale bioreactor fed with Fe(III) oxide (ferrihydrite) and methane...
April 16, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656888/animal-models-of-acute-otitis-media-a-review-with-practical-implications-for-laboratory-research
#3
N H Davidoss, Y K Varsak, P L Santa Maria
Considerable animal research has focused on developing new strategies for the prevention and treatment of acute otitis media (AOM). Several experimental models of AOM have thus been developed. A PubMed search of the English literature was conducted from 1975 to July 2016 using the search terms "animal model" and "otitis media" from which 91 published studies were included for analysis, yielding 123 animal models. The rat, mouse and chinchilla are the preferred animals for experimental AOM models with their individual advantages and disadvantages...
April 12, 2018: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656647/tea-polysaccharides-inhibits-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer-via-interleukin-6-stat3-pathway
#4
Li-Qiao Liu, Mingyue Shen, Shao-Ping Nie, Jie-Lun Hu, Qiang Yu, Deming Gong, Ming-Yong Xie
The interleukin-6 (IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 signaling pathway regulates survival and proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells, and has profound impact on the tumorigenesis of colitis-associated cancer (CAC). Tea polysaccharides (TPS) is the major nutraceutical component isolated from tea-leaves and is known to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor bi-oactivities. Here, we investigated the antitumor activities of TPS on CAC using the azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) mouse model and IL-6-induced colorectal cancer cell line (CT26), and determined whether TPS exerted its antitumor effects through the IL-6/STAT3 pathway...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655682/pristimerin-a-naturally-occurring-triterpenoid-attenuates-tumorigenesis-in-experimental-colitis-associated-colon-cancer
#5
Ju-Hyung Park, Jin-Kyung Kim
BACKGROUND: Pristimerin is a quinonemethide triterpenoid with anti-cancer, anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-protozoal activity. However, the therapeutic role of pristimerin in colitis-associated colorectal carcinogenesis is unknown. PURPOSE: We sought to examine the therapeutic effects of pristimerin on colitis-associated colon cancer induced in mice using azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The goal was to identify the potential mechanism of action underlying the pharmacological activity of pristimerin...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651693/shredder-chironomid-diets-are-influenced-by-decomposition-rates-of-different-leaf-litter-species
#6
L A Leite-Rossi, H H L Saulino, E M Shimabukuro, M B Cunha-Santino, S Trivinho-Strixino
The diet of shredder chironomid larvae depends on the local and temporal conditions of the food resources. We analysed the gut content of shredder chironomid larvae that colonised the leaf litter of three riparian species: Hedychium coronarium, Pteridium arachnoideum and Magnolia ovata. We hypothesised that the differences in the decomposition rates of leaf litter species influence the consumption of plant tissue by shredder chironomid taxa over time. We incubated perforated bottles with each leaf species within four low-order streams during 1st, 3rd, 7th, 22nd, 36th, 55th and 85th day of exposure...
April 12, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629026/effect-of-vitamin-c-on-azoxymethane-aom-dextran-sulfate-sodium-dss-induced-colitis-associated-early-colon-cancer-in-mice
#7
Hee-Jin Jeon, Yiseul Yeom, Yoo-Sun Kim, Eunju Kim, Jae-Ho Shin, Pu Reum Seok, Moon Jea Woo, Yuri Kim
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin C on inflammation, tumor development, and dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota in an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced inflammation-associated early colon cancer mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS: Male BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with AOM [10 mg/kg body weight (b.w)] and given two 7-d cycles of 2% DSS drinking water with a 14 d inter-cycle interval...
April 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627547/implementation-of-uv-based-advanced-oxidation-processes-in-algal-medium-recycling
#8
Wenxuan Wang, Jun Sha, Zhiying Lu, Senlin Shao, Peizhe Sun, Qiang Hu, Xuezhi Zhang
Algae show great potential as sustainable feedstock for numerous bioproducts. However, large volume of water consumption during algal biomass production makes that the culture media recycling is a necessity due to economic and environmental concern. To avoid the negative effect of enriched organic matters in the harvested culture media, pre-treatment prior to medium replenishment and reuse is required. In this study, degradation of algenitic organic matters (AOM) in the culture media by UV-based photolysis processes (i...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625978/subgroup-characteristics-of-marine-methane-oxidizing-anme-2-archaea-and-their-syntrophic-partners-revealed-by-integrated-multimodal-analytical-microscopy
#9
Shawn E McGlynn, Grayson L Chadwick, Ariel O'Neill, Mason Mackey, Andrea Thor, Thomas J Deerinck, Mark H Ellisman, Victoria J Orphan
Phylogenetically diverse environmental ANME archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria cooperatively catalyze the anaerobic oxidation of methane oxidation (AOM) in multi-celled consortia within methane seep environments. To better understand these cells and their symbiotic associations, we applied a suite of electron microscopy approaches including correlative<u>f</u>luorescence <u>i</u> n<u>s</u>itu <u>h</u>ybridization -<u>e</u>lectron<u>m</u>icroscopy (FISH-EM),<u>t</u>ransmission<u>e</u>lectron<u>m</u>icroscopy (TEM), and<u>s</u>erial<u>b</u>lock face scanning<u>e</u>lectron<u>m</u>icroscopy 3D reconstructions (SBEM)...
