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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089883/identification-and-characterization-of-a-pyridoxal-5-phosphate-phosphatase-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#1
ShuoHao Huang, CaiYun Han, ZhenQiao Ma, Jie Zhou, JianYun Zhang, LongQuan Huang
Vitamin B6 comprises six interconvertible pyridine compounds, among which pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is a coenzyme for over 140 enzymes. PLP is also a very reactive aldehyde. The most well established mechanism for maintaining low levels of free PLP is its dephosphorylation by phosphatases. A human PLP-specific phosphatase has been identified and characterized. However, very little is known about the phosphatase in other living organisms. In this study, a cDNA clone of putative PLP phosphatase was identified from B...
January 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074850/juvenile-hormone-biosynthesis-in-adult-blattella-germanica-requires-nuclear-receptors-seven-up-and-ftz-f1
#2
Ferran Borras-Castells, Claudia Nieva, José L Maestro, Oscar Maestro, Xavier Belles, David Martín
In insects, the transition from juvenile development to the adult stage is controlled by juvenile hormone (JH) synthesized from the corpora allata (CA) glands. Whereas a JH-free period during the last juvenile instar triggers metamorphosis and the end of the growth period, the reappearance of this hormone after the imaginal molt marks the onset of reproductive adulthood. Despite the importance of such transition, the regulatory mechanism that controls it remains mostly unknown. Here, using the hemimetabolous insect Blattella germanica, we show that nuclear hormone receptors Seven-up-B (BgSvp-B) and Fushi tarazu-factor 1 (BgFTZ-F1) have essential roles in the tissue- and stage-specific activation of adult CA JH-biosynthetic activity...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074262/activated-microglia-induce-the-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species-and-promote-apoptosis-of-co-cultured-retinal-microvascular-pericytes
#3
Xinyi Ding, Meng Zhang, Ruiping Gu, Gezhi Xu, Haixiang Wu
PURPOSE: Pericyte apoptosis is a predominant feature of early diabetic retinopathy. In diabetic retinopathy, activated microglia migrate and release proinflammatory cytokines that contribute to disruption of the blood-retinal barrier, neuronal loss, and enhanced ROS production. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in pericyte death; however, the mechanism by which activated microglia affect retinal microvascular pericytes is unclear. We hypothesized that activated microglia may promote pericyte apoptosis by enhancing ROS production...
January 10, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073944/a-novel-bifunctional-transcriptional-regulator-of-riboflavin-metabolism-in-archaea
#4
Irina A Rodionova, Matthew W Vetting, Xiaoqing Li, Steven C Almo, Andrei L Osterman, Dmitry A Rodionov
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is the precursor of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide, which are essential coenzymes in all free-living organisms. Riboflavin biosynthesis in many Bacteria but not in Archaea is controlled by FMN-responsive riboswitches. We identified a novel bifunctional riboflavin kinase/regulator (RbkR), which controls riboflavin biosynthesis and transport genes in major lineages of Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. RbkR proteins are composed of the riboflavin kinase domain and a DNA-binding winged helix-turn-helix-like domain...
January 9, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073026/the-role-of-visfatin-in-atherosclerotic-peripheral-arterial-obstructive-disease
#5
Matthaios G Pitoulias, Lemonia Skoura, Apostolos G Pitoulias, Dimitris Chatzidimitriou, Apostolia Margariti, Minas Arsenakis, Georgios A Pitoulias
Visfatin is an adipokine molecule acting as an essential coenzyme in multiple cellular redox reactions. The increased serum levels of Visfatin have been correlated with metabolic syndrome and endothelial homeostasis. In this study we investigate the possible relationship of Visfatin serum levels with the severity and location of atherosclerotic peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Study protocol included 45 consecutive PAOD and 20 Control patients with age >55years old. Definition of PAOD was based in Rutherord's classification (RC)...
