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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245107/impacts-on-the-seagrass-zostera-nigricaulis-from-the-herbicide-fusilade-forte%C3%A2-used-in-the-management-of-spartina-anglica-infestations
#1
Megan Carve, Timothy L Coggan, Jackie H Myers, Bradley Clarke, Dayanthi Nugegoda, Jeff Shimeta
The herbicide Fusilade Forte® (FF) is widely applied in agricultural weed management and in the management of the invasive saltmarsh grass, Spartina anglica (ricegrass or cordgrass). FF (active ingredient fluazifop-P acid, FPA) is selective for poaceous grasses. Its primary mode of action is inhibition of the acetyl coenzyme-A carboxylase (ACCase) specific to this taxonomic group, and its secondary mode is by promotion of oxidative stress. FF is applied to S. anglica infestations in the intertidal zone, in proximity to seagrass meadows...
December 1, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241954/structural-characterization-of-ribt-from-bacillus-subtilis-reveals-it-as-a-gcn5-related-n-acetyltransferase
#2
Ritika Srivastava, Amanpreet Kaur, Charu Sharma, Subramanian Karthikeyan
In bacteria, biosynthesis of riboflavin occurs through a series of enzymatic steps starting with one molecule of GTP and two molecules of ribulose-5-phosphate. In Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) the genes (ribD/G, ribE, ribA, ribH and ribT) which are involved in riboflavin biosynthesis are organized in an operon referred as rib operon. All the genes of rib operon are characterized functionally except for ribT. The ribT gene with unknown function is found at the distal terminal of rib operon and annotated as a putative N-acetyltransferase...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239815/provider-recommendations-for-patient-reported-muscle-symptoms-on-statin-therapy-insights-from-the-understanding-statin-use-in-america-and-gaps-in-patient-education-survey
#3
Terry A Jacobson, Abdullah Khan, Kevin C Maki, Eliot A Brinton, Jerome D Cohen
BACKGROUND: Statin-associated muscle symptoms are reported by 10% to 29% of patients in clinical practice and are a major determinant of statin nonadherence, discontinuation, and switching. Little is known about what advice patients receive from their providers when dealing with these symptoms. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess patient's reports of provider advice when experiencing new or worsened muscle symptoms while taking a statin. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the Understanding Statin Use in America and Gaps in Education survey, a self-administered internet-based survey of 10,138 adults with a reported history of high cholesterol and statin use...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238752/colonic-butyrate-producing-communities-in-humans-an-overview-using-omics-data
#4
Marius Vital, André Karch, Dietmar H Pieper
Given the key role of butyrate for host health, understanding the ecology of intestinal butyrate-producing communities is a top priority for gut microbiota research. To this end, we performed a pooled analysis on 2,387 metagenomic/transcriptomic samples from 15 publicly available data sets that originated from three continents and encompassed eight diseases as well as specific interventions. For analyses, a gene catalogue was constructed from gene-targeted assemblies of all genes from butyrate synthesis pathways of all samples and from an updated reference database derived from genome screenings...
November 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238220/effect-of-statins-on-breast-cancer-recurrence-and-mortality-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Renae D Van Wyhe, Omar M Rahal, Wendy A Woodward
Statins, or 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, are medications that have been used for decades to lower cholesterol and to prevent or treat cardiovascular diseases. Since their approval by the US Food and Drug Administration in the 1980s, other potential uses for statins have been speculated on and explored. Basic science and clinical research suggest that statins are also effective in the management of breast cancer. Specifically, in various breast cancer cell lines, statins increase apoptosis and radiosensitivity, inhibit proliferation and invasion, and decrease the metastatic dissemination of tumors...
