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CoEnzyme A

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822689/cholesterol-lowering-gene-therapy-counteracts-the-development-of-non-ischemic-cardiomyopathy-in-mice
#1
Ilayaraja Muthuramu, Ruhul Amin, Andrey Postnov, Mudit Mishra, Joseph Pierre Aboumsallem, Tom Dresselaers, Uwe Himmelreich, Paul P Van Veldhoven, Olivier Gheysens, Frank Jacobs, Bart De Geest
A causal role of hypercholesterolemia in non-ischemic heart failure has never been demonstrated. Adeno-associated viral serotype 8 (AAV8)-low-density lipoprotein receptor (AAV8-LDLr) gene transfer was performed in LDLr-deficient mice without and with pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). AAV8-LDLr gene therapy resulted in an 82.8% (p < 0.0001) reduction of plasma cholesterol compared with controls. Mortality rate was lower (p < 0.05) in AAV8-LDLr TAC mice compared with control TAC mice (hazard ratio for mortality 0...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820737/when-one-disease-is-not-enough-succinyl-coa-3-oxoacid-coenzyme-a-transferase-scot-deficiency-due-to-a-novel-mutation-in-oxct1-in-an-infant-with-known-phenylketonuria
#2
Jan-Niclas Schwade, Matthias Endmann, Thomas Hofmann, Stephan Rust, Jörn Oliver Sass, Frank Rutsch
A 9-month-old Turkish girl was admitted several times within 3 months to the hospital in reduced general condition and with extreme tachypnea. The patient had been diagnosed with phenylketonuria (PKU) in newborn screening and has been treated with a low phenylalanine diet and amino acid supplements. Each time an unexplained pronounced metabolic acidosis was noted, and the child was treated with sodium-bicarbonate and glucose-electrolyte infusions. The acidosis with only slightly abnormal glucose, normal lactate levels and pronounced ketonuria suggested a defect in ketone body utilization...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820290/local-histone-acetylation-by-acss2-promotes-gene-transcription-for-lysosomal-biogenesis-and-autophagy
#3
Xinjian Li, Xu Qian, Zhimin Lu
Overcoming metabolic stress is a critical step in tumorigenesis. Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) converted from glucose or acetate is a substrate used for histone acetylation to regulate gene expression. However, how acetyl-CoA is produced under nutritional stress conditions is unclear. Herein we report that nutritional stress induces nuclear translocation of ACSS2 (acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2). This translocation is mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent ACSS2 Ser659 phosphorylation and subsequent exposure of the nuclear localization signal of ACSS2 to KPNA1/importin α5 for binding...
August 18, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819877/engineering-of-escherichia-coli-for-the-synthesis-of-n-hydroxycinnamoyl-tryptamine-and-serotonin
#4
Su Jin Lee, Geun-Young Sim, Youngshim Lee, Bong-Gyu Kim, Joong-Hoon Ahn
Plants synthesize various phenol amides. Among them, hydroxycinnamoyl (HC) tryptamines and serotonins exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherogenic activities. We synthesized HC-tryptamines and HC-serotonin from several HCs and either tryptamine or serotonin using Escherichia coli harboring the 4CL (4-coumaroyl CoA ligase) and CaHCTT [hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme A:serotonin N-(hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase] genes. E. coli was engineered to synthesize N-cinnamoyl tryptamine from glucose. TDC (tryptophan decarboxylase) and PAL (phenylalanine ammonia lyase) along with 4CL and CaHCTT were introduced into E...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818947/methanogenic-heterodisulfide-reductase-hdrabc-mvhagd-uses-two-noncubane-4fe-4s-clusters-for-reduction
#5
Tristan Wagner, Jürgen Koch, Ulrich Ermler, Seigo Shima
In methanogenic archaea, the carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation and methane-forming steps are linked through the heterodisulfide reductase (HdrABC)-[NiFe]-hydrogenase (MvhAGD) complex that uses flavin-based electron bifurcation to reduce ferredoxin and the heterodisulfide of coenzymes M and B. Here, we present the structure of the native heterododecameric HdrABC-MvhAGD complex at 2.15-angstrom resolution. HdrB contains two noncubane [4Fe-4S] clusters composed of fused [3Fe-4S]-[2Fe-2S] units sharing 1 iron (Fe) and 1 sulfur (S), which were coordinated at the CCG motifs...