January 7, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072529/correlation-between-the-structure-and-catalytic-activity-of-cp-rh-substituted-bipyridine-complexes-for-nadh-regeneration
#6
Vinothkumar Ganesan, Dharmalingam Sivanesan, Sungho Yoon
A series of water-soluble half-sandwich [Cp*Rh(III)(N^N)Cl](+) (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadiene, N^N-substituted 2,2'-bipyridine) complexes containing electron-donating substituents around the 2,2'-bipyridyl ligand were synthesized and fully characterized for the regioselective reduction of nicotinamide coenzyme (NAD(+)). The influence of the positional effect of the substituents on the structural, electrochemical, and catalytic properties of the catalyst was systematically studied in detail. The catalytic efficiency of the substituted bipyridine Cp*Rh(III) complexes are inversely correlated with their redox potentials...
January 10, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070562/biological-and-chemical-adaptation-to-endogenous-hydrogen-peroxide-production-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-d39
#7
John P Lisher, Ho-Ching Tiffany Tsui, Smirla Ramos-Montañez, Kristy L Hentchel, Julia E Martin, Jonathan C Trinidad, Malcolm E Winkler, David P Giedroc
The catalase-negative, facultative anaerobe Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 is naturally resistant to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced endogenously by pyruvate oxidase (SpxB). Here, we investigate the adaptive response to endogenously produced H2O2. We show that lactate oxidase, which converts lactate to pyruvate, positively impacts pyruvate flux through SpxB and that ΔlctO mutants produce significantly lower H2O2. In addition, both the SpxB pathway and a candidate pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) pathway contribute to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) production during aerobic growth, and the pyruvate format lyase (PFL) pathway is the major acetyl-CoA pathway during anaerobic growth...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069670/the-acyl-desaturase-cer17-is-involved-in-producing-wax-unsaturated-primary-alcohols-and-cutin-monomers
#8
Xianpeng Yang, Huayan Zhao, Dylan K Kosma, Pernell Tomasi, John M Dyer, Rong-Jun Li, Xiulin Liu, Zhouya Wang, Eugene P Parsons, Matthew A Jenks, Shiyou Lu
We report n-6 monounsaturated primary alcohols (C26:1, C28:1, and C30:1 homologues) in the cuticular waxes of Arabidopsis inflorescence stem, a class of wax not previously reported in Arabidopsis. The Arabidopsis cer17 mutant was completely deficient in these monounsaturated alcohols, and CER17 was found to encode a predicted ACYL-COENZYME A DESATURASE LIKE4 (ADS4). Studies of the Arabidopsis cer4 mutant, and yeast variously expressing CER4 (a predicted fatty acyl-CoA reductase) with CER17/ADS4, demonstrated CER4's principal role in synthesis of these monounsaturated alcohols...
January 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066895/anti-hmgcr-necrotizing-myopathy-masquerading-as-a-muscular-dystrophy-in-a-child
#9
Payam Mohassel, A Reghan Foley, Sandra Donkervoort, Pierre R Fequiere, Katherine Pak, Carsten G Bönnemann, Andrew L Mammen
INTRODUCTION: Immune-mediated necrotizing myopathies (IMNM) are characterized by progressive weakness, elevated serum creatine kinase levels, and necrotizing myopathic features on muscle biopsy. Presence of highly specific autoantibodies against signal recognition particle (SRP) or 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl- coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) can aid in recognition and confirmation of IMNMs. METHODS: We describe a boy with HMGCR-positive necrotizing myopathy and highlight the clinical features in this patient...