April 6, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624877/electron-acceptors-for-anaerobic-oxidation-of-methane-drive-microbial-community-structure-and-diversity-in-mud-volcanoes
#10
Ge Ren, Anzhou Ma, Yanfen Zhang, Ye Deng, Guodong Zheng, Xuliang Zhuang, Guoqiang Zhuang, Danielle Fortin
Mud volcanoes (MVs) emit globally significant quantities of methane into the atmosphere, however, methane cycling in such environments is not yet fully understood, as the roles of microbes and their associated biogeochemical processes have been largely overlooked. Here, we used data from high-throughput sequencing of microbial 16S rRNA gene amplicons from six MVs in the Junggar Basin in northwest China to quantify patterns of diversity and characterize the community structure of archaea and bacteria. We found anaerobic methanotrophs and diverse sulfate- and iron-reducing microbes in all of the samples, and the diversity of both archaeal and bacterial communities was strongly linked to the concentrations of sulfate, iron, and nitrate, which could act as electron acceptors in anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM)...
April 6, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617959/reduction-in-all-cause-acute-otitis-media-in-children-less-than-three-years-of-age-in-primary-care-following-pneumococcal-vaccination-with-phid-cv10-a-whole-population-study
#11
Samúel Sigurðsson, Elias Eythorsson, Birgir Hrafnkelsson, Helga Erlendsdóttir, Karl G Kristinsson, Ásgeir Haraldsson
Background: The 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10) was introduced in Iceland in 2011, without catch-up. The aim of this study was to estimate vaccine impact on acute otitis media (AOM). Methods: In this whole-population study, all primary care visits due to AOM from 2005-2015 in children less than three years of age were included. Birth-cohorts were grouped as vaccine non-eligible (VNEC, 2005-2010) or vaccine eligible (VEC, 2011-2015). Crude incidence rates (IR) were compared between VNEC and VEC...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607498/1-l-mt-an-ido-inhibitor-prevented-colitis-associated-cancer-by-inducing-cdc20-inhibition-mediated-mitotic-death-of-colon-cancer-cells
#12
Xiuting Liu, Wei Zhou, Xin Zhang, Yang Ding, Qianming Du, Rong Hu
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), known as IDO, catabolizes tryptophan through kynurenine pathway, whose activity is correlated with impaired clinical outcome of colorectal cancer. Here we showed that 1-L-MT, a canonical IDO inhibitor, suppressed proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells through inducing mitotic death. Our results showed that inhibition of IDO decreased the transcription of CDC20, which resulted in G2/M cycle arrest of HCT-116 and HT-29. Furthermore, 1-L-MT induced mitochondria injuries and caused apoptotic cancer cells...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602106/enrichment-of-sulfate-reducing-anaerobic-methane-oxidizing-community-dominated-by-anme-1-from-ginsburg-mud-volcano-gulf-of-cadiz-sediment-in-a-biotrickling-filter
#13
Susma Bhattarai, Chiara Cassarini, Eldon R Rene, Yu Zhang, Giovanni Esposito, Piet N L Lens
This study was performed to enrich anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) present in sediment from the Ginsburg Mud Volcano (Gulf of Cadiz) in a polyurethane foam packed biotrickling filter (BTF). The BTF was operated at 20 (±2) °C, ambient pressure with continuous supply of methane for 248 days. Sulfate reduction with simultaneous sulfide production (accumulating ∼7 mM) after 200 days of BTF operation evidenced anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction. High-throughput sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that after 248 days of BTF operation, the ANME clades enriched to more than 50% of the archaeal sequences, including ANME-1b (40...
March 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601460/national-incidence-of-pediatric-mastoiditis-in-the-united-states-2000-2012-creating-a-baseline-for-public-health-surveillance
#14
Laura M King, Monina Bartoces, Adam L Hersh, Lauri A Hicks, Katherine E Fleming-Dutra
Between 2000-2012, the national estimated incidence rate of pediatric mastoiditis, a rare but serious complication of acute otitis media (AOM), was highest in 2006 (2.7 per 100,000 population) and lowest in 2012 (1.8 per 100,000 population). This measure provides a baseline for public health surveillance in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era as stewardship efforts target antibiotic use in AOM.