August 18, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818673/1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-induces-brain-proteomic-changes-in-cuprizone-mice-during-remyelination-involving-calcium-proteins
#6
Eystein Oveland, Agnes Nystad, Frode Berven, Kjell-Morten Myhr, Øivind Torkildsen, Stig Wergeland
Dietary supplementation of vitamin D is commonly recommended to patients with multiple sclerosis. We recently found that high-dose of the hormonally active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 (1,25D) promotes myelin repair in the cuprizone model for de- and remyelination. In the present study, we quantified 5062 proteins, of which 125 were differentially regulated in brain tissue from 1,25D treated mice during remyelination, compared to placebo. Proteins upregulated in the early remyelination phase were involved in calcium binding, e...
August 14, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817657/metaproteomics-analysis-of-the-functional-insights-into-microbial-communities-of-combined-hydrogen-and-methane-production-by-anaerobic-fermentation-from-reed-straw
#7
Xuan Jia, Bei-Dou Xi, Ming-Xiao Li, Yang Yang, Yong Wang
A metaproteomic approach was used to analyse the proteins expressed and provide functional evidence of key metabolic pathways in the combined production of hydrogen and methane by anaerobic fermentation (CHMP-AF) for reed straw utilisation. The functions and structures of bacteria and archaea populations show significant succession in the CHMP-AF process. There are many kinds of bacterial functional proteins, mainly belonging to phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, that are involved in carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816577/coenzyme-q10-inhibits-th17-and-stat3-signaling-pathways-to-ameliorate-colitis-in-mice
#8
Seon-Yeong Lee, Seung Hoon Lee, Eun-Ji Yang, Jae-Kyung Kim, Eun-Kyung Kim, KyungAh Jung, Hongsoon Jung, Kyungjin Lee, Han Hee Lee, Bo-In Lee, Sung-Hwan Park, Dong Yun Shin, Mi-La Cho
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a powerful antioxidant substance synthesized in the body. The current study aimed to determine whether CoQ10 suppresses inflammation and inhibits p-STAT3 expression in an experimental colitis mouse model. The mice were orally fed with CoQ10 once a day for 13 days. Histological analysis of the colons was performed by immunohistochemistry. Expression of IL-17, FOXP3, p53, AMPK, and mTOR and activation of p-STAT3 and p-STAT5 in lymph node and spleen tissues were detected by confocal microscopy of stained tissue sections...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811612/coenzyme-q10-improves-lipid-metabolism-and-ameliorates-obesity-by-regulating-camkii-mediated-pde4-inhibition
#9
Zhe Xu, Jia Huo, Xin Ding, Mu Yang, Lin Li, Jian Dai, Kazunori Hosoe, Hiroshi Kubo, Masayuki Mori, Keiichi Higuchi, Jinko Sawashita
Our recent studies revealed that supplementation with the reduced form of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10H2) inhibits oxidative stress and slows the process of aging in senescence-accelerated mice. CoQ10H2 inhibits adipocyte differentiation and regulates lipid metabolism. In the present study, we show that dietary supplementation with CoQ10H2 significantly reduced white adipose tissue content and improved the function of brown adipose tissue by regulating expression of lipid metabolism-related factors in KKAy mice, a model of obesity and type 2 diabetes...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811531/the-selective-antifungal-activity-of-drosophila-melanogaster-metchnikowin-reflects-the-species-dependent-inhibition-of-succinate-coenzyme-q-reductase
#10
Mohammad-Reza Bolouri Moghaddam, Thomas Gross, Annette Becker, Andreas Vilcinskas, Mohammad Rahnamaeian
Insect-derived antifungal peptides have a significant economic potential, particularly for the engineering of pathogen-resistant crops. However, the nonspecific antifungal activity of such peptides could result in detrimental effects against beneficial fungi, whose interactions with plants promote growth or increase resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. The antifungal peptide metchnikowin (Mtk) from Drosophila melanogaster acts selectively against pathogenic Ascomycota, including Fusarium graminearum, without affecting Basidiomycota such as the beneficial symbiont Piriformospora indica...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808311/antitumor-properties-of-coenzyme-q0-against-human-ovarian-carcinoma-cells-via-induction-of-ros-mediated-apoptosis-and-cytoprotective-autophagy
