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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474258/etiology-of-acute-otitis-media-and-characterization-of-pneumococcal-isolates-after-introduction-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-japanese-children
#1
Kimiko Ubukata, Miyuki Morozumi, Megumi Sakuma, Misako Takata, Eriko Mokuno, Takeshi Tajima, Satoshi Iwata
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and antibiotic prescriptions. We examined etiologic changes in AOM after introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine as routine immunization for Japanese children in 2014. Serotypes, resistance genotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities, and multilocus sequence typing of pneumococcal isolates were also characterized. METHODS: Otolaryngologists prospectively collected middle ear fluid from 582 children by tympanocentesis or sampling through a spontaneously ruptured tympanic membrane between June 2016 and January 2017...
February 22, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468803/gene-expression-and-ultrastructure-of-meso-and-thermophilic-methanotrophic-consortia
#2
Viola Krukenberg, Dietmar Riedel, Harald R Gruber-Vodicka, Pier Luigi Buttigieg, Halina E Tegetmeyer, Antje Boetius, Gunter Wegener
The sulfate-dependent, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is an important sink for methane in marine environments. It is carried out between anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) living in syntrophic partnership. In this study, we compared the genomes, gene expression patterns and ultrastructures of three phylogenetically different microbial consortia found in hydrocarbon-rich environments under different temperature regimes: ANME-1a/HotSeep-1 (60°C), ANME-1a/Seep-SRB2 (37°C) and ANME-2c/Seep-SRB2 (20°C)...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464031/phospholipase-c%C3%AE-1-links-inflammation-and-tumorigenesis-in-colitis-associated-cancer
#3
Kwang-Il Park, Kwang-Youn Kim, Tae Woo Oh, Du-Seock Kang, Eung-Kyun Kim, Yong Ryoul Yang, Young-Kyo Seo, Jin-Yeul Ma, Pann-Ghill Suh
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Colorectal cancer is linked to inflammation and phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCγ1) is associated with tumorigenesis and the development of colorectal cancer; however, evidence of mechanisms connecting them remains unclear. The tight junctions (TJ), as intercellular junctional complexes, have an important role for integrity of the epithelial barrier to regulate the cellular permeability...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458340/a-microbiome-case-control-study-of-recurrent-acute-otitis-media-identified-potentially-protective-bacterial-genera
#4
Rachael Lappan, Kara Imbrogno, Chisha Sikazwe, Denise Anderson, Danny Mok, Harvey Coates, Shyan Vijayasekaran, Paul Bumbak, Christopher C Blyth, Sarra E Jamieson, Christopher S Peacock
BACKGROUND: Recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM, recurrent ear infection) is a common childhood disease caused by bacteria termed otopathogens, for which current treatments have limited effectiveness. Generic probiotic therapies have shown promise, but seem to lack specificity. We hypothesised that healthy children with no history of AOM carry protective commensal bacteria that could be translated into a specific probiotic therapy to break the cycle of re-infection. We characterised the nasopharyngeal microbiome of these children (controls) in comparison to children with rAOM (cases) to identify potentially protective bacteria...