January 9, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060825/enhanced-activities-of-blood-thiamine-diphosphatase-and-monophosphatase-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Xiaoli Pan, Shaoming Sang, Guoqiang Fei, Lirong Jin, Huimin Liu, Zhiliang Wang, Hui Wang, Chunjiu Zhong
BACKGROUND: Thiamine metabolites and activities of thiamine-dependent enzymes are impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: To clarify the mechanism for the reduction of thiamine diphosphate (TDP), an active form of thiamine and critical coenzyme of glucose metabolism, in AD. METHODS: Forty-five AD patients clinically diagnosed and 38 age- and gender-matched control subjects without dementia were voluntarily recruited. The contents of blood TDP, thiamine monophosphate (TMP), and thiamine, as well as the activities of thiamine diphosphatase (TDPase), thiamine monophosphatase (TMPase), and thiamine pyrophosphokinase (TPK), were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060484/a-highly-promiscuous-%C3%A3-ketoacyl-acp-synthase-kas-iii-like-protein-is-involved-in-pactamycin-biosynthesis
#11
Mostafa E Abugrain, Corey J Brumsted, Andrew R Osborn, Benjamin Philmus, Taifo Mahmud
β-Ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (β-Ketoacyl-ACP) synthase (KAS) III catalyzes the first step in fatty acid biosynthesis, involving a Claisen condensation of the acetyl-CoA starter unit with the first extender unit, malonyl-ACP, to form acetoacetyl-ACP. KAS III-like proteins have also been reported to catalyze acyltransferase reactions using coenzyme A esters or discrete ACP-bound substrates. Here, we report the in vivo and in vitro characterizations of a KAS III-like protein (PtmR), which directly transfers a 6-methylsalicylyl moiety from an iterative type I polyketide synthase to an aminocyclopentitol unit in pactamycin biosynthesis...
January 12, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059521/conformational-entropy-from-nmr-relaxation-in-proteins-the-srls-perspective
#12
Oren Tchaicheeyan, Eva Meirovitch
Conformational entropy changes associated with bond-vector motions in proteins contribute to the free energy of ligand binding. To derive such contributions we apply the slowly relaxing local structure (SRLS) approach to NMR relaxation from (15)N-H bonds or C-CDH2 moieties of several proteins in free and ligand-bound form. The spatial restraints on probe motion, which determine the extent of local order, are expressed in SRLS by a potential, u(θ). The latter yields the orientational probability density, Peq = exp(-u(θ)), hence the related conformational entropy, Š=-∫Peq(θ) ln⁡[Peq(<it>θ</it>)]sin<it>⁡θ</it> d<it>θ</it> (Š is "entropy" in units of kBT, and θ represents the bond-vector orientation in the protein)...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058114/protective-effects-of-co-enzyme-q10-on-thioacetamide-induced-acute-liver-damage-and-its-correlation-with-behavioral-biochemical-and-pathological-factors
#13
Soheil Ashkani-Esfahani, Fereshteh Bagheri, Yasaman Emami, Elmira Esmaeilzadeh, Negar Azarpira, Nazila Hassanabadi, Marzieh Keshtkar, Mojtaba Farjam, Omid Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Ali Noorafshan
BACKGROUND: Acute liver damage may be followed by biochemical, behavioral, and pathological alterations, which can result in serious complications and even death. OBJECTIVES: In this experimental study we determined whether coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a common supplementary medicine known to have protective, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects in cells, has any protective effect against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver damage and its related neurobehavioral alterations in rats...
August 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054958/coenzyme-q10-and-oxidative-stress-inflammation-status-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients-after-surgery
#14
Hsiao-Tien Liu, Shao-Bin Cheng, Yi-Chia Huang, Yin-Tzu Huang, Ping-Ting Lin
(1) Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, and surgical resection is the main treatment for HCC. To date, no published study has examined the status of coenzyme Q10 in patients with HCC after surgery. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations between the level of coenzyme Q10, oxidative stress, and inflammation in patients with HCC after surgery; (2) Methods: 71 primary HCC patients were recruited. Levels of coenzyme Q10, vitamin E, oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), antioxidant enzymes activity (superoxidase dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase), and inflammatory markers (high sensitivity C-reactive protein; tumor necrosis factor-α; and interleukin-6) were measured; (3) Results: Patients with HCC had a significantly lower levels of coenzyme Q10 (p = 0...
January 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053052/erk-activation-and-autophagy-impairment-are-central-mediators-of-irinotecan-induced-steatohepatitis
#15
Abdo Mahli, Michael Saugspier, Andreas Koch, Judith Sommer, Peter Dietrich, Seren Lee, Reinhard Thasler, Jan Schulze-Luehrmann, Anja Luehrmann, Wolfgang Erwin Thasler, Martina Müller, Anja Bosserhoff, Claus Hellerbrand
OBJECTIVE: Preoperative chemotherapy with irinotecan is associated with the development of steatohepatitis, which increases the risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality for liver surgery. The molecular mechanisms of this chemotherapeutic complication are widely unknown. DESIGN: Mechanisms of irinotecan-induced steatohepatitis were studied in primary human hepatocytes in vitro, in mice treated with irinotecan and in liver specimens from irinotecan-treated compared with control patients...