#11
You-Cheng Hseu, Tai-Jung Tsai, Mallikarjuna Korivi, Jer-Yuh Liu, Hui-Jye Chen, Chung-Ming Lin, Yi-Chun Shen, Hsin-Ling Yang
Coenzyme Q0 (CoQ0, 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone) has been reported to exert anticancer properties against human breast/lung cancer cells. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo anticancer properties of CoQ0 on human ovarian carcinoma (SKOV-3) cells and xenografted nude mice, and revealed the underlying molecular mechanism. CoQ0 induced G2/M arrest through downregulation of cyclin B1/A and CDK1/K2 expressions. CoQ0-induced autophagy as a survival mechanism was evidenced by increased accumulation of LC3-II, GFP-LC3 puncta, AVOs formation and Beclin-1/Bcl-2 dysregulation...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806924/essential-genome-of-campylobacter-jejuni
#12
Rabindra K Mandal, Tieshan Jiang, Young Min Kwon
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness worldwide. Despite the global efforts to curb them, Campylobacter infections have increased continuously in both developed and developing countries. The development of effective strategies to control the infection by this pathogen is warranted. The essential genes of bacteria are the most prominent targets for this purpose. In this study, we used transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) of a genome-saturating library of Tn5 insertion mutants to define the essential genome of C...
August 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805804/a-genetically-encoded-tool-for-manipulation-of-nadp-nadph-in-living-cells
#13
Valentin Cracan, Denis V Titov, Hongying Shen, Zenon Grabarek, Vamsi K Mootha
The redox coenzymes NADH and NADPH are broadly required for energy metabolism, biosynthesis and detoxification. Despite detailed knowledge of specific enzymes and pathways that utilize these coenzymes, a holistic understanding of the regulation and compartmentalization of NADH- and NADPH-dependent pathways is lacking, partly because of a lack of tools with which to investigate these processes in living cells. We have previously reported the use of the naturally occurring Lactobacillus brevis H2O-forming NADH oxidase (LbNOX) as a genetic tool for manipulation of the NAD(+)/NADH ratio in human cells...
August 7, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802880/isobutanol-and-2-ketoisovalerate-production-by-klebsiella-pneumoniae-via-a-native-pathway
#14
Jinjie Gu, Jidong Zhou, Zhongxi Zhang, Chul Ho Kim, Biao Jiang, Jiping Shi, Jian Hao
Isobutanol is a valuable chemical and is considered a new generation biofuel. Construction of isobutanol synthesis pathways in bacteria is a hot topic in isobutanol production. Here, we show that an isobutanol synthesis pathway exists naturally in Klebsiella pneumoniae; however, this pathway is dormant in the wild-type bacterium. K. pneumoniae is a 2,3-butanediol producer, and the synthesis pathways of 2,3-butanediol, valine and isobutanol all start from condensation of two pyruvate molecules to yield α-acetolactate...
August 9, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802579/atorvastatin-prevents-endothelial-dysfunction-in-high-glucose-condition-through-skp2-mediated-degradation-of-foxo1-and-icam-1
#15
Jonghanne Park, Injoo Hwang, Sung-Jean Kim, Seock-Won Youn, Jin Hur, Hyo-Soo Kim
OBJECTIVE: The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor atorvastatin has been reported to exert vasculo-protective action in diabetes. We investigated the vasculo-protective mechanism of atorvastatin by evaluating its effect on two major pathogenic molecules, FOXO1 and ICAM1, mediated by S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) in diabetic endothelial dysfunction. APPROACH AND RESULTS: [1] FOXO1: Hyperglycemic condition increased FOXO1 protein level in endothelial cells, which was reversed by atorvastatin...