March 27, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595417/genotypic-characterization-of-haemophilus-influenzae-isolates-from-paediatric-patients-in-japan
#15
Yoko Adachi, Mariko Ando, Miyuki Morozumi, Kimiko Ubukata, Satoshi Iwata
PURPOSE: β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) Haemophilus influenzae is frequently isolated from respiratory samples and is particularly problematic in Japan. The aim of this study was to characterize circulating isolates of H. influenzae genotypically by BLNAR-PCR and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and to determine any associations between them. METHODS: H. influenzae isolates (n=191) were collected from paediatric patients (1 month to 12 years old) between 2000 and 2011 for three types of infections: pneumonia (n=61), acute otitis media (AOM) (n=68) and meningitis (n=62)...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588912/changes-over-time-in-nasopharyngeal-colonization-in-children-under-2-years-of-age-at-the-time-of-diagnosis-of-acute-otitis-media-1999-2014
#16
Judith M Martin, Alejandro Hoberman, Nader Shaikh, Timothy Shope, S Onika Bhatnagar, Stan L Block, Mary Ann Haralam, Marcia Kurs-Lasky, Michael Green
Background: In children with acute otitis media (AOM), a decrease in nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization with vaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae has been noted since the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). The purpose of this study is to describe corresponding changes in colonization with Haemophilus influenzae. Methods: In 4 separate studies, we obtained NP cultures from children aged 6-23 months presenting with AOM. Cohort 1 was recruited before routine use of PCV7 (1999-2000); 93% of children in cohort 2 (2003-2005) and 100% in cohort 3 (2006-2009) received ≥2 doses of PCV7...
March 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582643/chemopreventive-effects-of-edible-canna-canna-edulis-kerr-against-colorectal-carcinogenesis-effects-on-expression-of-adenomatous-polyposis-coli-and-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-rat-inflammatory-model
#17
Burhannudin, Nur Mahmudah, Sitarina Widyarini, Dewajani Purnomosari
Objective: Dietary high fibre and calcium intake has been suggested to reduce colorectal cancer risk. However, there is limited information available regarding the potential of edible canna (Ganyong), with high dietary fibre and calcium content, to act as a preventive agent for colorectal cancer. This experimental study was conducted to investigate the preventive effect of Ganyong in reducing colorectal carcinogenesis with attention to effects on adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression...
March 27, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580144/natural-dietary-compound-naringin-prevents-azoxymethane-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-chronic-colorectal-inflammation-and-carcinogenesis-in-mice
#18
Yu-Sheng Zhang, Feng Wang, Shu-Xiang Cui, Xian-Jun Qu
Naringin, a natural occurring flavonoid compound, enriches in citrus fruits. We aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of naringin on colitis and chronic inflammation-driven carcinogenesis. Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to AOM/DSS to induce colorectal inflammation and carcinogenesis. Naringin by oral administration prevented AOM/DSS-induced ulcerative colitis and carcinogenesis without significant side effects. Naringin attenuated the severity of colitis and colorectal adenomas through inhibiting myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), pro-inflammatory mediators GM-CSF/M-CSF, IL-6 and TNF-α and the NF-κB/IL-6/STAT3 cascades in colorectal tissues...
March 26, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575834/-effect-and-mechanism-of-antimicrobial-peptide-cathelicidin-secreted-by-tumor-associated-macrophage-on-the-growth-of-colorectal-cancer-in-mice
#19
W W Quan, X H Pan, J L Wu, Y W Yao, D Li
Objective: To investigate the effect and mechanism of the antibacterial peptide cathelicidin secreted by tumor associated macrophages on the growth of colorectal cancer in mice. Methods: Azoxymethane (AOM)/ dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) method was used to establish a mouse model of colitis associated colon cancer. To induce tumor formation, cathelicidin antibody, IgG antibody (positive control) or PBS (negative control) was respectively injected into mice once every 3 days and lasted one month. Then the pictures of mice colon were taken, and the numbers of tumor were counted and evaluated...
March 23, 2018: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561517/the-impact-of-clinical-pathways-on-antibiotic-prescribing-for-acute-otitis-media-and-pharyngitis-in-the-emergency-department
#20
Daniele Dona, Maura Baraldi, Giulia Brigadoi, Rebecca Lundin, Giorgio Perilongo, Rana F Hamdy, Theoklis Zaoutis, Liviana Da Dalt, Carlo Giaquinto
BACKGROUND: Although Italian pediatric antimicrobial prescription rates are among the highest in Europe, little action has been taken to improve the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescriptions. The primary aim of this study was to assess changes in antibiotic prescription before and after acute otitis media (AOM) and group A streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis Clinical Pathway (CP) implementation; secondary aims were to compare treatment failures and to assess change in the total antibiotics costs before and after CP implementation...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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