February 20, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433203/physicochemical-and-nutraceutical-properties-of-moringa-moringa-oleifera-leaves-and-their-effects-in-an-in-vivo-aom-dss-induced-colorectal-carcinogenesis-model
#5
M L Cuellar-Nuñez, I Luzardo-Ocampo, R Campos-Vega, M A Gallegos-Corona, E González de Mejía, G Loarca-Piña
Moringa (Moringa oleifera) is a plant that has generated great interest in recent years because of its attributed medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to characterize the bioactive compounds of moringa leaves (MO) and evaluate their effect on a colorectal carcinogenesis model. Twenty-four male CD-1 mice were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 fed with basal diet (negative control/NC); Group 2 received AOM/DSS (positive control); Groups 3 and 4 were fed with basal diet supplemented with moringa leaves (2...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419930/stat1-is-a-sex-specific-tumor-suppressor-in-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer
#6
Ilija Crnčec, Madhura Modak, Claire Gordziel, Jasmin Svinka, Irene Scharf, Stefan Moritsch, Paulina Pathria, Michaela Schlederer, Lukas Kenner, Gerald Timelthaler, Mathias Müller, Birgit Strobl, Emilio Casanova, Editha Bayer, Thomas Mohr, Johannes Stöckl, Karlheinz Friedrich, Robert Eferl
The interferon-inducible transcription factor STAT1 is a tumor suppressor in various malignancies. We investigated sex-specific STAT1 functions in colitis and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CRC) using mice with specific STAT1 deletion in intestinal epithelial cells (STAT1 ∆ IEC ). Male but not female STAT1 ∆ IEC mice were more resistant to DSS-induced colitis than sex-matched STAT1 flox/flox controls and displayed reduced intraepithelial infiltration of CD8 + TCRαβ + Granzyme B + T cells. Moreover, DSS treatment failed to induce expression of T cell-attracting chemokines in intestinal epithelial cells of male but not of female STAT1 ∆ IEC mice...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419740/tea-polysaccharide-prevents-colitis-associated-carcinogenesis-in-mice-by-inhibiting-the-proliferation-and-invasion-of-tumor-cells
#7
Li-Qiao Liu, Hai-Shan Li, Shao-Ping Nie, Ming-Yue Shen, Jie-Lun Hu, Ming-Yong Xie
The imbalance between cell proliferation and apoptosis can lead to tumor progression, causing oncogenic transformation, abnormal cell proliferation and cell apoptosis suppression. Tea polysaccharide (TPS) is the major bioactive component in green tea, it has showed antioxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. In this study, the chemoprophylaxis effects of TPS on colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis, especially the cell apoptosis activation and inhibition effects on cell proliferation and invasion were analyzed...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416921/inhibition-of-rac-family-protein-impairs-colitis-and-colitis-associated-cancer-in-mice
#8
Yandong Guo, Jing Xiong, Jing Wang, Jing Wen, Fachao Zhi
The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has increased worldwide and IBD has been demonstrated to promote the development of colorectal cancer. The Rac family of proteins are involved in key mitogenic pathways. However, to the best of our knowledge, no prior studies have investigated the expression and role of Rac on colitis and colitis-associated cancer (CAC). In the current study, Rac expression in patients with colitis was analyzed according to the expression value from NCBI GEO database (GDS3268)...
2018: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406467/subtype-specific-clinical-presentation-medical-treatment-and-family-impact-of-influenza-in-children-one-to-five-years-of-age-treated-in-outpatient-practices-in-germany-during-three-post-pandemic-years-2013-2015
#9
Andrea Streng, Christiane Prifert, Benedikt Weissbrich, Andreas Sauerbrei, Ruprecht Schmidt-Ott, Johannes G Liese
BACKGROUND: Limited data on the influenza burden in pediatric outpatients are available, especially regarding direct comparison of the co-circulating (sub)types A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and B. METHODS: Children 1-5 years of age, unvaccinated against influenza and presenting with febrile acute respiratory infections (ARI), were enrolled in 33 paediatric practices in Germany from 2013-2015 (January-May). Influenza was confirmed by multiplex PCR from pharyngeal swabs and (sub)typed...