2017: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234334/no-vegetative-and-fecundity-fitness-cost-associated-with-acetyl-coenzyme-a-carboxylase-non-target-site-resistance-in-a-black-grass-alopecurus-myosuroides-huds-population
#6
Eshagh Keshtkar, Solvejg K Mathiassen, Per Kudsk
Attention should be devoted to weeds evolving herbicide resistance with non-target-site resistance (NTSR) mechanism due to their unpredictable resistance patterns. Quantification of fitness cost can be used in NTSR management strategies to determine the long-term fate of resistant plants in weed populations. To our knowledge, this is the first report evaluating potential fecundity and vegetative fitness of a NTSR black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds), the most important herbicide resistant weed in Europe, with controlled genetic background...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234237/expression-purification-and-characterization-of-r-sulfolactate-dehydrogenase-comc-from-the-rumen-methanogen-methanobrevibacter-millerae-sm9
#7
Yanli Zhang, Linley R Schofield, Carrie Sang, Debjit Dey, Ron S Ronimus
(R)-Sulfolactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.337), termed ComC, is a member of an NADH/NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase family of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of 2-hydroxyacids into their corresponding 2-oxoacids. The ComC reaction is reversible and in the biosynthetic direction causes the conversion of (R)-sulfolactate to sulfopyruvate in the production of coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid). Coenzyme M is an essential cofactor required for the production of methane by the methyl-coenzyme M reductase complex...
2017: Archaea: An International Microbiological Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233590/structure-activity-analysis-of-cj-15-801-analogues-that-interact-with-plasmodium-falciparum-pantothenate-kinase-and-inhibit-parasite-proliferation
#8
Christina Spry, Alan L Sewell, Yuliya Hering, Mathew V J Villa, Jonas Weber, Stephen J Hobson, Suzannah J Harnor, Sheraz Gul, Rodolfo Marquez, Kevin J Saliba
Survival of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is dependent on pantothenate (vitamin B5), a precursor of the fundamental enzyme cofactor coenzyme A. CJ-15,801, an enamide analogue of pantothenate isolated from the fungus Seimatosporium sp. CL28611, was previously shown to inhibit P. falciparum proliferation in vitro by targeting pantothenate utilization. To inform the design of next generation analogues, we set out to synthesize and test a series of synthetic enamide-bearing pantothenate analogues...
August 25, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230528/cofactor-f430-as-a-biomarker-for-methanogenic-activity-application-to-an-anaerobic-bioreactor-system
#9
I Passaris, P Van Gaelen, R Cornelissen, K Simoens, D Grauwels, L Vanhaecke, D Springael, I Smets
Over the last decades, anaerobic bioreactor technology proved to be a competitive technology for purifying wastewater while producing biogas. Methanogens perform the crucial final step in methane production, and monitoring their activity is of paramount importance for system understanding and management. Cofactor F430 is an essential prosthetic group of the methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) enzyme catalysing this final step. This research investigates whether the quantification of cofactor F430 in bioreactor systems is a viable intermediate-complexity monitoring tool in comparison to the conventional biogas and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration follow-up and molecular genetic techniques targeting the mcrA gene encoding the MCR protein or its transcripts...
December 11, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229831/clinical-genetic-and-structural-basis-of-apparent-mineralocorticoid-excess-due-to-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-2-deficiency
#10
Mabel Yau, Shozeb Haider, Ahmed Khattab, Chen Ling, Mehr Mathew, Samir Zaidi, Madison Bloch, Monica Patel, Sinead Ewert, Wafa Abdullah, Aysenur Toygar, Vitalii Mudryi, Maryam Al Badi, Mouch Alzubdi, Robert C Wilson, Hanan Said Al Azkawi, Hatice Nur Ozdemir, Wahid Abu-Amer, Jozef Hertecant, Maryam Razzaghy-Azar, John W Funder, Aisha Al Senani, Li Sun, Se-Min Kim, Tony Yuen, Mone Zaidi, Maria I New
Mutations in 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 gene (HSD11B2) cause an extraordinarily rare autosomal recessive disorder, apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME). AME is a form of low renin hypertension that is potentially fatal if untreated. Mutations in the HSD11B2 gene result either in severe AME or a milder phenotype (type 2 AME). To date, ∼40 causative mutations have been identified. As part of the International Consortium for Rare Steroid Disorders, we have diagnosed and followed the largest single worldwide cohort of 36 AME patients...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228766/the-effects-of-addition-of-coenzyme-q10-to-metformin-on-sirolimus-induced-diabetes-mellitus
#11
In O Sun, Long Jin, Jian Jin, Sun Woo Lim, Byung Ha Chung, Chul Woo Yang
Background/Aims: This study was performed to determine whether adding coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) to metformin (MET) has a beneficial effect as a treatment for sirolimus (SRL)-induced diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: DM was induced in rats by daily treatment with SRL (0.3 mg/kg, subcutaneous) for 28 days, and animals were treated with CoQ10 (20 mg/kg, oral) and MET (250 mg/kg, oral) alone or in combination for the latter 14 days of SRL treatment. The effects of CoQ10 and MET on SRL-induced DM were assessed with the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) and by determining plasma insulin concentration and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-R) index...
