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CoEnzyme A

Elham Mousavinejad, Mohammad Ali Ghaffari, Forough Riahi, Maryam Hajmohammadi, Zeinab Tiznobeyk, Masoumeh Mousavinejad
Antioxidants and oxidative stress can participate in pathobiochemical mechanisms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The aim was to identify the effects of early CoQ10 supplementation on oxidative stress in children with ASDs. Ninety children with ASDs were included in this study, based on DSM-IV criteria and using Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) scores. Concentrations of CoQ10 , MDA, total antioxidant status (TAS) assay, and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase or SOD and glutathione peroxidase or GPx) activity were determined in serum before and after 100 days of supportive therapy with CoQ10 at daily doses of 30 and 60 mg...
April 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Peter D Craggs, Stephane Mouilleron, Martin Rejzek, Cesira Chiara, Robert J Young, Robert A Field, Argyrides Argyrou, Luiz Pedro S de Carvalho
The biosynthetic pathway of peptidoglycan is essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We report here the acetyltransferase substrate specificity and catalytic mechanism of the bifunctional N-acetyltransferase/uridyltransferase from M. tuberculosis (GlmU). This enzyme is responsible for the final two steps of the synthesis of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, which is an essential precursor of peptidoglycan, from glucosamine-1-phosphate, acetyl coenzyme A and uridine-5'-triphosphate. GlmU utilizes requires ternary complex formation to transfer an acetyl from acetyl coenzyme A to glucosamine-1-phosphate to form N-acetylglucosmaine-1-phosphate...
April 23, 2018: Biochemistry
Wan Nuraini Wan Hasan, Kok-Yong Chin, James Jam Jolly, Norzana Abd Ghafar, Ima Nirwana Soelaiman
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a silent skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and destruction of skeletal microarchitecture, leading to an increased fracture risk. This occurs due to an imbalance in bone remodelling, whereby the rate of bone resorption is greater than bone formation. Mevalonate pathway, previously known to involve in cholesterol synthesis, is an important regulatory pathway for bone remodelling. OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to provide an overview of the relationship between mevalonate pathway and bone metabolism, as well as agents which act through this pathway to achieve their therapeutic potential...
April 23, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
R Jayashree, P A Nazeem, K Rekha, S Sreelatha, A Thulaseedharan, R Krishnakumar, R G Kala, M Vineetha, P Leda, U Jinu, P Venkatachalam
Natural rubber (cis-1, 4-polyisoprene) is being produced from bark laticifer cells of Hevea brasiliensis and the popular high latex yielding Indian rubber clones are easily prone to onset of tapping panel dryness syndrome (TPD) which is considered as a physiological syndrome affecting latex production either partially or completely. This report describes an efficient protocol for development of transgenic rubber plants by over-expression of 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl Co-enzyme A reductase 1 (hmgr1) gene which is considered as rate limiting factor for latex biosynthesis via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation...
April 13, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Longyi Lv, Weiguang Li, Jiyong Bian, Yang Yu, Donghui Li, Zejia Zheng
In order to explore whether the acidogenic phase and methanogenic phase could be separated vertically into a single-stage anaerobic reactor, a controlled double circulation (CDC) anaerobic reactor was proposed for treating traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wastewater in this study. The results showed that most of the organic pollutants and refractory were removed in the first reaction area where most of the amount of sludge existed. The organic acids were accumulated in the first reaction area, and larger specific methanogenic activity (SMA) and coenzyme F420 values were found in the second reaction area...
April 11, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Mariana Barros de Cerqueira E Silva, Caio Alexandre da Cruz Souza, Biane Oliveira Philadelpho, Mariana Mota Novais da Cunha, Fabiana Pacheco Reis Batista, Jaff Ribeiro da Silva, Janice Izabel Druzian, Marcelo Santos Castilho, Eduardo Maffud Cilli, Ederlan S Ferreira
Previous studies have shown that cowpea protein positively interferes with cholesterol metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the ability of the fraction containing peptides of <3 kDa, as well as that of the Gln-Asp-Phe (QDF) peptide, derived from cowpea β-vignin protein, to inhibit HMG-CoA reductase activity. We established isolation and chromatography procedures to effectively obtain the protein with a purity above 95%. In silico predictions were performed to identify peptide sequences capable of interacting with HMG-CoA reductase...
September 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Michele Silveira Coelho, Rosana Aparecida Manólio Soares-Freitas, José Alfredo Gomes Arêas, Eliezer Avila Gandra, Myriam de Las Mercedes Salas-Mellado
In previous studies, it has not been reported that protein isolated from chia interferes favorably with antibacterial activity, and reduces cholesterol synthesis. The objective of this study was to determine whether commonly used commercial microbial proteases can be utilized to generate chia protein-based antibacterial and hypocholesterolemic hydrolysates/peptides, considering the effects of protein extraction method. Alcalase, Flavourzyme and sequential Alcalase-Flavourzyme were used to produce hydrolysates from chia protein (CF), protein-rich fraction (PRF) and chia protein concentrates (CPC1 and CPC2)...