August 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802222/impact-of-the-corrin-framework-of-vitamin-b12-on-the-electrochemical-carbon-skeleton-rearrangement-in-comparison-to-an-imine-oxime-planar-ligand-tuning-selectivity-in-1-2-migration-of-a-functional-group-by-controlling-electrolysis-potential
#16
Keishiro Tahara, Ling Pan, Ryoko Yamaguchi, Hisashi Shimakoshi, Masaaki Abe, Yoshio Hisaeda
Among the coenzyme B12-dependent enzymes, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MMCM) catalyzes the carbon-skeleton rearrangement reaction between R-methylmalonyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA. Diethyl 2-bromomethyl-2-phenylmalonate, an alkyl bromide substrate having two different migrating groups (phenyl and carboxylic ester groups) on the β-carbon, was applied to the electrolysis mediated by a hydrophobic vitamin B12 model complex, heptamethyl cobyrinate perchlorate in this study. The electrolysis of the substrate at -1.0V vs...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800553/effects-of-different-biofilm-carriers-on-biogas-production-during-anaerobic-digestion-of-corn-straw
#17
Yongdi Liu, Yingdong Zhu, Honghua Jia, Xiaoyu Yong, Lijuan Zhang, Jun Zhou, Zebin Cao, Andrea Kruse, Ping Wei
This study investigated the performance of anaerobic digestion systems using four types of fibrous biofilm carriers, a polypropylene, a polyester, a polyamide, and a polyurethane fiber material. The biogas and methane production, pH, chemical oxygen demand, total solids content, volatile solids content, residual coenzyme F420, and microbial community compositions were determined during the experimental runs. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy was employed to identify the microbial consortium and examine their attachment onto the surface of the four fibrous biofilm carriers...
July 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798160/protein-coalation-a-redox-linked-post-translational-modification
#18
Steven C Ley, Luiz Pedro S de Carvalho
Regulation of metabolic pathways by signal transduction and transcriptional cascades can alter cellular levels of metabolites. Metabolites themselves can also have regulatory activity as shown in a new study published in the Biochemical Journal Tsuchiya et al. describe a novel antibody and mass spectrometry-based method for identifying proteins that are reversibly modified with Coenzyme A (CoA). Analysis of the 'CoAlated proteome' under conditions of oxidative and metabolic stress revealed a bias towards the modification of metabolic enzymes by CoA...
August 10, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796306/enzyme-activation-with-a-synthetic-catalytic-coenzyme-intermediate-nucleotide-methylation-by-new-flavoenzymes
#19
Charles Bou-Nader, Cornu David, Vincent Guerineau, Marc Fontecave, Djemel Hamdane
To facilitate production of functional enzymes and to study their mechanisms, especially in the complex cases of coenzyme-dependent systems, activation of an inactive apoenzyme preparation with a catalytically competent coenzyme intermediate is an attractive strategy. This is illustrated with the simple chemical synthesis of a flavin-methylene iminium compound previously proposed as a key intermediate in the catalytic cycle of several important flavoenzymes involved in nucleic acids metabolism. Reconstitution of both flavin-dependent RNA methyltransferase and thymidylate synthase apoproteins with this synthetic compound led to active enzymes for the C5-uracil methylation within their respective transfer RNA and dUMP substrate...
August 10, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790927/the-role-of-sulfide-oxidation-impairment-in-the-pathogenesis-of-primary-coq-deficiency
#20
REVIEW
Catarina M Quinzii, Marta Luna-Sanchez, Marcello Ziosi, Agustin Hidalgo-Gutierrez, Giulio Kleiner, Luis C Lopez
Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a lipid present in all cell membranes. One of the multiple metabolic functions of CoQ is to transport electrons in the reaction catalyzed by sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQOR), the first enzyme of the oxidation pathway of sulfides (hydrogen sulfide, H2S). Early evidence of a defect in the metabolism of H2S in primary CoQ deficiency came from yeast studies in Schizosaccharomyces pombe strains defective for dps1 and ppt1 (homologs of PDSS1 and COQ2, respectively), which have H2S accumulation...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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