December 13, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226435/high-capacity-and-high-rate-discharging-of-a-coenzyme-q10-catalyzed-li-o2-battery
#12
Yantao Zhang, Liang Wang, Xiaozheng Zhang, Limin Guo, Ying Wang, Zhangquan Peng
Discharging of the aprotic Li-O2 battery relies on O2 reduction to insulating solid Li2 O2 , which can either deposit as thin films on the cathode surface or precipitate as large particles in the electrolyte solution. Toward realizing Li-O2 batteries with high capacity and high rate capability, it is crucially important to discharge Li2 O2 in the electrolyte solution rather than on the cathode surface. Here, a soluble electrocatalyst of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ) that can efficaciously drive solution phase formation of Li2 O2 in current benchmark ether-based Li-O2 batteries is reported, which would otherwise lead to Li2 O2 surface-film growth and premature cell death...
December 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224939/the-association-of-statin-therapy-with-the-primary-patency-of-femoral-and-popliteal-artery-stents
#13
Derek de Grijs, Pedro Teixeira, Steven Katz
OBJECTIVE: It has long been known that hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) broadly reduce cardiovascular events in patients with peripheral vascular disease. It was the goal of this study to determine whether there is an association between statin therapy and primary patency after stenting of superficial femoral and popliteal arteries. METHODS: The records of all patients undergoing primary nitinol stenting of the femoral and popliteal arteries at a single institution and by a single surgeon during a 10-year period were reviewed...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224355/structural-features-and-domain-movements-controlling-substrate-binding-and-cofactor-specificity-in-class-ii-hmg-coa-reductase
#14
Bradley R Miller, Yan Kung
The key mevalonate pathway enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGR) uses the cofactor NAD(P)H to reduce HMG-CoA to mevalonate in the production of countless metabolites and natural products. Although HMGR inhibition by statin drugs is well understood, several mechanistic details of HMGR catalysis remain unresolved, and the structural basis for the wide range in cofactor specificity for either NADH or NADPH among HMGRs from different organisms is also unknown. Here, we present crystal structures of HMGR from Streptococcus pneumoniae (SpHMGR) alongside kinetic data on the enzyme's cofactor preferences...
December 11, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222855/non-euclidean-phasor-analysis-for-quantification-of-oxidative-stress-in-ex-vivo-human-skin-exposed-to-sun-filters-using-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging-microscopy
#15
Sam Osseiran, Elisabeth M Roider, Hequn Wang, Yusuke Suita, Michael Murphy, David E Fisher, Conor L Evans
Chemical sun filters are commonly used as active ingredients in sunscreens due to their efficient absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Yet, it is known that these compounds can photochemically react with UV light and generate reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in vitro, though this has yet to be validated in vivo. One label-free approach to probe oxidative stress is to measure and compare the relative endogenous fluorescence generated by cellular coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides and flavin adenine dinucleotides...