April 20, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Wilson R Sinclair, Jonathan H Shrimp, Thomas T Zengeya, Rhushikesh A Kulkarni, Julie M Garlick, Hans Luecke, Andrew J Worth, Ian A Blair, Nathaniel W Snyder, Jordan L Meier
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) play a central role in health and disease. One function of these signaling molecules is to serve as precursors for short chain fatty acylation, a class of metabolically-derived posttranslational modifications (PTMs) that are established by lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and lysine deacetylases (KDACs). Via this mechanism, short chain fatty acylation serves as an integrated reporter of metabolism as well as KAT and KDAC activity, and has the potential to illuminate the role of these processes in disease...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Joyce V Lee, Corbett T Berry, Karla Kim, Payel Sen, Taehyong Kim, Alessandro Carrer, Sophie Trefely, Steven Zhao, Sully Fernandez, Lauren E Barney, Alyssa D Schwartz, Shelly R Peyton, Nathaniel W Snyder, Shelley L Berger, Bruce D Freedman, Kathryn E Wellen
The metabolite acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is the required acetyl donor for lysine acetylation and thereby links metabolism, signaling, and epigenetics. Nutrient availability alters acetyl-CoA levels in cancer cells, correlating with changes in global histone acetylation and gene expression. However, the specific molecular mechanisms through which acetyl-CoA production impacts gene expression and its functional roles in promoting malignant phenotypes are poorly understood. Here, using histone H3 Lys27 acetylation (H3K27ac) ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation [ChIP] coupled with next-generation sequencing) with normalization to an exogenous reference genome (ChIP-Rx), we found that changes in acetyl-CoA abundance trigger site-specific regulation of H3K27ac, correlating with gene expression as opposed to uniformly modulating this mark at all genes...
April 19, 2018: Genes & Development
Dan Wang, Deying Chen, Jiong Yu, Jingqi Liu, Xiaowei Shi, Yanni Sun, Qiaoling Pan, Xian Luo, Jinfeng Yang, Yang Li, Hongcui Cao, Liang Li, Lanjuan Li
The placenta resides in a physiologically low oxygen microenvironment of the body. Hypoxia induces a wide range of stem cell cellular activities. Here, we report a workflow for exploring the role of physiological (hypoxic, 5% oxygen) and original cell culture (normoxic, 21% oxygen) oxygen concentrations in regulating the metabolic status of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs). The general biological characteristics of hPMSCs were assessed via a variety of approaches such as cell counts, flow cytometry and differentiation study...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Medhat Wahba Shafaa, Amany Hasan Elshazly, Amira Zaki Dakrory, Maha Reda Elsyed
Purpose: To stress the influence of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on the structural properties of liposomes as model membranes and to investigate the possible role of CoQ10 or CoQ10 doped in liposomes when topically instilled as eye drops, in preventing cataract. Methods: The molecular interaction between liposomes and Coenzyme Q10 was examined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Rat pups were randomly divided into six groups comprising 15 pups. Group (1), control group...
March 2018: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Ken'ichiro Matsumoto, Midori Iijima, Chiaki Hori, Camila Utsunomia, Toshihiko Ooi, Seiichi Taguchi
Engineered D-lactyl-coenzyme A (LA-CoA)-polymerizing polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (PhaC1PsSTQK) efficiently produces poly(lactate-co-3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(LA-co-3HB]) copolymer in recombinant Escherichia coli, while synthesizing tiny amounts of poly(lactate) (PLA)-like polymers in recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the interesting phenomena, in vitro analysis of PhaC1PsSTQK was performed using homo- and co-polymerization conditions of LA-CoA and 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA...
April 18, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Lin Liang, Jung Hur, Ji Young Kang, Chin Kook Rhee, Young Kyoon Kim, Sook Young Lee
Background/Aims: The co-occurrence of obesity aggravates asthma symptoms. Diet-induced obesity increases helper T cell (TH) 17 cell differentiation in adipose tissue and the spleen. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor pravastatin can potentially be used to treat asthma in obese patients by inhibiting interleukin 17 (IL-17) expression. This study investigated the combined effects of pravastatin and anti-IL-17 antibody treatment on allergic inflammation in a mouse model of obesity-related asthma...
April 19, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Emil List Larsen, Lucia Padella, Helle Kirstine Mørup Bergholdt, Trine Henriksen, Lucia Santoro, Orazio Gabrielli, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Gian Paolo Littarru, Patrick Orlando, Luca Tiano
Elevated levels of oxidative nucleic acid modifications have been proposed to be associated with some of the clinical characteristics of Down syndrome. Oral intake of coenzyme Q10 improves oxidative status and shows a tendency toward protective effect on DNA oxidation in certain age groups of children with Down syndrome. Here, we demonstrate that long-term (i.e., 4 years) treatment with coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone) at the dosage of 4 mg/kg/d does not affect whole body DNA and RNA oxidation.