February 5, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406099/algal-removal-from-cyanobacteria-rich-waters-by-preoxidation-assisted-coagulation-flotation-effect-of-algogenic-organic-matter-release-on-algal-removal-and-trihalomethane-formation
#10
Jr-Lin Lin, Lap-Cuong Hua, Shih Kai Hung, Chihpin Huang
The cyanobacteria-bloom in raw waters frequently causes an unpredictable chemical dosing of preoxidation and coagulation for an effective removal of algal cells in water treatment plants. This study investigated the effects of preoxidation with NaOCl and ClO2 on the coagulation-flotation effectiveness in the removal of two commonly blooming cyanobacteria species, Microcystis aeruginosa (MA) and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (CR), and their corresponding trihalomethane (THM) formation potential. The results showed that dual dosing with NaOCl plus ClO2 was more effective in enhancing the deformation of cyanobacterial cells compared to single dosing with NaOCl, especially for CR-rich water...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404836/characterization-of-the-nasopharyngeal-and-middle-ear-microbiota-in-gastroesophageal-reflux-prone-versus-gastroesophageal-reflux-non-prone-children
#11
Stefan A Boers, Marjolein de Zeeuw, Ruud Jansen, Marc P van der Schroeff, Annemarie M C van Rossum, John P Hays, Suzanne J C Verhaegh
Otitis media (OM) is one of the most common pediatric infections worldwide, but the complex microbiology associated with OM is poorly understood. Previous studies have shown an association between OM and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in children. Therefore, in order to bridge the gap in our current understanding of the interaction between GER and OM, we investigated the nasopharyngeal and middle ear microbiota of children suffering from GER-associated OM and OM only, using culture-independent 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
February 5, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398506/international-consensus-icon-on-management-of-otitis-media-with-effusion-in-children
#12
F Simon, M Haggard, R M Rosenfeld, H Jia, S Peer, M-N Calmels, V Couloigner, N Teissier
Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a common childhood disease defined as the presence of liquid in the middle ear without signs or symptoms of acute ear infection. Children can be impacted mainly with hearing impairment and/or co-occurring recurrent acute otitis media (AOM) thus requiring treatment. Although many meta-analyses and national guidelines have been issued, management remains difficult to standardize, and use of surgical and medical treatments continue to vary. We convened an international consensus conference as part of the 2017 International Federation of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies Congress, to identify best practices in OME management...
February 2, 2018: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395516/haemophilus-influenzae-protein-d-specific-antibody-correlate-with-protection-against-acute-otitis-media-in-young-children
#13
Anthony Almudevar, Michael E Pichichero
BACKGROUND: Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) causes respiratory infections and pathogenesis of this microbe begins in the human nasopharynx (NP). The objective of this study was to assess the correlation of NP colonization-induced serum antibody levels to Hi protein D with risk of acute otitis media (AOM) in children <2 yr. METHODS: 455 sera from 213 children (age 6-24 months old) were collected when they were colonized with Hi and when the children developed AOM...
January 26, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389873/impact-of-the-interaction-between-aquatic-humic-substances-and-algal-organic-matter-on-the-fouling-of-a-ceramic-microfiltration-membrane
#14
Xiaolei Zhang, Linhua Fan, Felicity A Roddick
The influence of the interaction between aquatic humic substances and the algal organic matter (AOM) derived from Microcystis aeruginosa on the fouling of a ceramic microfiltration (MF) membrane was studied. AOM alone resulted in a significantly greater flux decline compared with Suwannee River humic acid (HA), and fulvic acid (FA). The mixture of AOM with HA and FA exhibited a similar flux pattern as the AOM alone in the single-cycle filtration tests, indicating the flux decline may be predominantly controlled by the AOM in the early filtration cycles...
February 1, 2018: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371667/distinct-distribution-patterns-of-ammonia-oxidizing-archaea-and-bacteria-in-sediment-and-water-column-of-the-yellow-river-estuary
#15
Mingcong Li, Guangshan Wei, Wenchong Shi, Zhongtao Sun, Han Li, Xiaoyun Wang, Zheng Gao
Ammonia oxidation is a critical process of estuarine nitrogen cycling involving ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB). However, the distribution patterns of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (AOMs) between different habitats in the same area remain unclear. The present study investigated the AOMs' abundance and community compositions in both sediment and water habitats of the Yellow River estuary. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) revealed that AOA showed significant higher abundance than AOB both in sediment and water samples...