January 4, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050757/implication-of-nrf2-ho-1-pathway-in-the-coloprotective-effect-of-coenzyme-q10-against-experimentally-induced-ulcerative-colitis
#16
Ahmed E Khodir, Hoda Atef, Eman Said, Hassan A ElKashef, Hatem A Salem
PURPOSE: Given the increased incidence of ulcerative colitis worldwide, the current study was designed to investigate the coloprotective potential of CoQ10 against experimentally induced ulcerative colitis (UC) and specify the implicated mechanisms. METHODS: Ulcerative colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of [2 ml, 3% v/v acetic acid (AA)]. Rats in the different experimental groups received CoQ10 (10 or 30 and 100 mg/kg, orally) for eight consecutive days, either in a protective or curative regimen...
January 3, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049838/insights-into-the-lifestyle-of-uncultured-bacterial-natural-product-factories-associated-with-marine-sponges
#17
Gerald Lackner, Eike Edzard Peters, Eric J N Helfrich, Jörn Piel
The as-yet uncultured filamentous bacteria "Candidatus Entotheonella factor" and "Candidatus Entotheonella gemina" live associated with the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei Y, the source of numerous unusual bioactive natural products. Belonging to the proposed candidate phylum "Tectomicrobia," Candidatus Entotheonella members are only distantly related to any cultivated organism. The Ca E. factor has been identified as the source of almost all polyketide and modified peptides families reported from the sponge host, and both Ca Entotheonella phylotypes contain numerous additional genes for as-yet unknown metabolites...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047568/we-fg-bra-12-research-work-of-the-radio-dynamic-treatment-mechanism
#18
Quanshi Zhang, Q Y Sun, G P Xiao, J Zeng, L Wang, L L Chen, C M C Ma
PURPOSE: The finite penetration depth of Laser light has limited clinical applications for PDT. This present work investigates the activation of photosensitizers using Cerenkov light emission from 45MV photon beams produced in an LA45 cancer therapy accelerator. We have named this new treatment technique Radio-Dynamic Therapy (RDT). METHODS: Monte Carlo simulations were made on various Cerenkov emission energies and their spectroscopy in excited target areas in order to estimate their photosensitizer inner activation efficiency...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043624/new-insights-into-the-mechanism-of-action-of-pyrazinamide-implications-for-susceptibility-testing-and-future-regimens
#19
Richard M Anthony, Alice den Hertog, Mikael Mansjö, Jim Werngren
Pyrazinamide (PZA) is included in the 2016 World Health Organization multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment guidelines and is a key component of most ongoing clinical trials investigating novel antibiotic combinations. PZA resistance is associated with worse tuberculosis treatment outcomes. Unfortunately, for such an important drug, phenotypic susceptibility testing is extremely challenging. The exacting bacterial growth conditions required to induce susceptibility to the drug reduce the accuracy of the susceptibility assay, even in experienced laboratories, and widespread testing is not performed...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042946/improvement-of-de-novo-cholesterol-biosynthesis-efficiently-promotes-the-production-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-derived-lentiviral-vectors
#20
Nathalie Holic, Sophie Frin, Ababacar Khalil Seye, Anne Galy, David Fenard
The use of lentiviral vectors (LVs) for gene transfer in research, technological or clinical applications requires the production of large amount of vectors. Mass production of clinical grade LVs remains a challenge and limits certain perspectives for therapeutic use. Some improvements in LV production protocols have been possible by acting on multiple steps of the production process. The addition of animal-derived cholesterol in culture medium of producer cells is known to increase the infectivity of LVs. To avoid the use of this animal derived product in clinical settings, an alternative approach is to increase de novo the production of cholesterol by overexpressing a crucial cholesterogenic enzyme, namely the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR)...
January 2, 2017: Human Gene Therapy Methods
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