March 15, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Vladlena I Zozina, Serghei Covantev, Olga A Goroshko, Liudmila M Krasnykh, Vladimir G Kukes
The burden of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases is increasing with every year. Although the management of these conditions has improved greatly over the years it is still far from perfect. With all of this in mind, there is a need for new methods of prophylaxis and treatment. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an essential compound of the human body. There is growing evidence that CoQ10 is tightly linked to cardiometabolic disorders. Its supplementation can be useful in a variety of chronic and acute disorders. This review analyses the role of CoQ10 in hypertension, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, heart failure, viral myocarditis, cardiomyopathies, cardiac toxicity, dyslipidemia, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cardiac procedures and resuscitation...
April 15, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Mijung Yeom, Jinhee Park, Bombi Lee, Hyang Sook Lee, Hi-Joon Park, Ran Won, Hyejung Lee, Dae-Hyun Hahm
AIMS: Acupuncture, particularly electroacupuncture (EA) has been shown to have the lipid-lowering effects, but not completely investigated. The present study was aimed to examine whether EA could attenuate poloxamer-407 (P-407)-induced hyperlipidemia in the rats and to investigate its potential mechanisms. MAIN METHODS: Rats received P-407 (0.4 g/kg, i.p.) to induce hyperlipidemia. EA was performed at ST36 and ST40 acupoints a total of three times with 12 h-interval starting 1 h before the P-407 injection at 0...
April 13, 2018: Life Sciences
Laura Gómez-Consarnau, Rohan Sachdeva, Scott M Gifford, Lynda S Cutter, Jed A Fuhrman, Sergio A Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Mary Ann Moran
Aquatic environments contain large communities of microorganisms whose synergistic interactions mediate the cycling of major and trace nutrients, including vitamins. B-vitamins are essential coenzymes that many organisms cannot synthesize. Thus their exchange among de-novo synthesizers and auxotrophs is expected to play an important role in the microbial consortia and explain some of the temporal and spatial changes observed in diversity. In this study, we analyzed metatranscriptomes of a natural marine coastal microbial community, diel sampled quarterly over one year to try to identify the potential major B-vitamin synthesizers and consumers...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Feng Chen, Joan J Soldevila-Barreda, Isolda Romero-Canelón, James P C Coverdale, Ji-Inn Song, Guy J Clarkson, Jana Kasparkova, Abraha Habtemariam, Viktor Brabec, Juliusz A Wolny, Volker Schünemann, Peter J Sadler
A series of neutral pseudo-octahedral RuII sulfonamidoethylenediamine complexes [(η6-p-cym)Ru(N,N')Cl] where N,N' is N-(2-(R1,R2-amino)ethyl)-4-toluenesulfonamide (TsEn(R1,R2)) R1,R2 = Me,H (1); Me,Me (2); Et,H (3); benzyl,H (Bz, 4); 4-fluorobenzyl,H (4-F-Bz, 5) or naphthalen-2-ylmethyl,H (Naph, 6), were synthesised and characterised including the X-ray crystal structure of 3. These complexes catalyse the reduction of NAD+ regioselectively to 1,4-NADH by using formate as the hydride source. The catalytic efficiency depends markedly on the steric and electronic effects of the N-substitutent, with turnover frequencies (TOFs) increasing in the order: 1 < 2 < 3, 6 < 4, 5, achieving a TOF of 7...
April 13, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
M Kaci, A Belhaffef, S Meziane, G Dostert, P Menu, É Velot, S Desobry, E Arab-Tehrany
Emulsion-based delivery systems have been developed to increase the topical bioavailability of lipophilic active compounds within skin membrane. The aim was to develop nanoemulsion from natural sources (rapeseed oil) with the same sources of pure phospholipids (lecithin) rich on mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids for encapsulation of hydrophobic antioxidant (Coenzyme Q10 ) giving nanoemulsion with double functionality. Nanoemulsions were used for cream preparation using xanthan gum and carboxylmethylcellulose as texturizing agents...
April 5, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Cheng-Yin Yu, Gang-Yi Liu, Xiao-Hui Liu, Yu-Zhou Gui, Hai-Ming Liu, Hong-Chao Zheng, Darek C Gorecki, Asmita V Patel, Chen Yu, Yi-Ping Wang
Berberine8998 is a newly synthesized berberine derivative with better lipid-lowering activity and improved absorption. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of berberine8998 on serum cholesterol and lipid levels in vivo and to examine the mechanisms involved. Hamsters on high-fat diet (HFD) were administered berberine or berberine8998 (50 mg·kg-1 ·d-1 , ig) for 3 weeks. Berberine8998 administration significantly lowered the total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C levels in HFD hamsters...
April 12, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
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