January 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361151/chemoprevention-of-colorectal-cancer-by-black-raspberry-anthocyanins-involved-the-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-and-sfrp2-demethylation
#16
Lili Chen, Bowen Jiang, Chunge Zhong, Jun Guo, Lihao Zhang, Teng Mu, Qiuhua Zhang, Xiuli Bi
Freeze-dried black raspberry powder is considered as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent. In this study, we fed AOM/DSS treated C57BL/6J mice with diet containing black raspberry anthocyanins for 12 weeks and this led to a reduction in colon carcinogenesis. These animals had consistently lower tumor multiplicity compared to AOM/DSS-treated mice not receiving BRB anthocyanins. In AOM/DSS-treated mice, the number of pathogenic bacteria, including Desulfovibriosp and Enterococcus spp, were increased significantly, whereas probiotics such as Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Lactobacillus were dramatically decreased, but BRB anthocyanins supplement could reverse this imbalance in gut microbiota...
January 19, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360088/the-adenoid-microbiome-in-recurrent-acute-otitis-media-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#17
Carolyn O Dirain, Rodrigo C Silva, William O Collins, Patrick J Antonelli
OBJECTIVE: To compare the microbial flora of adenoids from patients with recurrent acute otitis media (AOM) and patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was prospective and controlled. Adenoids were obtained from children undergoing adenoidectomy for recurrent AOM (n=7) or OSA (n=13). Specimens were processed for total deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) isolation. 16s DNA 454-pyrosequencing was performed on AOM (n=5) and OSA (n=5) specimens...
December 2017: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359094/ultra-high-contrast-retinal-display-system-for-single-photoreceptor-psychophysics
#18
Niklas Domdei, Lennart Domdei, Jenny L Reiniger, Michael Linden, Frank G Holz, Austin Roorda, Wolf M Harmening
Due to the enormous dynamic range of human photoreceptors in response to light, studying their visual function in the intact retina challenges the stimulation hardware, specifically with regard to the displayable luminance contrast. The adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) is an optical platform that focuses light to extremely small retinal extents, approaching the size of single photoreceptor cells. However, the current light modulation techniques produce spurious visible backgrounds which fundamentally limit experimental options...
January 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358665/anaerobic-methanotrophic-communities-thrive-in-deep-submarine-permafrost
#19
Matthias Winkel, Julia Mitzscherling, Pier P Overduin, Fabian Horn, Maria Winterfeld, Ruud Rijkers, Mikhail N Grigoriev, Christian Knoblauch, Kai Mangelsdorf, Dirk Wagner, Susanne Liebner
Thawing submarine permafrost is a source of methane to the subsurface biosphere. Methane oxidation in submarine permafrost sediments has been proposed, but the responsible microorganisms remain uncharacterized. We analyzed archaeal communities and identified distinct anaerobic methanotrophic assemblages of marine and terrestrial origin (ANME-2a/b, ANME-2d) both in frozen and completely thawed submarine permafrost sediments. Besides archaea potentially involved in anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) we found a large diversity of archaea mainly belonging to Bathyarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota...
January 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339414/assembly-of-methyl-coenzyme-m-reductase-in-the-methanogenic-archaeon-methanococcus-maripaludis
#20
Zhe Lyu, Chau-Wen Chou, Hao Shi, Liangliang Wang, Robel Ghebreab, Dennis Phillips, Yajun Yan, Evert C Duin, William B Whitman
Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) is a complex enzyme that catalyzes the final step in biological methanogenesis. To better understand its assembly, the recombinant MCR from the thermophile Methanothermococcus okinawensis (rMCRok) was expressed in the mesophile Methanococcus maripaludis The rMCRok was post-translationally modified correctly and contained McrD and the unique nickel tetrapyrrole coenzyme F430 Subunits of the native M. maripaludis (MCRmar) were largely absent, suggesting that the recombinant enzyme was formed by an assembly of co-transcribed subunits...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
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