December 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221124/production-of-n%C3%AE-acetyl-t%C3%AE-1-hsa-through-in-vitro-acetylation-by-rimj
#16
Jing Chen, Haibin Li, Tao Wang, Shuyang Sun, Jia Liu, Jianhua Chen
Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) is an important immunomodulating agent with various clinical applications. The natural form of Tα1 is Nα -acetylated, which was supposed to be related to in vivo stability of the hormone. In this study, fusion protein Tα1-HSA was constructed and expressed in Pichia pastoris. RimJ, a Nα -acetyltransferase from E.coli, was also overexpressed and purified to homogeneity. In vitro acetylation of Tα1-HSA in the presence of RimJ and acetyl coenzyme A resulted in Nα -acetyl Tα1-HSA. The Nα -acetylation was determined by LC-MS/MS...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220658/multi-omic-mitoprotease-profiling-defines-a-role-for-oct1p-in-coenzyme-q-production
#17
Mike T Veling, Andrew G Reidenbach, Elyse C Freiberger, Nicholas W Kwiecien, Paul D Hutchins, Michael J Drahnak, Adam Jochem, Arne Ulbrich, Matthew J P Rush, Jason D Russell, Joshua J Coon, David J Pagliarini
Mitoproteases are becoming recognized as key regulators of diverse mitochondrial functions, although their direct substrates are often difficult to discern. Through multi-omic profiling of diverse Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitoprotease deletion strains, we predicted numerous associations between mitoproteases and distinct mitochondrial processes. These include a strong association between the mitochondrial matrix octapeptidase Oct1p and coenzyme Q (CoQ) biosynthesis-a pathway essential for mitochondrial respiration...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220105/less-fibrosis-in-elderly-subjects-supplemented-with-selenium-and-coenzyme-q10-a-mechanism-behind-reduced-cardiovascular-mortality
#18
Urban Alehagen, Jan Aaseth, Jan Alexander, Erland Svensson, Peter Johansson, Anders Larsson
BACKGROUND: In an intervention study where 221 healthy elderly persons received selenium and coenzyme Q10 as a dietary supplement, and 222 received placebo for 4 years we observed improved cardiac function and reduced cardiovascular mortality. As fibrosis is central in the aging process, we investigated the effect of the intervention on biomarkers of fibrogenic activity in a subanalysis of this intervention study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the present subanalysis 122 actively treated individuals and 101 controls, the effect of the treatment on eight biomarkers of fibrogenic activity were assessed...
December 8, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217642/nicotinamide-riboside-preserves-cardiac-function-in-a-mouse-model-of-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#19
Nicolas Diguet, Samuel A J Trammell, Cynthia Tannous, Robin Deloux, Jérôme Piquereau, Nathalie Mougenot, Anne Gouge, Mélanie Gressette, Boris Manoury, Jocelyne Blanc, Marie Breton, Jean-François Decaux, Gareth Lavery, István Baczkó, Joffrey Zoll, Anne Garnier, Zhenlin Li, Charles Brenner, Mathias Mericskay
Background -Myocardial metabolic impairment is a major feature in chronic heart failure (HF). As the major coenzyme in fuel oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation and a substrate for enzymes signaling energy stress and oxidative stress response, NAD+ is emerging as a metabolic target in a number of diseases including HF. Little is known on mechanisms regulating homeostasis of NAD+ in the failing heart. Methods -To explore possible alterations of NAD+ homeostasis in the failing heart, we quantified expression of NAD+ biosynthetic enzymes in human failing heart and in the heart of a mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) triggered by SRF transcription factor depletion in the heart (SRFHKO) or of cardiac hypertrophy triggered by transverse aorta constriction (TAC)...
December 7, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214018/transcriptional-changes-in-mesenteric-and-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-from-holstein-cows-in-response-to-plane-of-dietary-energy
#20
S J Moisá, P Ji, J K Drackley, S L Rodriguez-Zas, J J Loor
Background: Dairy cows can readily overconsume dietary energy during most of the prepartum period, often leading to higher prepartal concentrations of insulin and glucose and excessive body fat deposition. The end result of these physiologic changes is greater adipose tissue lipolysis post-partum coupled with excessive hepatic lipid accumulation and compromised health. Although transcriptional regulation of the adipose response to energy availability is well established in non-ruminants, such regulation in cow adipose tissue depots remains poorly characterized...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
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